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Analyzing the Global Bunker Fuel Industry

  • February 2014
  • -
  • Aruvian's R'search
  • -
  • 130 pages

Known commonly as fuel oil, bunker fuel is liquid fuel that is fractionally distilled from crude oil. Bunker fuel is highly viscous and also heavily contaminated with substances that cannot be removed. Therefore, when burnt, bunker fuel causes a lot of pollution. Worldwide, there are many regulations in place in order to check the pollution caused by bunker fuel.

The year 2012 witnessed a strong decline in bunker fuel prices, thus bringing to an end the strong bunker fuel price rally that was evident since 2009. Weakness in the global shipping industry is the primary cause for the downward pressure on bunker fuel prices.

Aruvian Research analyzes the global bunker fuel industry in its research report Analyzing the Global Bunker Fuel Industry. The report analyzes the global energy industry first and then moves on to the global bunker fuel/fuel oil industry analysis. We look at the basics of bunker fuel, history of bunker fuel, classification, uses as well as fuel specifications. The supply chain of bunker fuel, particularly the major bunkering ports of Fujairah, Rotterdam and Singapore are looked at. Regulatory framework, transportation and environmental issues, and standards for bunker fuel are looked at in the report.

Moving on, we analyze the broader marine fuels market in terms of marine fuel grades, refining of marine fuels/petroleum products, types of marine fuels, etc.

The recent emergence of LNG as a bunker fuel option is also looked at, along with two case studies of using LPG as a marine fuel and using MSAR as a bunker fuel.

An analysis of the major industry players and a future perspective of the industry completes this analysis.

Table Of Contents

Analyzing the Global Bunker Fuel Industry
A. Executive Summary

B. Analyzing the Global Energy Industry
B.1 Industry Definition
B.2 Brief Profile of the Industry
B.3 Looking at the Global Oil Market
B.4 Looking at the Global Natural Gas
B.5 Looking at Other Fuels
B.6 Impacts on the Industry
B.7 Challenges Facing the Industry
B.8 Future Perspective

C. Global Bunker Fuel/Fuel Oil Industry
C.1 What is Bunker Fuel?
C.2 History of Bunker Fuel
C.3 Classification of Fuel Oil
C.4 Uses of Fuel Oil
C.5 Fuel Specifications
C.6 Bunker Fuel Supply Chain
C.6.1 Fujairah
C.6.2 Rotterdam
C.6.3 Singapore
C.7 Regulatory Framework
C.8 Transportation and Environmental Issues
C.9 Stricter Standards for Bunker Fuel

D. Marine Fuels Industry
D.1 Overview
D.2 Marine Fuel Grades
D.3 Refining of Marine Fuels/Petroleum Products
D.4 Production Models of Refineries
D.5 Types of Marine Fuel
D.5.1 Marine Gas Oil (MGO)
D.5.2 Marine Distillate Oil (MDO)
D.5.3 Blending Stocks
D.5.4 Intermediate Fuel Oil (IFO)

E. LNG as Bunker Fuel

F. Case Study: Using LPG as a Marine Fuel
F.1 Introduction
F.2 Applications of LPG
F.3 LPG Production
F.4 LPG in Shipping and Bunkering
F.5 LPG in Medium Speed Engine Market
F.6 LPG in Low Speed Engine
F.7 Regulatory Framework

G. Case Study: Using Multiphase Superfine Atomized Residue (MSAR) as a Bunker Fuel

H. Global Bunker Fuel Industry: Future Perspective

I. Major Industry Players
I.1 Aegean Marine Petroleum Network Inc
I.2 Alliance Oil Trading Pte Ltd
I.3 Apex Oil Company
I.4 BP Marine Ltd
I.5 Brasbunker Participacoes
I.6 Brightoil Petroleum Holdings Limited
I.7 Chemoil Energy Limited
I.8 Chevron Corporation
I.9 ConocoPhillips
I.10 Daelim Corporation
I.11 Exxon Mobil Corporation
I.12 Hellenic Petroleum S.A.
I.13 Houston Fuel Oil Terminal Company
I.14 Mitsubishi Corporation
I.15 Peninsula Petroleum Limited
I.16 Petro Marine Services
I.17 Quadrise Fuels International Plc
I.18 Royal Dutch Shell Plc
I.19 Tesoro Corporation
I.20 Total SA
I.21 TransMontaigne, Inc
I.22 Warner Petroleum Corporation
I.23 Westport Petroleum Inc
I.24 Wilhelmsen Marine Fuels AS
I.25 World Fuel Services Corporation

List of Figures

Figure 1: Major Oil Trade Flows at the end of 2012
Figure 2: Distribution of Proved Oil Reserves in 1992, 2002, and 2012 (%)
Figure 3: Oil Production by Region, 2012
Figure 4: Oil Reserves-to-Production Ratios
Figure 5: Oil Consumption by Region, 2012
Figure 6: Crude Oil Prices
Figure 7: Global Energy Consumption Forecast (2003-2030)
Figure 8: Global Energy Consumption Forecast by Fuel Type (1980-2030)
Figure 9: Global Emission Controlled Areas as of December 2011
Figure 10: Particulate Matter Pollution Overlaid on the World's Major Shipping Routes
Figure 11: Change in Sulphur Content in Bunker Fuel (%), 2006-2030
Figure 12: MARPOL VI/14 - Sulphur Limits
Figure 13: Oil Tanker Taking on Bunker Fuel
Figure 14: Refining Process and Product Streams
Figure 15: Spectrum of Crude Qualities
Figure 16: MARPOL Annex VI - SOx Reduction Alternatives including LNG
Figure 17: Forecast for Marine Fuel Prices
Figure 18: Cost of Fuel Oil versus Natural Gas Cost, 2009-2012
Figure 19: LNG Supply Cost versus Cost of Alternative Fuels
Figure 21: Overview of MSAR
Figure 22: Properties of Emulsion Fuels
Figure 23: Historical Bunker Prices 380cSt
Figure 24: MSAR as a Solution in the Bunker Fuel Industry
Figure 25: Bunker Fuel 180 Average Weighted Price and Bunker Fuel 380, (in USD per bbl), 2010-2015

List of Tables

Table 1: Fuel Oils
Table 2: Parameters of Marine Distillate Fuels
Table 3: Parameters of Marine Residual Fuels
Table 4: Specifications for Marine Distillate Fuels
Table 5: Specifications for Marine Residual Fuels
Table 6: Primary Pollutants from the Combustion of Oil and their Major Potential Impacts
Table 7: Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products in the US, 2008
Table 8: Types of Crude Oil Included in OPEC
Table 9: Production Yield from a Hydroskimming Refinery
Table 10: Production Yield from a Cracking Refinery
Table 11: Production Yield from Coking Refineries
Table 12: Types of Marine Fuel
Table 13: Air Emissions from LNG and Other Marine Fuels
Table 14: LNG-Fuelled Ships in Operation Worldwide
Table 15: Confirmed LNG Fuelled Newbuilds
Table 16: Characteristics of Butane Gas
Table 17: Characteristics of Propane Gas

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