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Analyzing Combined Heat and Power in the US

  • January 2014
  • -
  • Aruvian's R'search
  • -
  • 140 pages

Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is the use of a heat engine or a power station to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat.

Conventional power plants emit the heat created as a by-product of electricity generation into the environment through cooling towers, flue gas, or by other means. CHP or a bottoming cycle captures the by-product heat for domestic or industrial heating purposes, either very close to the plant, or as hot water for district heating with temperatures ranging from approximately 80 to 130 °C. This is also called decentralized energy.

CHP is a thermodynamically efficient use of fuel. In separate production of electricity some energy must be rejected as waste heat, but in cogeneration this thermal energy is put to good use.

Perhaps the first modern use of energy recycling was done by Thomas Edison. His 1882 Pearl Street Station, the world’s first commercial power plant, was a combined heat and power plant, producing both electricity and thermal energy while using waste heat to warm neighboring buildings. Recycling allowed Edison’s plant to achieve approximately 50 percent efficiency.

Aruvian's R'search brings a research report that looks at the potential of CHP in the United States in its report Analyzing Combined Heat and Power in the US. The report takes a look at the basic understandings of CHP, applications and potential of CHP, the CHP industry in the United States, Usage of CHP in the US, regulatory framework impacting CHP, and much more. The report focuses on the major CHP developers in the United States such as ConEdison, Cupertino Electrics, etc.

A state-wise analysis if provided in the report along with other case studies.

Table Of Contents

Analyzing Combined Heat and Power in the US
A. Executive Summary

B. Introduction to CHP
B.1 What is CHP?
B.2 Overview of CHP
B.3 History of CHP
B.4 Types of Cogeneration Plants
B.4.1 Micro CHP
B.4.2 Mini CHP
B.5 CHP Technology Options
B.6 Applications of CHP
B.7 What Does a CHP System Produce?
B.8 Looking at CHP Systems
B.8.1 Overview
B.8.2 Steam Turbines
B.8.3 Reciprocating Engines
B.8.4 Gas Turbines
B.8.5 Microturbines
B.8.6 Fuel Cells
B.9 Usage of Fuels in CHP
B.10 CHP in the United States
B.11 Worldwide Potential of CHP
B.12 Regulatory and Market Challenges Facing CHP
B.13 CHP and District Energy
B.14 CHP and District Heating
B.15 Determining the Appropriateness of a CHP System

C. CHP and Emissions Trading
C.1 Introduction to Emissions Trading
C.2 Role of CHP in Emissions Trading
C.3 Challenges Facing CHP in its Role in Emissions Trading
C.4 Issues with ETS
C.5 Emissions Trading Schemes with CHP

D. Introduction to CHP in the US
D.1 Introduction
D.2 History of CHP in the US
D.3 Energy Situation in the US and Role of CHP
D.3.1 Overview
D.3.2 Rising Energy Demand
D.3.3 Restraints on Existing Energy Sources
D.3.4 Competition in the Global Energy Markets
D.3.5 Dealing with Climate Change
D.3.6 Requirement for Modern Infrastructure
D.3.7 Energy Efficiency and CHP
D.4 Environmental Benefits of CHP in the US
D.4.1 Overview
D.4.2 Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions
D.4.3 Other Issues related to Pollution
D.5 Why CHP is the Competitive Solution for the US
D.5.1 Overview
D.5.2 Economic Benefits for the US
D.6 Dealing with Local Energy Issues with CHP
D.6.1 Overview
D.6.2 Potential CHP Capacity
D.6.3 Increasing Role of CHP in Generation
D.7 Transition to Modernized Infrastructure
D.7.1 Overview
D.7.2 Location of Energy Resources near Demand
D.7.3 Utilities and Grid Benefits
D.7.4 Increasing the Efficiency of the Power Grid
D.8 Challenges Facing CHP Adoption in the US
D.8.1 Regulation of Fees and Tariffs
D.8.2 Issues dealing with Grid Integration
D.8.3 Environmental Regulations
D.8.4 Taxation Issues
D.8.5 Technical Challenges
D.9 Requirement for Further RandD
D.10 Regulations Aiding the Growth of CHP
D.10.1 Interconnection
D.10.2 EU Cogeneration Directive
D.10.3 Feed-In Tariffs
D.10.4 Greenhouse Gas Policy Mechanisms
D.10.5 Investment Tax Credits
D.10.6 Proper Emissions Treatment of CHP
D.10.7 Renewable Portfolio Standards

E. CHP Regulation in the US
E.1 Regulations and CHP
E.2 Energy Inputs in CHP
E.3 Energy Outputs in CHP
E.3.1 Electricity
E.3.2 Heating and Cooling
E.4 Role of Regulation in CHP
E.5 Looking at the Traditional Regulatory Framework
E.6 Looking at the Emerging Regulatory Framework
E.7 Looking at the Restructuring of Electricity in the US
E.8 Restructuring Challenges in CHP

F. CHP and Energy Portfolio Standards
F.1 What are Energy Portfolio Standards?
F.2 Role of RPS
F.3 RPS States that Include CHP
F.3.1 Connecticut
F.3.2 Maine
F.3.3 Pennsylvania
F.3.4 Hawaii
F.3.5 Nevada
F.3.6 Washington

G. CHP Usage in the US
G.1 Usage in Food Processing
G.2 Usage in Ethanol Production
G.3 Usage in Hospitals
G.4 Usage in Utilities
G.5 Industrial Usage
G.6 Emergence of District Energy Systems
G.7 Government Usage
G.8 Commercial Usage
G.9 Residential Usage

H. State Experience with CHP
H.1 Minnesota
H.2 California
H.3 Nevada
H.4 Hawaii

I. Looking at Case Studies
I.1 CHP District Energy and Biomass
I.2 Willmar Municipal Utilities CHP District Heating System
I.3 Virginia Department of Public Utilities and CHP
I.4 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and CHP

J. Leading Industry Contributors
J.1 Acumentrics
J.2 Capstone Turbine Corporation
J.3 ClearEdge Power
J.4 Cogeneration Planners, LLC
J.5 Centrica PLC
J.6 Consolidated Edison, Inc
J.7 Cupertino Electric
J.8 General Electric
J.9 Husky Energy
J.10 Infinia
J.11 Marathon Engine Systems
J.12 Plug Power
J.13 Veolia Environnement SA
J.14 Yanmar America Corporation

K. Appendix

L. Glossary of Terms

Companies Mentioned

Capstone Turbine Corporation
ClearEdge Power
Cogeneration Planners, LLC
Centrica PLC
Consolidated Edison, Inc
Cupertino Electric
General Electric
Husky Energy
Marathon Engine Systems
Plug Power
Veolia Environnement SA
Yanmar America Corporation

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