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Piezoelectric Actuators and Motors - Types, Applications, New Developments and Global Markets

  • October 2013
  • -
  • Innovative Research and Products (iRAP), Inc.
  • -
  • 156 pages

PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS AND MOTORS – TYPES, APPLICATIONS, NEW DEVELOPMENTS, INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND GLOBAL MARKETS

Piezoelectric actuators convert electrical energy into a mechanical displacement or stress using a piezoelectric effect. Since piezoelectric elements have excellent responsiveness and conversion efficiency from electrical energy to mechanical energy, various types of piezoelectric actuators utilizing the piezoelectric effect of piezoelectric elements have been developed in recent years. A piezoelectric actuator, which utilizes the piezoelectricity of crystal, has been used widely in a high precision positioning mechanism, since it can control a mechanical displacement at high speed. Piezoelectric actuators have the advantage of a high actuating precision and a fast reaction. Such actuators are components with a high electrical capacity, whereby only part of the electrical energy supplied to the actuators is converted to mechanical energy.

Applications for piezoelectric actuators and motors are based on the purposes and methods of use of systems to which they are applied. The new report has segmented the applications into eight distinct categories.

Piezoelectric actuators are developing into a large component market. Market pull is generated by

• high demand for ultra-small scale precision motion devices used in manufacturing and inspection equipment, high volume, low cost autofocus assemblies required in phone cameras, and high volume, moderate cost ink printing cartridges used in printers.
• demand for microactuator medical tools used in minimally invasive surgery and micro-grippers required in manufacturing microsized objects such as stents; and

• demand for dynamically-driven, high temperature actuators for diesel injector valves in automobiles.

Cost, yield and reliability are important concerns for each of these applications. A number of these concerns relate to basic material science issues in the manufacture of the piezoelectric actuators for these targeted, diversified applications.

This report also deals with ultrasonic motors (USMs) that belong to the class of piezoelectric motors. Due to their specific advantages compared to conventional electromagnetic motors, USMs fill a gap in certain actuator applications. A key advantage of USMs over electromagnetic motors is their compactness, i.e., their high stall torque-mass ratio and high torque at low rotational speed, often making speed-reducing gears superfluous.

Piezoelectric actuators are deemed good candidates for applications that require fine precision, low overall volume and mass, fast time response, low power consumption and low electromagnetic interferences. Piezoelectric actuators are widely used in the semiconductor and microelectronics industries, biology, optics, photonics, telecommunications, and metrology. Typical applications range from gene manipulation, vibration cancellation, fiber optic alignment, machine-tool alignment, and active damping, to hydraulic servo valves, shockwave generation, image stabilization, and wafer-mask alignment.

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

The report examines current products and application areas and provides extensive market data for 2013 and market forecast from 2013 through 2018. It also outlines the competitive landscape, evaluates market opportunities and risks, and anticipates future trends based on a series of factors. With a multi-dimensional and in-depth view of the world piezoelectric device market, this report is ideal for understanding current applications and markets, international market penetration, business expansion, or project feasibility analysis.

This study focuses on key piezoelectric-operated actuators and motors and provides data about the size and growth of these markets, along with company profiles and industry trends. The goal of this report is to provide a detailed and comprehensive multi-client study of the markets in North America, Europe, Japan, China and the rest of the world (ROW) for piezoelectric-operated actuators and motors, as well as potential business opportunities. This report also deals with miniature actuators based on thin-film piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT), which is one of the most efficient electromechanical coupling transducer materials currently available for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Piezoelectric MEMS (piezo MEMS) are in use in radio frequency (RF) devices for communications and radar applications and in the emerging field of millimeter-scale robotics. The report also looks into lead-free piezoelectric materials such as bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3 (BFO), and others for construction of actuators used for medical applications. There is growing demand for lead-free piezoelectric actuators for medical applications. The report highlights ongoing research on alternative lead-free piezoelectric materials in order to replace lead-based materials to avoid health hazards.

The objectives include thorough coverage of underlying economic issues driving the piezoelectric-operated actuators and motors business, as well as assessments of new, advanced piezoelectric-operated actuators and motors that are in development. Also covered are legislative pressures for increased safety and environmental protection, as well as users’ expectations for economical actuators and motors. Another important objective is to provide realistic market data and forecasts for piezoelectric-operated actuators and motors. This study provides the most thorough and up-to-date assessment on the subject. The study also provides extensive quantification of the many important facets of market development in piezoelectric-operated actuators and motors. This, in turn, contributes to a determination of the kinds of strategic responses companies may adopt in order to compete in these dynamic markets.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Piezoelectric devices, combined with the development of piezoelectric materials, have become a key enabling technology for a wide range of industrial and consumer products. The piezoelectric device market experienced robust growth in last two decades and sustained fairly healthy growth even during the global economic downturns. It will again witness strong growth in the next years, and certain application markets already enjoy double digital growth.

The industrial and manufacturing area is still the largest application market for piezoelectric devices, followed by the automotive industry. However, the strongest demand comes from medical instruments and information and telecommunication, which are gaining ever-increasing importance among piezoelectric device suppliers.

The piezoelectric actuator and motor market is an attractive and still-growing multi-million dollar market characterized by very high production volumes of actuators and motors that must be both extremely reliable and low in cost. Growth in the market continues to be driven by increasing demand in camera phones for autofocus mechanisms, data storage, semiconductors, micro-electronics production, precision mechanics, life science and medical technology, optics, photonics, nanometrology, robots, toys, HVAC control systems, and other applications such as piezo fuel injectors, ink cartridges in printers, micropumps, microgrippers. microsurgery tools and piezoelectric MEMS (piezo MEMS) actuators.

iRAP conducted this study in 2007 and later in 2009. However, with increased demand for these devices, and with improved and emerging technologies as well as applications, iRAP felt a need to conduct a detailed study and update technology developments and markets. The report identifies and evaluates piezoelectric-operated actuators and motors and technologies which show potential growth.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY

The report covers technology, product analysis, manufacturers’ profiles, competitive analysis, raw material suppliers, electronics suppliers, system integrators, material and material cost analysis, market dynamics and patent status of leading players, to provide a complete picture of the status and growth of the piezoelectric actuator market on a global scale from 2013 to 2018.

This study provides the most complete accounting of the current market and future growth in piezoelectric actuators and motors. The study also provides extensive quantification of the important facets of market developments in emerging markets for these actuators and motors, such as China.

SCOPE AND FORMAT

The market data contained in this report quantify opportunities for piezoelectric-operated actuators and motors. In addition to product types, this report also covers the many issues concerning the merits and future prospects of the business, including corporate strategies, information technologies, and the means for providing these highly advanced product and service offerings. This report also covers in detail the economic and technological issues regarded by many as critical to the industry’s current state of change. It provides an overview of the piezoelectric actuator and motor industry and its structure, and of the many companies involved in providing these products. The competitive positions of the main players in the market, and the strategic options they face, are also discussed, along with such competitive factors as marketing, distribution and operations.

TO WHOM THE STUDY CATERS

Audiences for this study include marketing executives, business unit managers and other decision makers in piezoelectric-operated actuators and motors companies and companies peripheral to this business. The study will benefit existing manufacturers of actuators and motors who seek to expand revenues and market opportunities through new technology such as piezoelectric-operated actuators and motors, positioned to become a preferred solution for many applications. This study also will benefit users of piezoelectric-operated actuators and motors who deal with actuators where electromagnetic field generation is an issue and operational performance parameters and space are important considerations, such as in autofocus lens mechanisms of camera phones, nanometrology, precision linear/rotary drives, drug delivery systems, antenna array deployment, and other fields such as piezo fuel injectors, ink cartridges in printers, micropumps, microgrippers and microsurgery tools, MEMS piezo, micro air vehicles.

REPORT SUMMARY

A confluence of new piezo-based technology has breathed new capability into the nano- and micropositioning world. Piezoelectric actuators are widely used in the semiconductor and microelectronics industries, biology, optics, photonics, telecommunications, and metrology. More specifically, piezoelectric actuators and motors have been widely applied to eight distinct application areas, including:

• high-precision micron to nanoscale motion-related applications;
• autofocus mechanism (AFM) kits in phone and digital cameras;
• microscope applications for image stabilization and autofocus;
• automotive fuel injectors;
• accurate fluid flow applications such as micropumps, piezo valves and microblowers;
• piezo ink cartridges used in printers;
• medical/surgical instruments and portable ultrasonic diagnostic devices; and
• miscellaneous applications such as mini-robots (used as micro air vehicles and unmanned air vehicles), hard disk drives, textile engineering, Braille reading devices, active vibration reduction devices, MEMS piezo actuators, and others.

Piezomotors and actuators typically eliminate any need for gear reduction because they drive loads directly. One way to understand how a piezomotor generates motive force is to examine the SQUIGGLE® motor. It can move with 1,000 times more precision than an electromagnetic motor while hitting nanometer resolutions. In contrast, electromagnetic motors struggle to give micrometer resolution.

Piezo actuation is increasingly suitable for applications formerly addressable only by magnetic motors, and the technology offers significant benefits in terms of size, speed, fieldless-ness, reliability, vacuum compatibility, resolution and dynamics. These benefits, in turn, enable significant advances in existing and new applications. Examples of these applications abound. For instance, optical assemblies of escalating sophistication require multiple axes of nanoprecision alignment that must remain aligned for months of round-the-clock usage. Another example is emerging nano-imprint lithography methods which demand exacting positioning and trajectory control and must retain alignment integrity under significant physical and thermal stresses. Applications range from cell phone cameras to endoscopy and fluid delivery mechanisms, requiring exceedingly small but stiff, responsive, and reliable positioning of optics, probes and shutters. Until recently, these conflicting requirements had no solution.

Major findings of this report are:

• The 2013 global market for piezoelectric operated actuators and motors was estimated to be $11.1 billion, and the market is estimated to reach $16 billion by 2018, showing an compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.7% per year.

- The market for piezoelectric-operated actuators and motors in micron- to nanoscale (ultra-small scale precision motion) related applications will be the largest segment in 2013 and projected to grow with a CAGR of 7.6%.

- The second big segment is autofocus mechanism (AFM) kits used in phone cameras and digital cameras.

- The third major segment includes microscope lenses autofocus and zoom mirror adjustment, image stabilization for ultra-precision imaging and resolution enhancement which is estimated to grow with a higher CAGR of 15.3%.

- The remaining is a market mix segment consisting of fuel injectors used in automotives, micropumps, piezo valves, microblowers, piezo ink cartridges used in printers, medical surgery instruments, portable ultrasonic diagnostic devices-mini-robots (used as micro air vehicles), unmanned air vehicles), hard disk drives, textile engineering, Braille reading devices, active vibration reduction devices (e.g., adoptronics), MEMS piezo actuators and similar products.

- Industrial and manufacturing is still the largest application market for piezoelectric devices, followed by the automotive industry. However, the strongest demand comes from medical instruments and information and telecommunication, which are gaining ever increasing importance among piezoelectric device suppliers.

- The manufacturers of optics, photonics and nanometrology equipment have been the major consumers of piezoelectric-operated motors and actuators.

- In terms of types, bulk PZT material-based piezo actuators and motors have the highest market share.

- In terms of regional market share, North America leads, followed by Europe, Japan, and the balance for China and the rest of the world.

Table Of Contents

Piezoelectric Actuators and Motors - Types, Applications, New Developments and Global Markets
INTRODUCTION 1
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 3
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 4
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY 5
SCOPE AND FORMAT 5
METHODOLOGY 5
INFORMATION SOURCES 6
TARGET AUDIENCE FOR THE STUDY 6
AUTHOR'S CREDENTIALS 7
AUTHOR'S CREDENTIALS (CONTD.) 8
RELATED STUDIES 8
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS AND MOTORS BY APPLICATION THROUGH 2018 10
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS AND MOTORS BY APPLICATION, 2013 AND 2018 11
INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 14
INDUSTRY DYNAMICS 15
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 16
TABLE 1 COMPANY PRODUCT REFERENCE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATOR AND MOTOR MANUFACTURERS, MATERIAL SUPPLIERS, SYSTEMS INTEGRATORS/AMPLIFIER AND CONTROLLER SUPPLIERS 18
TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 21
PIEZO MECHANICS 21
SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS 22
PIEZOELECTRIC CONSTANTS 22
FIGURE 1 DESIGNATION OF THE AXES AND DIRECTIONS OF DEFORMATION 22
TABLE 2 GENERAL PIEZO SYMBOLS 23
PIEZO THEORY 24
PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIALS 25
FIGURE 2 PZT ELEMENTARY CELL BEFORE AND AFTER POLING (DC FIELD APPLIED) 26
FIGURE 3 ELECTRICAL DIPOLE MOMENTS IN WEISS DOMAINS 27
TYPES OF PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS 28
TYPES OF PIEZOELECTRIC MOTORS 28
TYPES OF PIEZOELECTRIC MOTORS (CONTD.) 29
FIGURE 4 STANDING WAVE ULTRASONIC MOTOR 30
MATERIALS FOR PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS AND MOTORS 31
TABLE 3 MATERIAL CONSTANTS OF PIEZOCERAMIC MATERIALS USED IN PIEZOELECTRIC-DRIVEN ACTUATORS AND MOTORS 32
ELECTRODE MATERIALS 33
PZT MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS 33
Hysteresis 33
Creep 34
Extension under load 34
Power dissipation 34
Operation under reverse bias 34
FIGURE 5 HYSTERESIS BEHAVIOR OF PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL 35
Linearity 35
Thermal properties and temperature coefficients 35
MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS AND MOTORS 36
TABLE 4 MATERIALS USED FOR FABRICATING BASIC PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS 36
Lead-free piezo materials 39
NEW EMERGING MATERIALS 40
PZN-PT 40
PMN-PT 40
PZT-BASED MEMS DEVICES 41
TABLE 5 TYPICAL MATERIALS USED IN PZT-BASED MEMS DEVICES 41
ELECTRONICS (AMPLIFIERS AND CONTROLLERS) USED WITH PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS 42
PIEZO ELECTRIC MOTORS 42
TABLE 6 TYPES OF PIEZOELECTRIC MOTORS 43
APPLICATIONS 48
MICRON TO NANO-SCALE MOTION-RELATED APPLICATIONS 48
TABLE 7 TYPES OF BASIC PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS
FOR ULTRA-SMALL SCALE PRECISION LINEAR MOTION 49
COMMERCIAL DESIGNS IN USE 51
TABLE 8 TYPICAL SHAPE VARIANTS AND BRANDS OF PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS COMMERCIALIZED FOR SMALL SCALE PRECISION MOTION 52
AUTOFOCUS APPLICATIONS IN PHONE CAMERAS AND OTHER COMMERCIAL MARKETS 56
ULTRASONIC MOTORS USED FOR AUTOFOCUS 58
FIGURE 6 MOBILE PHONE CAMERA AUTOFOCUS MODULE USING A PIEZO MOTOR 59
Autofocus mechanism kit in phone and digital cameras (on-board low voltage battery plus amplifier) 59
Case study1: ultra-thin autofocus: 60
Case study 2: 60
TABLE 9 TYPES OF PIEZOELECTRIC MOTOR MODULES RECOMMENDED FOR AUTOFOCUS PHONE CAMERAS 61
MICROSCOPE LENS AUTOFOCUS AND ZOOM MIRROR ADJUSTMENT, IMAGE STABILIZATION FOR ULTRA-PRECISION IMAGING AND RESOLUTION ENHANCEMENT (NON-CONSUMER CAMERA APPLICATIONS) 61
FIGURE 7 USE OF PIEZO ACTUATORS IN SCANNING TUNNEL MICROSCOPY 63
TABLE 10 TYPES OF PIEZOELECTRIC MOTORS RECOMMENDED
FOR AUTOFOCUS IN NON CONSUMER IMAGING SYSTEMS 64
FUEL INJECTORS USED IN AUTOMOBILES 66
TABLE 11 TYPES OF PIEZO UNIT INJECTORS 68
MICROPUMPS, PIEZO VALVES, MICROBLOWERS 69
PIEZO MICROMIRRORS, MICROPUMPS AND MICROBLOWERS 70
PIEZO INK CARTRIDGES USED IN PRINTERS 72
PIEZO INK CARTRIDGES USED IN PRINTERS (CONTD.) 73
PIEZO INK CARTRIDGES USED IN PRINTERS (CONTD.) 74
PIEZO INK CARTRIDGES USED IN PRINTERS (CONTD.) 75
TABLE 13 MICROVALVE ACTUATORS AND PIEZO INK CARTRIDGES
MEDICAL SURGERY INSTRUMENTS AND PORTABLE ULTRASONIC DIAGNOSTIC DEVICES 76
TABLE 14 PIEZO MICROSURGERY TOOLS, MICROGRIPPERS AND MINI-ROBOTS 77
OTHER APPLICATION AREAS 79
TABLE 15 ILLUSTRATIONS OF MINI-ROBOTS, MICRO AIR VEHICLES), HARD DISK DRIVE TIPS 80
HARD DISK TIPS 82
TEXTILE PIEZO SYSTEMS 83
FIGURE 8 PIEZOCERAMIC MODULES ON A CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINE 84
BRAILLE READING DEVICES FOR THE BLIND 84
FIGURE 9 USE OF PIEZO ACTUATORS IN BRAILLE READING DEVICE 85
ACTIVE VIBRATION REDUCTION TO OPTIMIZE MACHINE
PROCESS 86
Mechatronic systems in machine tools. 86
PIEZO MEMS ACTUATORS 87
Small-scale robotics 87
TABLE 16 MEMS PIEZO DEVICES 88
PRICE STRUCTURE 90
TABLE 17 PRICE PATTERNS OF PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATOR ASSEMBLIES, ULTRASONIC MOTORS AND AMPLIFIERS AVAILABLE COMMERCIALLY IN 2013 90
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS 94
BUSINESS MODELS AND INDUSTRY PLAYERS 94
BUSINESS MODELS 95
MARKET DYNAMICS 95
COMPETITION 96
MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS AND DIVESTITURES 97
TABLE 18 ACQUISITION DEALS AMONG MANUFACTURERS OF PIEZOELECTRIC MOTORS AND ACTUATORS FROM 2008 TO 2013 98
GLOBAL MARKETS AND MARKET TRENDS 100
MARKET ACCORDING TO APPLICATIONS 100
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC MOTORS AND ACTUATORS BY APPLICATION FROM 2013 TO 2018 101
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC MOTORS AND ACTUATORS BY APPLICATION FROM 2013 TO 2018 102
MARKET ACCORDING TO MATERIALS USED 103
TABLE 20 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC MOTORS AND ACTUATORS BY TYPE OF PIEZO MATERIALS USED FROM 2013 TO 2018 103
TABLE 20 (CONTD.) 104
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC MOTORS AND ACTUATORS BY TYPE OF PIEZO MATERIALS USED FROM 2013 TO 2018 105
MARKET ACCORDING TO REGIONS 106
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC MOTORS AND ACTUATORS BY REGION FROM 2013 TO 2018 106
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC MOTORS AND ACTUATORS BY REGION FROM 2013 TO 2018 107
PATENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS 108
LIST OF PATENTS 108
RESONANT POWER CONVERTER COMPRISING A MATCHED PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSFORMER 108
ULTRASONIC MOTOR 108
ULTRASONIC MOTOR MECHANISM 109
ULTRASONIC MOTOR 109
ULTRASONIC LINEAR DRIVE UNIT COMPRISING A HOLLOW CYLINDRICAL OSCILLATOR 110
METHODS FOR REDUCING POWER CONSUMPTION OF AT LEAST PARTIALLY RESONANT ACTUATOR SYSTEMS AND SYSTEMS THEREOF 110
METHODS FOR HYBRID VELOCITY CONTROL OF AT LEAST PARTIALLY RESONANT ACTUATOR SYSTEMS AND SYS TEMS THEREOF 110
LENS ACTUATOR MODULE 111
REDUCED-VOLTAGE, LINEAR MOTOR SYSTEMS AND METHODS THEREOF 111
PIEZOELECTRIC OSCILLATOR AND ULTRASONIC MOTOR 111
ULTRASONIC MOTOR DEVICE 112
ULTRASONIC MOTORIZED STAGE 112
SOLID-STATE ACTUATOR DRIVE APPARATUS 113
LINEAR DRIVE SYSTEMS AND METHODS THEREOF 113
ULTRASONIC MOTOR DRIVE APPARATUS 113
LINEAR DRIVE ULTRASONIC MOTOR 114
ULTRASONIC MOTOR DRIVING METHOD AND ULTRASONIC
MOTOR 114
LINEAR ULTRASOUND MOTOR 115
MINIATURIZABLE MOTOR 115
LINEAR ULTRASOUND MOTOR 116
METHOD AND CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT FOR THE PRECISE DYNAMIC DIGITAL CONTROL OF ESPECIALLY PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS FOR MICROPOSITIONING SYSTEMS 116
DRIVE APPARATUS FOR ULTRASONIC MOTOR 116
LINEAR DRIVE ULTRASONIC MOTOR 117
MINIATURIZABLE MOTOR 117
MICROMOTION MECHANISM HAVING ULTRASONIC MOTOR AND OSCILLATION ELEMENT HOLDING MECHANISM 118
ULTRASONIC MOTOR AND VIBRATION DETECTION METHOD
FOR ULTRASONIC MOTOR 118
ULTRASONIC MOTOR 118
LINEAR DRIVE ULTRASONIC MOTOR 119
PIEZOELECTRIC ULTRASOUND MOTOR 119
ULTRASONIC MOTOR AND MICROSCOPE STAGE 120
ULTRASONIC MOTOR 120
ULTRASONIC MOTOR AND PRESSING MECHANISM OF ULTRASONIC VIBRATOR 120
PIEZOELECTRIC ULTRASOUND MOTOR 121
PIEZO ACTUATOR AND ASSOCIATED PRODUCTION METHOD 121
METHOD AND DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING A PIEZO ACTUATOR 122
PIEZO ACTUATOR COMPRISING MEANS FOR COMPENSATING THERMAL LENGTH MODIFICATIONS AND FUEL INJECTION VALVE COMPRISING A PIEZO ACTUATOR 122
PIEZO-ACTUATOR 122
PATENT ANALYSIS 123
TABLE 22 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS GRANTED TO COMPANIES IN THE ULTRASONIC MOTORS AND PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATOR MARKETS FROM 2009 THROUGH MARCH-31, 2013 123
FIGURE 13 TOP COMPANIES GRANTED U.S. PATENTS FOR ULTRASONIC MOTORS AND PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS FROM 2009 THROUGH 2013 124
INTERNATIONAL OVERVIEW OF U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN PIEZOELECTRIC-OPERATED ACTUATORS/ULTRASONIC MOTORS 124
TABLE 23 U.S. PATENTS GRANTED BY ASSIGNED COUNTRY/REGION FOR ULTRASONIC MOTORS AND PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS FROM JANUARY 2009 THROUGH MARCH 31, 2013 125
COMPANY PROFILES 126
ADVANCED CERAMETRICS 126
ANNON PIEZO TECHNOLOGY CO., LIMITED 126
APC INTERNATIONAL, LTD. 127
TRS TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 155
VIKING INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS 156
ZYVEX. 156

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