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Stationary Fuel Cells are on the cusp of becoming commercially viable, creating companies that are profitable and produce electricity at or below parity with the grid giving every user alternatives to the grid. Bloom Energy has solved the SOFC engineering challenges. Breakthroughs in materials science, and revolutionary designs give Bloom SOFC technology a cost effective, all-electric solution.

Vendors have solved the SOFC conundrum, developing new materials that make units affordable and provide energy device economies of scale and support for wind and solar renewable energy sources.
Stationary fuel cells represent the base for distributed power generation worldwide. No more new coal plants, no mare extensions to the grid. Distributed power has become mainstream. Distributed generation (DG) refers to power generation at the point of consumption.

Generating power on-site, rather than centrally, eliminates the cost, complexity, interdependencies, and inefficiencies associated with energy transmission and distribution. Distributed energy is evolving in a manner like distributed PC and laptop computing, cars for transportation, and smart phones. As distributed Internet data and telephony have found a place in the market, so also will distributed energy generation become widespread. Distributed power shifts energy generation control to the consumer much to the consternation of the existing utility companies.

Renewable energy is intermittent and needs stationary fuel cells for renewables to achieve mainstream adoption as a stable power source. Wind and solar power cannot be stored except by using the energy derived from these sources to make hydrogen that can be stored. Stationary fuel cells are likely to function as a battery in the long term, creating a way to use hydrogen that is manufactured from the renewable energy sources. It is likely that the wind and tide energy will be transported as electricity to a location where the hydrogen can be manufactured. It is far easier to transport electricity than to transport hydrogen. Hydrogen servers as an energy storage mechanism.
Stationary fuel cell markets need government sponsorship. As government funding shifts from huge military obligations, sustainable energy policy becomes a compelling investment model for government.

Stationary fuel cell markets at $1.2 billion in 2013 are projected to increase to $14.3 billion in 2020. Growth is anticipated to be based on demand for distributed power generation that uses natural gas. Systems provide clean energy that is good for the environment. Growth is based on global demand and will shift from simple growth to rapid growth measured as a penetration analysis as markets move beyond the early adopter stage. The big box retailers including many, led by Walmart, the data centers, and companies like Verizon are early adopters.
Eventually hydrogen will be used as fuel in the same stationary fuel cell devices. The hydrogen is manufactured from solar farms. Stationary fuel cells have become more feasible as the industry is able to move beyond platinum catalysts.

Table Of Contents

Stationary Fuel Cells: Market Shares, Strategies, and Forecasts, Worldwide, 2014-2020
Stationary Fuel Cells Executive Summary

STATIONARY FUEL CELL MARKET SHARES AND MARKET FORECASTS 40
Stationary Fuel Cell Market Driving Forces 40
Platinum Catalysts 45
Stationary Fuel Cell Market Forecasts 47
Stationary Fuel Cells Market Definition And Market Dynamics

1 STATIONARY FUEL CELL MARKET DYNAMICS AND MARKET DESCRIPTION 49

1.1 STATIONARY FUEL CELL MARKET DYNAMICS AND MARKET DESCRIPTION 49
1.1.1 Stationary Fuel Cell Ownership Models 49
1.2 Distributed Power Generation 50
1.2.1 On-Site Power: 50
1.2.2 Utility Grid Support: 51
1.3 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) 56
1.3.1 Next Generation SOFC 56
1.3.2 Bloom Energy Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 56
1.4 ClearEdge Power Moving away from HT-PEMFC Technology 57
1.5 Distributed Power Generation 58
1.5.1 Distributed Clean and Continuous Power Generation 58
1.5.2 Benefits of Bloom Energy 59
1.5.3 Stationary Fuel Cell Technology 59
1.6 Industrialization Requires Sustainable, Highly Efficient Energy 60
1.6.1 Fuel Cell Cogeneration 61
1.6.2 Stationary Fuel Cells Address Global Energy Challenge 62
1.6.3 Petroleum 62
1.7 Value Of Export Market Electricity 64
1.8 Fuel Cell Operation 66
1.8.1 Fuel Cells Definition 72
1.8.2 Fuel Cell Insulating Nature Of The Electrolyte 75
1.8.3 Inconsistency Of Cell Performance 76
1.8.4 Fuel Cell Performance Improvements 76
1.8.5 Transition To Hydrogen 77
1.9 Fuel Environmental Issues 78
1.9.1 Environmental Benefits Of Using Fuel Cell Technology 81
1.9.2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions 84
1.10 Battery Description 86
1.11 Fuel Cell Functional Characteristics 87
1.12 Water In A Fuel Cell System 89
1.13 Power Of A Fuel Cell 91
1.13.1 Gas Control 91
1.13.2 Temperature Control 91
1.14 Fuel Cell Converts Chemical Energy Directly Into Electricity And Heat 92
1.14.1 Types Of Fuel Cells 94
1.15 Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology 96
1.15.1 Types Of Fuel Cells 96
1.15.2 Alkaline Fuel Cells 99
1.15.3 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells 100
1.15.4 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 102
1.15.5 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 104
1.15.6 PEM Technology 106
1.15.7 Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells 106
1.15.8 PEM Fuel Cells 110
1.15.9 Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell 110
1.15.10 Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Membranes And Catalysts 111
1.15.11 Common Types Of Fuel Cells 113
1.16 Stationary Power Applications 114
1.16.1 Traditional Utility Electricity Generation 114
1.17 On Grid And Off Grid Issues 115
1.17.1 Stationary Public Or Commercial Buildings Fuel Cell Market 116
1.17.2 Distributed Power Generation 117
2.1.1 Stationary Fuel Cell Company Operating Models 119
1.18 Impact Of Deregulation 120
1.18.1 Excess Domestic Capacity 120
1.18.2 Power Failures 120
1.19 Fuel Cell Issues 121
1.19.1 Fuel Cell Workings 123
1.19.2 Environmental Benefits Of Fuel Cells 125
1.19.3 Fuel-To-Electricity Efficiency 126
1.20 Boilers 127
1.20.1 Domestic Hot Water 127
1.20.2 Space Heating Loops 127
1.20.3 Absorption Cooling Thermal Loads 128
1.21 Fuel Cell Reliability 128
1.21.1 Power Quality 129
1.21.2 Licensing Schedules 129
1.21.3 Modularity 130
1.22 Fuel Cell Supply Infrastructure 130
1.23 Laws And Regulations 130
1.23.1 National Hydrogen Association 130
1.23.2 Military Solutions 131
Stationary Fuel Cells Market Shares And Market Forecasts

2. STATIONARY FUEL CELL MARKET SHARES AND MARKET FORECASTS 131

2.1 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Driving Forces 132
2.2 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares 136
2.2.1 Bloom Energy (SOFC) Fuel Cell Comprised Of Many Flat Solid Ceramic Squares 140
2.2.2 FuelCell Energy (MCFC) 142
2.2.3 ClearEdge 143
2.2.4 ClearEdge / UTC Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFCs) 143
2.2.5 Ballard and IdaTech PEM 144
2.2.6 Acumentrics 145
2.3 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Forecasts 146
2.3.1 Stationary Fuel Cell Units Market Forecasts 148
2.3.2 Vision For The New Electrical Grid 152
2.3.3 Fuel Cell Clean Air Permitting 153
2.4 SOFC Fuel Cell Market Shares and Market Forecasts 155
2.4.1 SOFC Stationary Fuel Cell Forecasts: Unit Shipment and Installed
Base Market Penetration Analysis 161
2.4.2 SOFC ROI Models 163
2.4.3 SOFC Fuel Cell Markets 163
2.4.4 SOFC Specialized Ceramics 166
2.4.5 SOFC Stationary Fuel Cell Market Description 167
2.4.6 Bloom Energy SOFC 168
2.4.7 SOFC Methanol Fuel Cells, On The Anode Side, A Catalyst Breaks Methanol 168
2.5 PEM Stationary Fuel Cell Forecasts 169
2.5.1 PEM Telecom Fuel Cell Back Up Power Systems 173
2.5.2 PEM Fuel Cell: High Temperature - 174
2.5.3 PEMFC Efficiency 174
2.5.4 Challenges for PEMFC Systems 175
2.5.5 Operating Pressure 175
2.5.6 Long Term Operation 176
2.5.7 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM) Residential Market 177
2.6 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) 178
2.6.1 MCFC Molten Carbonate Uses Nickel and Stainless Steel as Core Technology 179
2.6.2 MCFC Stationary Fuel Cell Market Analysis 180
2.6.3 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Fuel Cell Technology 95%
Combustion Efficiency 183
2.7 UTC PAFC Platinum Costs 184
2.7.1 PAFC185
2.7.2 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Technology 185
2.8 Distributed Campus Environments For SOFC, PEM, MCFC, and
MCFC Stationary Fuel Cells 187
2.8.1 Government Support for Fuel Cell Technology 189
2.8.2 Competition For Distributed Generation Of Electricity 190
2.8.3 Stationary Fuel Cell Applications 191
2.9 Energy Market Forecasts 193
2.9.1 FuelCell Energy Fuel Cell Stack Module MCFC Costs 197
2.9.2 FuelCell Energy Cost Breakdown 198
2.9.3 FuelCell Energy Fuel Cell Stack Module 199
2.9.4 FuelCell Energy Materials Cost Reduction via Increased Power Density 199
2.9.5 Fuel Cell Energy Achieving Higher MCFC Power Density 201
2.9.6 SOFC Unfavorable Fuel Cell Market Characteristics 205
2.9.7 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFCs) 210
2.10 PEM Membrane, Or Electrolyte 210
2.10.1 PEM Proton-Conducting Polymer Membrane, (The Electrolyte) 212
2.11 Delivered Energy Costs 216
2.11.1 Nanotechnology Platinum Surface Layer on Tungsten
Substrate For Fuel Cell Catalyst 219
2.11.2 SOFC Fuel Cell Prices 220
2.12 PEM, SOFC, MCFC, and PAFC Stationary Fuel Cell Applications and Uses: 221
2.13 MCFC, SOFC, PEMFC Projected Cost Long Term 223
2.14 Stationary Fuel Cells Strengths and Weaknesses 224
2.15 Fuel Cell Return On Investment Analysis 226
2.15.1 Addressable Market 227
2.16 Stationary Fuel Cell Prices 229
2.16.1 Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Prices 229
2.16.2 MCFC Stationary Fuel Cell Prices 230
2.17 Stationary Fuel Cell Market Regional Analysis 234
2.17.1 Stationary Fuel Cells U.S. 236
2.17.2 Fuel Cells California 236
2.17.3 Regional Stationary Fuel Cell Competition 240
2.17.4 CPUC Recently Approved 6 Utility Owned Fuel Cell Projects 245
2.17.5 Stationary Fuel Cell Installations in California 246
2.17.6 California Fuel Cell Installations 248
2.17.7 Campus Fuel Cell Food Processing Agricultural Applications /
Gills Onions Stationary Fuel Cells 248
2.17.8 Oxnard DFC Installations 249
2.17.9 Europe and Japan 250
2.17.10 Korea 251
2.17.11 European Photovoltaic Industry Association and Greenpeace
Global Investments In Solar Photovoltaic Projects 264
2.17.12 German Stationary Fuel Cells 264
2.17.13 Japanese Sales Prospects 268
2.17.14 New Sunshine Project (Japan) 269
2.17.15 Fuel Cell Development in Japan 270
2.17.16 Fuel Cell Cogeneration in Japan 271
2.17.17 Softbank / Bloom: Bloom Energy Japan 272
2.17.18 Japanese Government Subsidies 274
2.17.19 Fuel Cell Cogeneration In Japan 274
2.17.20 Establishing Codes And Standards Are Very Important For
Advancing Fuel Cell Systems In Japan 274
2.17.21 FuelCell Energy Geographic Market Participation 275
2.17.22 FuelCell Energy within Korea 279
2.17.23 FuelCell Energy Korean Market Partner POSCO Energy 279
2.17.24 FuelCell Energy Within the United States 281
2.17.25 FuelCell Energy Bridgeport Project 283
2.17.26 FuelCell Energy in Canada 284
2.17.27 FuelCell Energy in Europe 285
2.17.28 FuelCell Energy European Market Developments 286
Stationary Fuel Cells Product Description

3 STATIONARY FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESCRIPTION 288

3.1 Fuel Cells 288
3.2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) 288
3.2.1 Next Generation SOFC 288
3.3 Bloom Energy Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 289
3.3.1 Bloom's Energy SOFC Specifications 291
3.3.2 Bloom Energy Server Architecture 295
3.3.3 Bloom Energy E-Bay Data Center Installation 297
3.4 Ceramic Fuel Cells SOFC 298
3.4.1 Ceramic Fuel Cells BlueGen 299
3.4.2 Ceramic Fuel Cells Gennex Fuel Cell Module 303
3.4.3 Ceramic Fuel Cells Engineered Mixed Oxide Powders 303
3.5 LG 303
3.5.1 LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cells SOFC Technology 306
3.6 SKKG Cultural and Historical Foundation / Hexis SOFC 309
3.7 Viessmann Group 309
3.8 The Ceres Fuel Cell 310
3.8.1 Ceres Power Core Technology 311
3.9 Acumentrics 313
3.9.1 Acumentrics Fuel Cell Systems Work 315
3.9.2 The Fuel Reformer 317
3.9.3 Acumentrics Small Tubes 318
3.9.4 Acumentrics Specialized Ceramics 319
3.9.5 Acumentrics Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd Trusted Power Innovations 320
3.10 Samsung 321
3.11 Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 322
3.11.1 Delphi / Independent Energy Partners (IEP) 322
3.11.2 Delphi SOFC 323
3.11.3 Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit 324
3.12 LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 328
3.13 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Stationary Fuel Cells 331
3.14 ClearEdge Proton Exchange Membrane PEM Fuel Cells 332
3.14.1 ClearEdge PureCell® Model 5 System 333
3.14.2 ClearEdge PureCell® Model 400 System 339
3.14.3 ClearEdge PureCell® Model 400 System 340
3.14.4 ClearEdge fuel Cell Fleet Surpasses 1 Million Hours Of Operation 343
3.14.5 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFCs) 344
3.14.6 ClearEdge UTC Product : The PureCellâ„¢ Model 400 Power Solution Features : 349
3.14.7 ClearEdge UTC PureComfort® Solutions 350
3.14.8 ClearEdge UTC PureComfort® Power Solutions Save Energy 353
3.14.9 ClearEdge UTC CO2 Emissions Reduction 354
3.14.10 ClearEdge UTC PureComfort® Power Solutions 358
3.15 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Power Plants 359
3.16 FuelCell Energy 359
3.16.1 FuelCell Energy Power Plants Operating On Natural Gas 361
3.16.2 FuelCell Energy DFC Power Plant Benefits: 364
3.16.3 FuelCell Energy DFC Power Plant Benefits: 366
3.16.4 FuelCell Energy Cost Breakdown 369
3.16.5 FuelCell Energy Fuel Cell Stack Module 370
3.16.6 FuelCell Energy Materials Cost Reduction via Increased Power Density 370
3.16.7 FuelCell Energy Balance-of-Plant Cost Reduction With Volume Production 375
3.16.8 FuelCell Energy Conditioning, Installation, and Commissioning 375
3.16.9 FuelCell Energy to Supply 1.4 MW Power Plant to a California Utility 377
3.16.10 FuelCell Energy Adding Power Generating Capacity At The Point Of Use
Avoids Or Reduces Investment In The Transmission And Distribution System 377
3.16.11 FuelCell Energy DFC1500 378
3.16.12 FuelCell Energy Fuel Cells Within South Korean Renewable Portfolio 379
3.16.13 Enbridge and FuelCell Energy Partner 382
3.16.14 FuelCell Energy Power Plants 383
3.17 Proton Exchange Membrane PEM Stationary Fuel Cells 384
3.18 Ballard 385
3.18.1 Ballard and IdaTech's PEM 387
3.18.2 Ballard 388
3.18.3 Ballard / IdaTech 390
3.18.4 Ballard Power Systems Fuel Cell Stack to Taiwan-Based M-Field Energy Ltd. 393
Stationary Fuel Cells Technology

4 STATIONARY FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY 395

4.1 Fuel Cell Emissions Profile 395
- 4.1.1 Direct FuelCell Technology 395
4.2 Verizon Launches Massive Green Energy Project to Power 19
Company Facilities Across the Country 399
4.3 Fuel Cells Offer An Economically Compelling Balance Of Attributes 401
4.4 Stationary Fuel Cell Government Regulation 403
4.5 Fuel Cell Type Of Electrolyte Used 405
- 4.5.1 PEM Fuel Cells 406
- 4.5.2 Fuel Cell Stacks 410
4.6 IdaTech Fuel Processing Technology 412
4.7 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC) 414
4.7.1 PAFC Platinum-Based Catalyst 414
4.8 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC) 416
- 4.8.1 FuelCell Energy Degradation of the Electrolyte Support 417
4.8.2 MCFC Stack Cost Analysis 419
4.8.3Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Results 420
4.9 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) 422
4.9.1 SOFC Fuel Cell/Turbine Hybrids 425
4.9.2 Acumetrics Tubular SOFC, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology 425
4.1.3 Chip-Scale Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Arrays 427
4.10 Fuel Reformer 429
4.10.1 Specialized Ceramics 430
4.10.2 Ceramic Fuel Cells 431
4.11 Fuel Cell Description 432
4.12 Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC) 437
4.13 Nanotechnology Enables Overcoming Stationary Fuel Cell Cost Barriers 438
4.13.1 DMFC Micro And Portable Fuel Cells Components and Labor Costs 438
4.13.2 SOFC Fuel Cells Components and Labor Costs: 439
4.13.3 MCFC Fuel Cells Components and Labor Costs: 440
4.13.4 PAFC Fuel Cells Components and Labor Costs: 441
4.14 Solar Energy Complements Fuel Cell Technology 442
4.15 DMFC Fuel Cell Already Viable Market 444
4.15.1 DMFC Micro And Portable Fuel Cells Components and Labor Costs 444
4.15.2 Polymer-Electrolyte Membrane PEM 445
4.15.3 PEM Nano Metals And Alloys 446
4.15.4 PEM 447
4.16 Platinum Catalyst 448
4.16.1 Nanotechnology Platinum Surface Layer on Tungsten
Substrate For Fuel Cell Catalyst 448
4.16 2 Nanotechnology Platinum Catalyst Mid Size Stationary Fuel Cells 449
4.16.2 Water Electrolysis Technology 449
4.17 Fuel Cell Nickel Borate Catalyst 450
4.17.1 Fuel Cell High Cost Products 450
4.17.2 Development of hydrogen Technologies Critical For The
Growth Of The Fuel Cell Industry 450
4.17.3 PEM and SOFC For Home Units 454
4.18 PAFC and Stationary fuel cells 454
4.19 For MCFC: 454
4.20 For PAFC: 455
4.21 Fuel Cell Components 456
4.21.1 Fuel Processor (Reformer) 458
4.22 Fuel Cell Stack 462
4.23 Power Conditioner 462
4.24 Nano Composite Membranes 464
4.25 Pall Filtering of Hydrogen 467
4.26 IdaTech 469

5 STATIONARY FUEL CELL COMPANY PROFILES 471

5.1 Stationary Fuel Cell Acquisitions 471
5.1.1 2013: ClearEdge Power Acquires UTC Power 471
5.1.2 BASF Exits High-Temperature Proton Exchange
Membrane Fuel Cell Business 471
5.1.3 GE 472
5.1.4 Air Liquide Invests in Plug Power 472
5.1.5 Ballard Buys IdaTech 472
5.1.6 Viessmann Group Acquires 50 Percent Share in Hexis AG 472
5.1.7 Acumentrics Acquired Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd 473
5.1.8 FuelCell Energy / Versa Power Systems Acquisition 473
5.1.9 Rolls Royce Sells Its Stationary Fuel Cell Operations Interests to LG 474
5.1.10 Other Transactions and Consolidation of Stationary Fuel Cell Market 474
5.2 Acumentrics 474
5.2.1 Acumentrics Technologies Ltd Rugged UPSâ„¢ 475
5.2.2 Acumentrics UPS Products 475
5.2.3 Acumentrics / Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd Trusted Power Innovations 478
5.2.4 Acumentrics / Fuel Cell Technologies 480
5.3 Advent Technologies 481
5.3.1 Advent Technologies Investors 482
5.3.2 Advent Technologies Target Markets For HT-PEMFC 482
5.3.3 Advent Target Markets 482
5.4 AFC Energy 484
5.5 Altergy 486
5.5.1 Altergy Mass Production And Commercial Deployment Of
Rugged, Low Cost Fuel Cells 486
5.5.2 Altergy Global Leader In Telecom/Critical Infrastructure 489
5.6 Ansaldo Fuel Cells 494
5.7 Ballard Power Systems 495
5.7.1 Ballard Power Systems / IdaTech LLC / ACME Group (Gurgaon, Haryana) 496
5.7.2 Ballard Expanded Single Fuel Cell 498
5.7.3 Ballard Hydrogen 498
5.7.4 Ballard Buys IdaTech 499
5.7.5 IdaTech acquires Plug Power's LPG Off-Grid, Backup Power
Stationary Product Lines 501
5.7.6 IdaTech Applications 502
5.7.7 IdaTech Wireline Communications Networks 502
5.7.8 Ballard Third Quarter 2013 Revenue 503
Ballard Third Quarter 2013 Highlights 504
5.8 BASF 507
5.9 Blasch Precision Ceramics 508
5.10 Bloom Energy 508
5.10.1 Bloom Energy Fuel Cells Customer Adobe 513
5.10.2 Bloom Energy / University Of Arizona NASA Mars Space Program 514
5.10.3 SoftBank and Bloom Energy Form Joint Venture 515
5.11 ClearEdge Power / UTC Power 517
5.11.1 ClearEdge / United Technologies 517
5.12 Ceramic Fuel Cells 517
5.13 Delphi 517
5.13.1 Delphi Automotive LLP Revenue 518
5.13.2 Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit 518
5.14 Doosan Corporation 519
5.15 Elcore 520
5.16 Electro Power Systems 521
5.17 Enbridge 522
5.18 FuelCell Energy 526
5.18.1 FuelCell Energy Production Capacity 528
5.18.2 FuelCell Energy POSCO 121.8 MW Order 529
5.18.3 FuelCell Energy / Versa 530
5.18.4 FuelCell Energy Leading Integrated Fuel Cell Company 531
5.18.5 FuelCell Energy Revenue 2012, 2013 532
5.18.6 FuelCell Energy / Versa Power Systems, Inc. Acquisition 535
5.18.7 FuelCell Energy Market Activity 536
5.18.8 Stationary Fuel Cell ROI 540
5.18.9 FuelCell Energy Versa Power Systems Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development: 540
5.18.10 FuelCell Energy / Versa Systems Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 541
5.18.11 FuelCell Energy DFC 3000 Cost Savings 544
5.18.12 FuelCell Energy Production and Delivery Capabilities 545
5.18.13 FuelCell Energy Food and Beverage Processing 549
5.18.14 FuelCell Energy Strategic Alliances and Market Development Agreements 550
5.18.15 FuelCell Energy Service Company Partners — 553
5.18.16 FuelCell Energy Business Strategy 555
5.19 Fuji Electric 559
5.20 GE 559
5.20.1 GE Unmanned Aircraft 562
5.20.2 GE HPGS 563
5.21 HydroGen LLC 564
5.22 Hydrogenics 565
5.22.1 Hydrogenics Revenue 566
5.23 ITN Lithium Technology 566
5.23.1 ITN's Lithium EC sub-Division Focused On Development And
Commercialization of EC 567
5.23.2 ITN's SSLB Division Thin-Film Battery Technology 568
5.23.3 ITN Lithium Air Battery 569
5.23.4 ITN Fuel Cell 570
5.23.5 ITN Thin-film Deposition Systems 572
5.23.6 ITN Real Time Process Control 573
5.23.7 ITN Plasmonics 577
5.24 LG Electronics 578
5.24.1 LG Business Divisions and Main Products 582
5.24.2 LG Telemonitoring Smartcare System 585
5.24.3 Rolls Royce Sells Its Stationary Fuel Cell Operations Interests to LG 588
5.25 Nuvera 588
5.26 Plug Power 589
5.26.1 Plug Power Revenue by Quarters 589
5.27 POSCO Power 590
5.28 Rolls Royce 591
5.29 SafeHydrogen LLC 591
5.30 Samsung Everland 592
5.30.1 Samsung 593
5.30.2 Samsung Finds Talent And Adapts Technology To Create Products 596
5.30.3 Samsung Adapts to Change, Samsung Embraces Integrity 597
5.30.4 Samsung Telecom Equipment Group 598
5.30.5 Samsung Electronics Q2 2013 Revenue 599
5.30.6 Samsung Memory Over Logic 600
5.31 Serenergy 601
5.32 Siemens AG 601
5.33 SoftBank 602
5.34 Southern California Edison 602
5.35 Truma 603

List of Tables and Figures

Table ES-1 42
Stationary Fuel Cell Market Driving Forces 42
Table ES-2 43
Stationary Fuel Cell Market Growth Drivers Worldwide 43
Table ES-3 44
Worldwide Stationary Fuel Cell Market Campus Segments 44
Figure ES-4 46
Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares, Dollars, 2013 46
Figure ES-5 47
Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts, Dollars, Worldwide, 2014-2020 47
Figure 1-1 52
Traditional Power Distribution Network vs. Fuel Cell Solution 52
Table 1-2 63
Methods Of Producing Energy 63
Table 1-3 65
Key Aspects Of Fuel Cell Stack Costs 65
Figure 1-4 67
Fuel Cell Operation 67
Table 1-5 68
Fuel Cell Operation 68
Figure 1-6 69
Stationary Fuel Cell Distributed Power Generation 69
Figure 1-7 70
Conventional Power System with Central Generation 70
Figure 1-8 71
Utility Power Systems with Distributed 1MW Fuel Cell System 71
Table 1-9 73
Fuel Cell Characteristics 73
Table 1-10 74
Fuel Cell Description 74
Table 1-11 75
Fuel Cell Categories 75
Table 1-12 77
Fuel Cell Performance Improvements 77
Table 1-13 80
Environmental Concerns Relating To Energy 80
Table 1-14 82
Environmental Benefits Of Using Fuel Cell Technology 82
Table 1-15 82
Fuel Cell Advantages Compared To Internal Combustion Engine 82
Table 1-15 (Continued) 83
Fuel Cell Advantages Compared To Internal Combustion Engine 83
Table 1-16 84
Low-carbon production systems 84
Table 1-17 87
Fuel Cell Functional Characteristics 87
Table 1-17 (Continued) 88
Fuel Cell Functional Characteristics 88
Table 1-18 90
Characteristics Of Water In Fuel Cells 90
Figure 1-19 93
Stationary Fuel Cell Growth Opportunities 93
Table 1-20 94
Types Of Fuel Cells 94
Table 1-21 95
Classes Of Fuel Cells 95
Table 1-22 96
Fuel Cell Applications 96
Table 1-23 97
Types Of Fuel Cells 97
Table 1-24 98
Classes Of Fuel Cells 98
Table 1-25 99
Fuel Cell Applications 99
Table 1-26 100
Alkaline Fuel Cell Features 100
Table 1-27 101
Phosphoric acid fuel cells applications 101
Table 1-28 102
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Features 102
Table 1-29 103
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 103
Table 1-30 105
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Features 105
Table 1-31 108
Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Functions 108
Table 1-31 (Continued) 109
Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Functions 109
Figure 1-32 119
Stationary Fuel Cell Company Operating Models 119
Table 1-33 121
Fuel Cell Issues 121
Table 1-34 122
Fuel Cell System 122
Table 1-35 124
Operation of a Fuel Cell. 124
Table 1-36 125
Fuel Cell System Relative Efficiencies 125
Table 1-37 129
Fuel Cell Reliability Research And Development Issues 129
Table 2-1 133
Stationary Fuel Cell Market Driving Forces 133
Table 2-2 133
Stationary Fuel Cell Market Growth Drivers Worldwide 134
Table 2-3 135
Worldwide Stationary Fuel Cell Market Campus Segments 135
Figure 2-4 136
Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares, Dollars, 2013 137
Table 2-5 137
Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares, Dollars, 2013 138
Figure 2-6 141
Bloom Energy Server 141
Figure 2-7 142
FuelCell Energy Electrochemical Device 142
Figure 2-8 146
Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts, Dollars, orldwide, 2014-2020 147
Table 2-9 148
Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts Dollars, Worldwide, 2014-2020 148
Figure 2-10 150
Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts, Units, Worldwide, 2014-2020 150
Table 2-11 150
Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts 151
Units, Worldwide, 2014-2020 151
Table 2-12 154
Stationary Fuel Cell Market Forces 154
Figure 2-13 157
SOFC Market Shares, Dollars, Worldwide, 2013 157
Table 2-14 157
SOFC Stationary Fuel Cell Market Shares, Dollars, Worldwide, 2013 157
Figure 2-15 158
Stationary SOFC Fuel Cell Market Forecasts, Dollars, Worldwide, 2014-2020 158
Figure 2-16 160
Stationary Fuel Cell SOFC Market Forecasts, Number Shipped, Worldwide, 2014-2020 160
Table 2-17 161
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Market Forecasts, Units and Dollars, Worldwide, 2014-2020 161
Table 2-18 162
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment Installed Base and Market Penetration Forecasts Units, Worldwide, 2014-2020 162
Figure 2-19 164
Reducing Hydrogen Crossover Using Nanotechnology 164
Table 2-20 167
Ceramic Fuel Cells Advantages 167
Figure 2-21 170
Stationary Fuel Cell PEM, Market Forecasts, Dollars, Worldwide, 2014-2020 170
Table 2-22 171
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell PEM Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment
Market Forecasts, Units and Dollars, Worldwide, 2014-2020 171
Figure 2-23 171
Stationary Fuel Cell Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Market Forecasts,
Units, Worldwide, 2014-2020 172
Table 2-24 175
PEMFC Efficiency 175
Table 2-25 176
Stationary Fuel Cell Long-Term Operation 177
Table 2-26 179
MCFC Technology Development Functions 179
Table 2-27 181
MCFC Near-zero NOX, SOX and low CO2 emissions 181
Figure 2-28 182
FuelCell Energy 2.4 MW Fuel Cell Power Plant Inchon, South Korea 182
Table 2-29 183
MCFC Stationary Fuel Cell Technology 183
Table 2-30 187
Stationary Fuel Cell Distributed Campus Environments Target Markets Worldwide, 2013 187
Table 2-31 188
Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment SOFC, PEM, MCFC, and MCFC
Market Forecasts, Dollars, Worldwide, 2014-2020 188
Table 2-32 189
Stationary Fuel Cell Shipment SOFC, PEM, MCFC, and MCFC Market Forecasts,
Units, Worldwide, 2014-2020 189
Figure 2-33 192
Stationary Fuel Cell Applications 192
Figure 2-34 193
Global Demand For Electric Power 193
Figure 2-35 194
Cost of Electricity Grid and Stationary Fuel Cell 194
Table 2-36 206
Complete Fuel Cell Power Plant 206
Table 2-37 206
Opportunity for PAFC Cost Reductions Opportunity Area 206
Table 2-38 207
PAFC Stack Costs 207
Figure 2-39 211
Fuel Cell Image 211
Table 2-40 212
PEM Stack Costs 212
Figure 2-42 217
Delivered Energy Costs 217
Table 2-43 221
Stationary Fuel Cell Markets 221
Table 2-45 224
Stationary Fuel Cells Strengths and Weaknesses 224
Table 2-46 226
Cost Comparison of Available Technologies for a 5kW Plant 226
Table 2-47 228
Unsubsidzed Levelized Cost of Energy 228
Table 2-48 230
MCFC Stack Costs 230
Table 2-49 234
Stationary Fuel Cell Regional Market Segments, Dollars, 2013 234
Table 2-50 235
Stationary Fuel Cell Regional Market Segments, 2013 235
Figure 2-51 238
Stationary Fuel Cell Installations in California 238
Figure 2-51 239
Stationary Fuel Cell Installations in California 239
Figure 2-52 243
Efficient Pipeline Pressure Reduction 243
Table 2-53 247
Types Of Campus Fuel Cell Power Plants 247
Figure 2-54 249
FuelCell Energy 600 KW DFC, Gills Onions Oxnard, CA 249
Figure 2-55 253
Korea's Energy Mix 2030 253
Figure 2-57 254
Korea's Energy Application Sectors 254
Figure 2-58 256
Korean NRE New and Renewable Energy 256
Figure 2-59 257
Korean Research and Development in NRE 257
Figure 2-60 259
Korean Local Plan for Promoting NRE 259
Figure 2-61 260
FuelCell Energy Environmental Tangible Benefits 260
Figure 2-62 261
Hybrid Electric Vehicles Costs 261
Figure 2-63 262
US Energy Costs 262
Figure 2-64 263
Hydrogen Cost From On Site Steam 263
Figure 2-65 267
German Bonus for Electricity Produced Through CHP Units 267
Table 2-66 268
Japanese Sales Prospects 268
Figure 2-67 276
FuelCell Energy Regional Positioning 276
Figure 2-68 278
FuelCell Energy Regional Business Activity 278
Figure 3-1 289
Bloom ES-5700 Fuel Cell 289
Figure 3-2 291
Bloom's Energy SOFC Specifications 291
Table 3-3 293
Bloom Energy SOCF Fuel Cell Specifications 293
Table 3-3 294
Bloom Energy SOCF Fuel Cell Specifications 294
Figure 3-4 296
Bloom Energy Server 296
Table 3-5 297
Bloom Performance Gain From Modular Architecture 297
Figure 3-6 298
Bloom Energy Data Center Installation 298
Figure 3-7 299
Ceramic Fuel Cells BlueGen Products 299
Figure 3-8 300
Ceramic Fuel Cells BlueGen Installation 300
Figure 3-9 302
Ceramic Fuel Cells BlueGen Efficiency Comparison 302
Figure 3-10 304
LG 1 MW SOFC System 304
Figure 3-11 305
LG Fuel Cell Power Generation Used to Power Electronics and Excess Sold to Grid 305
Figure 3-12 306
LG Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells SOFC 306
Figure 3-13 307
LG Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells SOFC 60 Cell Technology 307
Figure 3-14 308
LG Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells SOFC 308
Figure 3-15 311
Ceres Power SOFC Fuel Cell 311
Figure 3-16 315
Acumentrics Fuel Cell Systems Functions 315
Figure 3-17 318
Acumentrics Small Tubes 318
Table 3-18 321
Acumentrics Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Functions 321
Figure 3-19 325
Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 325
Table 3-20 326
Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Benefits 326
Table 3-21 327
Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Typical Applications 327
Figure 3-22 328
Delphi Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Transportation Application 328
Figure 3-23 329
LG Fuel Cell Process 329
Table 3-24 330
LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Features 330
Table 3-24 331
LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Features 331
Figure 3-25 334
ClearEdge PureCell® Model 5 System Generates 5 kW 334
Figure 3-26 336
PureCell® Model 5 System Specifications 336
Table 3-27 337
ClearEdge The Model 5 System Benefits 337
Table 3-28 338
ClearEdge The Model 5 System Functions 338
Table 3-29 339
ClearEdge The Model 5 system Functions 339
Figure 3-30 340
ClearEdge PureCell® Model 400 System 340
Figure 3-31 342
ClearEdge PureCell® Model 400 System Characteristics 342
Figure 3-32 345
UTC Power Fuel Cells Also Qualify For LEED® (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Points. 345
Table 3-33 346
UTC PureCell system Features 346
Figure 3-34 347
UTC Fuel cell Supplier To NASA For Space Missions For Over 40 Years 347
Table 3-35 348
UTC Performance Characteristics POWER 348
Figure 3-36 350
ClearEdge UTC PureCell Solution Emissions 350
Table 3-37 351
ClearEdge UTC Stationary Fuel Cell Energy Efficiency Positioning 351
Table 3-38 352
ClearEdge UTC Microturbine Chiller/Heater and System Level Functions 352
Table 3-39 353
ClearEdge UTC stationary Fuel cell Benefits : 353
Table 3-40 355
ClearEdge UTC Stationary Fuel Cell Emissions Benefits 355
Table 3-41 356
ClearEdge UTC Stationary Fuel Cell Emissions CO2 Emissions Reduction Calculations
Figure 3-42 357
ClearEdge UTC Pollutant Emissions Comparisons 357
Table 3-43 358
ClearEdge UTC PureComfort® Power Solutions 358
Table 3-44 362
FuelCell Energy Power Plant Advantages: 362
Table 3-45 365
FuelCell Energy Product Advantages 365
Table 3-46 366
FuelCell Energy Fuel Cell Power Plant Models 366
Table 3-47 367
FuelCell Energy DFC Power Plant Benefits: 367
Figure 3-48 368
Fuel Cell Electrochemical Device 368
Figure 3-49 372
Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) Power Plants Offer The Highest Efficiency Which Is Key To Customer Value372
Figure 3-50 374
FuelCell Energy 1 MW DFC California State 374
University - Northridge 374
Table 3-51 376
FuelCell Energy Cost Reduction Opportunities for the DFC 1500 Power Plant
Operating On Pipeline-Quality Natural Gas 376
Figure 3-52 382
Enbridge and FuelCell Energy 382
Figure 3-53 383
Direct Fuel Cell Power Plant 383
Table 3-54 386
Ballard Power Systems Comprehensive Portfolio Of Fuel Cell Products 386
Table 3-55 387
Ballard Power Systems Fuel Cell Products 387
Figure 3-56 390
Ballard Power Systems Cleargen Mulit-Megawatt Fuel Cell System 390
Figure 3-57 391
IdaTech Fuel Cell System 391
Table 3-58 391
Ballard / IdaTech ElectraGen ME System Functions 391
Table 3-59 392
Ballard / IdaTech ElectraGen ME System Functions 392
Table 4-1 395
Favorable Emissions Profile Of DFC Power Plants 395
Table 4-2 397
DFC Technology Advantages 397
Table 4-3 397
Fuel Cell Types Of Electrical Efficiency, Operating Temperature, Expected
Capacity Range, And Byproduct Heat 398
Table 4-4 399
Fuel Cell Technologies 399
Table 4-5 399
Fuel Cells By Fuel 399
Figure 4-6 401
Fuel Cells Offer An Economically Compelling Balance Of Attributes 402
Figure 4-7 402
Efficiency Differences Among Fuel Cell Technologies 402
Table 4-8 405
Stationary Fuel Cell Products Regulation 405
Table 4-9 406
Fuel cell Types By T Electrolyte 406
Figure 4-10 407
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells 407
Figure 4-11 410
PEM Fuel Cell Operation 410
Figure 4-12 411
Fuel Cell Stacks 411
Figure 4-13 412
Fuel Cell Stack Components 412
Table 4-14 416
Opportunity for PAFC Cost Reductions Opportunity Area 416
Table 4-15 420
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell RandD areas to be addressed 420
Figure 4-16 421
MCFC Cost Components of Electricity vs. Fuel Cell Capital Cost 421
Figure 4-17 423
Siemens Westinghouse's 250-Kilowatt Atmospheric Pressure Combined Heat And
Power Fuel Cell System 423
Figure 3-18 42

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