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  5. > Water for Onshore Oil & Gas: Opportunities in produced water management, hydraulic fracturing and enhanced oil recovery, Global Water Intelligence

Oil and Gas production is increasing rapidly and, by 2035, it s predicted that oil production will increase to 97 million barrels and gas production will reach 5 trillion cubic metres per year to meet growing demands.

Managing the increased volumes of produced water associated with this production and sourcing water for operations is becoming more challenging. Scarce water resources have pushed operators to reuse produced water for water floods and fracturing fluids. Tighter environmental regulations are restricting the usual methods for disposing of produced water, encouraging operators to look at new approaches. Consequently, there are huge long-term opportunities for oilfield service companies and water technology providers in offering solutions to manage these challenges. This new report showcases the potential of this growing market.

Key Features

Global market forecast for expenditure on produced water treatment and management, provision of hydraulic fracturing fluid and pre-treatment for enhanced oil recovery methods – so you can identify the regions with the best prospects for your business over the next 5 years.
Technology trends – understand how existing technologies from the water sector are being adopted by the oil and gas industry, how new technologies will shape the future of this market and how these developments are creating opportunities for your business.
Procurement models and supply chain analysis – understand the dynamics of the most attractive markets to help plan your market entry strategy and identify potential partners or competitors in these markets.
Identify regional opportunities in the development of unconventional resources including shale gas, tight oil, heavy oil, coal bed methane and mature conventional oil fields
Understand how the tailored solutions you offer can meet the unique water requirements for enhanced recovery from resources around the world.

Opportunities

We show you the opportunities in the biggest markets and offer procurement models and supply chain analysis so you can understand the dynamics of each market and how to sell your services and technologies. The report identifies the following key areas opportunity:

Produced Water Management – global volumes of produced water are steadily increasing in line with increased volumes of oil production. Water sector opportunities for handling this water are therefore increasing, driven largely by regulatory pressure and disposal restrictions. This report shows you how this is creating opportunities for advanced water treatment for reuse in hydraulic fracturing and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes; transport of this water; and disposal.

Hydraulic Fracturing – unconventional oil and gas resources like shale gas, tight oil and coal bed methane use hydraulic fracturing to help bring the oil to the surface which requires large volumes of treated water. This report identifies the regional opportunities in pre-treatment of fracturing fluids, water sourcing and chemical services.
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) – EOR increases the amount of oil that can be extracted from a well by reducing the viscosity of the oil. In a market where oil producers need to maximise resources in mature oil fields or to extract unconventional resources, EOR is becoming a huge area of opportunity for water companies. We look at the prospects for secondary and enhanced oil recovery.

Who should read this report?

Oilfield service companies – find out about innovative water treatment technologies and plan collaborations with technology companies and devise strategies to expand your services. We show you the trends driving the market and how this will create opportunities for your services now and in the future.

Water treatment technology and equipment suppliers – we show you how equipment and technology is bought and sold in each market and who you need to build relationships with to enter the supply chain. Find the best opportunities for your business now and identify growth regions with future potential.

Investors and consultants – understand the emerging trends in water treatment and which markets hold the biggest prospects for the future.

Exploration and production companies – understand how recent technology improvements and trends in the water sector could help you improve management of produced water.

Table Of Contents

Water for Onshore Oil and Gas: Opportunities in produced water management, hydraulic fracturing and enhanced oil recovery, Global Water Intelligence
Publication information ii
Executive summary iii
Global oil and gas water management market, 2014 iii
Services iv
US water management services, 2011-2020 iv
Global drivers iv
Regions v
Capital expenditure on produced water treatment by region, 2011-2020 v
Treatment technologies vi
Capital expenditure on produced water treatment systems, 2011-2020 vi

Chapter 1
1. Introduction 1
Figure 1.1 Oil prices, 2000-2014 1
Figure 1.2 Gas prices, 2000-2014 1
1.1 Produced water 2
1.1.1 Produced water treatment 2
1.1.1.1 Produced water treatment trains 3
Figure 1.3 Oil-water separation and suspended solids removal 3
Figure 1.4 Oil-water separation treatment technologies 3
1.1.1.2 Treatment of produced water with TDS removal technologies 4
Figure 1.5 Treatment trains for TDS removal 4
Figure 1.6 Comparison of produced water treatment technologies 5
Figure 1.8 Cost of different produced water treatment options 5
1.1.1.3 Trends in the produced water treatment market 5
Figure 1.9 Selected produced water treatment technologies 6
1.1.2 Channels to the market 7
Figure 1.10 Supply chain matrix 7
Figure 1.11 Route to the market (evaporator/crystalliser system) in North America 7
1.1.2.1 Investment in water technologies 8
Figure 1.12 Selected venture/growth equity investments in water technologies for OandG 8

Chapter 2
2. General trends 11
2.1 Oil production 11
Figure 2.1 Historical and forecasted oil production by region, 2000-2030 11
Figure 2.2 Onshore and offshore oil production, 2012 12
Figure 2.3 Onshore oil production by region, 2012 12
2.2 Oil reserves 13
Figure 2.4 Proven oil reserves by region, 2012 13
Figure 2.5 Proven oil reserves by resource type, 2012 13
2.3 Gas production 14
Figure 2.6 Historical and forecasted gas production by region, 2000-2030 14
Figure 2.7 Onshore and offshore gas production, 2012 15
Figure 2.8 Onshore gas production by region, 2012 15
2.4 Gas reserves 16
Figure 2.9 Proven gas reserves by region, 2012 16
Figure 2.10 Technically recoverable gas reserves by resource type, 2012 16
2.5 Global EandP companies 17
2.6 Market forecast 19
Figure 2.11 Global oil and gas water management market, 2014-2020 19
Figure 2.12 Global oil and gas water management market by region, 2014-2020 20
2.6.1 Produced water volumes 20
Figure 2.13 Global produced water volumes by resource type, 2011-2020 21
Figure 2.14 Global produced water volumes by region, 2011-2020 22
2.6.2 Produced water treatment equipment 23
Figure 2.15 Global capital expenditure on produced water treatment by system, 2011-2020 23
Figure 2.16 Global capital expenditure on produced water treatment by region, 2011-2020 24
Figure 2.17 Global capital expenditure on produced water treatment by resource type, 2011-2020 25
2.6.3 Produced water management 25
Figure 2.18 Global oil and gas water management services expenditure, 2011-2018 25
Figure 2.19 Global oil and gas water management services expenditure by region, 2014 26
Figure 2.20 Global expenditure on water hauling services by region, 2011-2020 26
Figure 2.21 Global expenditure on water disposal services by region, 2011-2020 27
Figure 2.22 Global expenditure on produced water treatment operations by region, 2011-2020 28
Figure 2.23 US oil and gas water management services expenditure, 2011-2020 29
Figure 2.24 US oil and gas water treatment operations expenditure, 2011-2020 29
2.6.4 Alternative scenarios 30
Figure 2.25 Global produced water treatment market: Reference and low oil price scenarios 30
Figure 2.26 Shale gas and tight oil produced water treatment market: Reference and high gas price scenarios 31

Chapter 3
3. Shale gas/tight oil 33
3.1 Extraction by hydraulic fracturing 33
Figure 3.1 Permeability of formations containing oil and gas 33
Figure 3.2 Changes in flowback water volumes and TDS levels over time 34
Figure 3.3 Change in water and oil production from tight oil wells in the Bakken Shale, US 34
3.1.1 Water management in the unconventional oil and gas industry 35
Figure 3.4 Water management in the unconventional oil and gas industry 35
3.2 Global shale gas and tight oil resources 35
Figure 3.5 Total global in-place and technically recoverable shale gas and shale oil resources 35
Figure 3.6 Map of assessed shale plays worldwide 36
Figure 3.7 Top 10 countries with technically recoverable shale gas and shale oil resources 36
Figure 3.8 Projections of tight oil production worldwide 37
Figure 3.9 Projections of shale gas production worldwide 37
3.3 United States 38
3.3.1 Overview of shale play production 38
Figure 3.10 Major shale plays in the US 38
Figure 3.11 Major tight oil producing shale plays in the US 39
Figure 3.12 Major shale gas producing shale plays in the US 39
Figure 3.13 Projected tight oil production in the US, 2008-2020 40
Figure 3.14 Projected shale gas production in the US, 2000-2020 40
3.3.2 Market drivers 40
3.3.3 Regulatory overview 41
3.3.3.1 Federal regulatory overview 41
Direct and indirect produced water discharge 41
Deep well injection 42
Current developments in federal regulatory oversight 42
3.3.3.2 State regulatory overview 42
Figure 3.15 List of regulatory agencies in major shale gas and tight oil producing states 43
Water sourcing regulations 44
Figure 3.16 Groundwater and surface water law overview 44
Water reuse regulations 45
Figure 3.17 Permitted water recycling companies in Texas 45
3.3.4 Water sourcing 46
3.3.4.1 Water usage in hydraulic fracturing 46
Figure 3.18 Average water usage for fracturing an oil and gas well 46
3.3.4.2 Alternative sources of water for hydraulic fracturing 46
Figure 3.19 Proportion of water sources used for hydraulic fracturing in Texas 47
3.3.5 Water for fracturing 47
3.3.5.1 Fracturing fluids trends 47
Figure 3.20 Fracturing fluids water treatment matrix 48
3.3.6 Water management practices 48
Figure 3.21 Cost indicators for drilling and completion of horizontal wells 48
Figure 3.22 Water management economics 49
Figure 3.23 Overview of water management practices in major unconventional plays in the US 50
3.3.6.1 Produced water management in Pennsylvania 50
Figure 3.24 Produced water management practices in Pennsylvania, 2013 51
3.3.6.2 Challenges to produced water reuse 51
Figure 3.25 WORs in major unconventional plays in the US, 2013 52
Figure 3.26 WGRs for major unconventional plays in the US, 2013 52
3.3.7 Produced water treatment technologies 52
Figure 3.27 Produced water treatment and reuse diagram 53
Figure 3.28 Selection of current water reuse solutions in the US 55
3.3.8 Water treatment delivery systems 55
3.3.8.1 Overview 55
3.3.8.2 Future opportunities 56
Figure 3.29 Centralised produced water treatment facilities in the US 56
3.3.9 Dynamics in the unconventional market 57
3.3.10 Procurement of water treatment technologies 58
Figure 3.30 Overview of procurement routes in the unconventional OandG industry in the US 58
3.3.10.1 Water treatment technology drivers 59
3.3.10.2 Market entry strategies 59
Partnering with water service providers 59
Partnering with OSCs 60
3.3.10.3 New technology entrants to the market 60
3.3.11 Supply chain 62
3.3.11.1 Exploration and production companies 62
Figure 3.31 Major exploration and production companies 62
3.3.11.2 Oilfield service companies 63
Figure 3.32 Major oilfield service companies in the US 63
3.3.11.3 Water service providers 64
Figure 3.33 Major water service providers in the US 64
Figure 3.34 Estimated market share of major water hauling service providers in the US, 2013 65
3.3.12 Market forecast: United States 66
Figure 3.35 Produced water volumes in shale gas and tight oil production, 2011-2020 66
Figure 3.36 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for shale gas and tight oil, 2011-2020 66
3.4 Canada 67
3.4.1 Resources 67
Figure 3.37 Shale gas and shale oil resources in Canada 67
3.4.2 Exploitation 68
Figure 3.38 EandP companies active in the Horn River basin, 2011 68
Figure 3.39 The main EandP companies active in tight oil production in Canada 69
3.4.3 Market forecast: Canada 70
Figure 3.40 Produced water volumes in shale gas and tight oil production, 2011-2020 70
Figure 3.41 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for shale gas and tight oil, 2011-2020 70
3.5 China 71
3.5.1 Resources and production 71
Figure 3.42 Basins and formations in China with assessed shale gas and shale oil resources 71
3.5.2 Institutional support 71
3.5.3 International EandP companies in China's shale gas development 72
3.5.4 Challenges in EandP of shale gas in China 72
3.5.5 Market forecast: China 74
Figure 3.43 Produced water volumes in shale gas and tight oil production, 2011-2020 74
Figure 3.44 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for shale gas and tight oil, 2011-2020 74
3.6 Argentina 75
3.6.1 Shale resources and activity 75
Figure 3.45 Size of shale resources in Argentina, by basin and formation 75
3.6.2 Challenges 75
3.6.3 International participation 76
3.6.4 Market forecast: Argentina 77
Figure 3.46 Produced water volumes in shale gas and tight oil production, 2011-2020 77
Figure 3.47 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for shale gas and tight oil, 2011-2020 77
3.7 Mexico 78
3.7.1 Shale resources 78
Figure 3.48 Size of shale resources in Mexico, by basin and formation 78
3.7.2 Shale activity 78
3.7.3 Private participation in oil and gas EandP 79
3.7.4 Market forecast: Mexico 80
Figure 3.49 Produced water volumes in shale gas and tight oil production, 2011-2020 80
Figure 3.50 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for shale gas and tight oil, 2011-2020 80
3.8 Global forecast 81
Figure 3.51 Shale gas and tight oil: Global produced water volumes, 2011-2020 81
Figure 3.52 Shale gas and tight oil: Produced water capital expenditure by region, 2011-2020 82
Figure 3.53 Shale gas and tight oil: Produced water capital expenditure by system, 2011-2020 82
3.9 Regional forecast 83
3.9.1 North America 83
Figure 3.54 Produced water volumes in shale gas and tight oil production, 2011-2020 83
Figure 3.55 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for shale gas and tight oil, 2011-2020 83
3.9.2 Latin America-Caribbean 84
Figure 3.56 Produced water volumes in shale gas and tight oil production, 2011-2020 84
Figure 3.57 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for shale gas and tight oil, 2011-2020 84
3.9.3 East Asia-Pacific 85
Figure 3.58 Produced water volumes in shale gas and tight oil production, 2011-2020 85
Figure 3.59 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for shale gas and tight oil, 2011-2020 85

Chapter 4
4. Coalbed methane 87
Figure 4.1 Coalbed methane resources worldwide 87
Figure 4.2 CBM production and future projections 87
Figure 4.3 CBM reserves and production by country 88
4.1 Australia 89
4.1.1 Market overview 89
Figure 4.4 Map of Australian CSG reserves 89
Figure 4.5 CSG production in Australia, 1996-2012 90
4.1.1.1 CSG recovery 90
4.1.2 Market drivers 90
4.1.3 Regulations 91
4.1.3.1 Regulatory bodies in Queensland and NSW 91
Figure 4.6 CSG industry regulatory bodies 91
Queensland water management legislation 91
NSW water management legislation 92
Regulatory bans in Queensland and NSW 92
Figure 4.7 Regulatory bans in Queensland and NSW 92
4.1.4 Regional overview of the CSG market 92
4.1.4.1 CSG production in Queensland 92
Figure 4.8 CSG reserves and production in Queensland, 2011 92
4.1.4.2 CSG production in New South Wales 93
4.1.5 CSG produced water treatment 93
4.1.5.1 Quality of CSG produced water 93
4.1.5.2 Challenges of the CSG produced water market 93
4.1.5.3 Treatment of CSG produced water 94
Figure 4.9 Treatment technologies used for treating CSG produced water 94
4.1.5.4 Technology trends 94
4.1.6 Management of CSG produced water 95
Figure 4.10 CSG well water production profile 95
4.1.6.1 CSG produced water volumes 95
Figure 4.11 Annual water and gas production rates in Queensland, 2005-2012 95
Figure 4.12 Annual water production volumes by basin in Queensland, 2005-2012 96
Figure 4.13 Annual gas production volumes by basin in Queensland, 2005-2012 96
4.1.6.2 CSG produced water management practices 96
Figure 4.14 Disposal and beneficial use of CSG produced water and brine/salts 97
Figure 4.15 Treatment levels based on disposal route 97
4.1.7 Market dynamics 98
4.1.7.1 Procurement 98
Procurement process 98
Business contracts 98
Success factors 98
4.1.7.2 Accessing the market 99
Approaching the CSG produced water market 99
New market entrants 99
Market presence and success 100
4.1.7.3 Opportunities in water treatment technologies 100
4.1.8 Supply chain analysis 101
4.1.8.1 EandP companies 101
Figure 4.16 CSG and water production by EandP companies in Queensland (January-June 2013) 101
4.1.8.2 Engineering 101
4.1.8.3 EPC companies 101
4.1.8.4 Leading water technology companies 102
Water technology companies entering the market 102
4.1.8.5 Recent and upcoming CSG projects 102
Figure 4.17 Recent CSG produced water projects 103
Figure 4.18 Upcoming LNG projects 103
4.1.9 Market forecast: Australia 104
Figure 4.19 Produced water volumes in coalbed methane production, 2011-2020 104
Figure 4.20 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for coalbed methane, 2011-2020 104
4.2 United States 105
4.2.1 Market overview 105
Figure 4.21 CBM production in the US, 1990-2012 105
4.2.1.1 Regulations 105
4.2.2 Regional overview 106
Figure 4.22 US CBM production by state, 2006-2011 106
4.2.3 CBM water treatment and management 107
4.2.3.1 CBM water quality and volumes 107
Figure 4.23 CBM produced water characteristics 107
Figure 4.24 Average WGR of CBM wells in Colorado 107
4.2.3.2 CBM produced water treatment 107
Figure 4.25 CBM water treatment technologies 108
4.2.3.3 CBM produced water management 108
Water management strategies 108
Figure 4.26 Discharge routes in San Juan and Powder River basins 109
Figure 4.27 Water management strategies in San Juan and Powder River basins 109
4.2.4 Market forecast: United States 110
Figure 4.28 Produced water volumes in coalbed methane production, 2011-2020 110
Figure 4.29 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for coalbed methane, 2011-2020 110
4.3 Canada 111
Figure 4.30 Main EandP companies active in CBM extraction 111
4.3.1 Market forecast: Canada 112
Figure 4.31 Produced water volumes in coalbed methane production, 2011-2020 112
Figure 4.32 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for coalbed methane, 2011-2020 112
4.4 China 113
4.4.1 Exploration and production 113
4.4.2 CBM produced water 113
4.4.3 Market forecast: China 114
Figure 4.33 Produced water volumes in coalbed methane production, 2011-2020 114
Figure 4.34 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for coalbed methane, 2011-2020 114
4.5 The Russian Federation 115
4.5.1 Market forecast: Russian Federation 116
Figure 4.35 Produced water volumes in coalbed methane production, 2011-2020 116
Figure 4.36 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for coalbed methane, 2011-2020 116
4.6 Global forecast 117
Figure 4.37 Coalbed methane: Global produced water volumes, 2011-2020 117
Figure 4.38 Coalbed methane: Produced water capital expenditure by region, 2011-2020 118
Figure 4.39 Coalbed methane: Produced water capital expenditure by system, 2011-2020 118
4.7 Regional forecast 119
4.7.1 North America 119
Figure 4.40 Produced water volumes in coalbed methane production, 2011-2020 119
Figure 4.41 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for coalbed methane, 2011-2020 119
4.7.2 Eastern Europe-Central Asia 120
Figure 4.42 Produced water volumes in coalbed methane production, 2011-2020 120
Figure 4.43 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for coalbed methane, 2011-2020 120
4.7.3 East Asia-Pacific 121
Figure 4.44 Produced water volumes in coalbed methane production, 2011-2020 121
Figure 4.45 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for coalbed methane, 2011-2020 121
4.7.4 Southern Asia 122
Figure 4.46 Produced water volumes in coalbed methane production, 2011-2020 122
Figure 4.47 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for coalbed methane, 2011-2020 122

Chapter 5
5. Heavy oil/bitumen 123
5.1 Steam EOR 123
Figure 5.1 The SAGD process 123
Figure 5.2 Breakdown by country of current onshore oil production using steam EOR 124
Figure 5.3 Onshore oil production using steam EOR, including future projects in the Middle East 124
5.2 Canada 125
5.2.1 Market overview 125
Figure 5.4 Estimates of Canadian crude oil production, 2012-2030 125
Figure 5.5 Main bitumen deposits in Alberta, Canada 125
5.2.2 Bitumen extraction: in-situ and open-pit mining 126
Figure 5.6 Extraction of bitumen in the Canadian oil sands: in-situ vs. Mining, 2005-2012 126
Figure 5.7 Forecast of Canadian oil sands production by in-situ extraction and open-pit mining to 2035 126
5.2.3 Water requirements for in-situ and mining processes 126
Figure 5.8 Water requirements of bitumen extraction methods 127
5.2.4 Water requirements of in-situ technologies 127
Figure 5.9 Water requirements of in-situ extraction methods 127
5.2.5 Bitumen upgrading 127
5.2.6 Market drivers 128
5.2.7 Regulations 128
5.2.7.1 Regulatory bodies 128
5.2.7.2 Relevant regulations 129
Figure 5.10 Regulations affecting water management in the Canadian oil sands industry 129
Water licence approval process for mining or in-situ projects 129
In-situ production water uptake, recycling and disposal 130
Mining water uptake and tailings management 130
5.2.8 Water treatment in SAGD operations 130
Figure 5.11 SAGD water treatment train: conventional and evaporative methods 131
Figure 5.12 Comparison of conventional and evaporative water treatment approaches 131
Figure 5.13 Production by technology in existing and planned SAGD projects 132
5.2.8.1 Other technology approaches in SAGD 132
Process water treatment 132
Blowdown management 133
5.2.8.2 Tailing ponds management 133
5.2.9 Procurement process 134
5.2.9.1 Characteristics 134
Procurement process stages 134
Recent trends in procurement 134
Figure 5.14 Procurement process for oil sands projects 135
5.2.9.2 Entering the market 135
Key factors to consider 136
5.2.10 Supply chain analysis 136
5.2.10.1 EandP companies 136
Figure 5.15 Major EandP companies in the Canadian oil sands industry 136
5.2.10.2 Engineering firms 137
Figure 5.16 The main engineering firms active in the Canadian oil sands industry 137
5.2.10.3 Water technology providers 137
Overview 137
Figure 5.17 The main water technology providers by type of equipment 137
Focus on evaporation technology 138
5.2.11 Market forecast: Canada 139
Figure 5.18 Produced water volumes in steam EOR for heavy oil production, 2011-2020 139
Figure 5.19 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment in steam EOR for heavy oil, 2011-2020 139
5.3 Colombia 140
5.3.1 Market drivers 141
5.3.2 Water treatment technologies 141
5.3.3 Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) 141
5.3.4 Accessing the market 142
5.3.5 Procurement 143
5.3.6 Produced water reuse: initiatives in the Rubiales and Castilla oilfields 143
5.3.6.1 Desalination plants at the Rubiales oilfield 143
5.3.6.2 Conventional treatment in the Castilla oilfield 144
5.3.7 Unconventional plays 144
5.3.8 Market forecast: Colombia 146
Figure 5.20 Produced water volumes in steam EOR for heavy oil production, 2011-2020 146
Figure 5.21 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment in steam EOR for heavy oil, 2011-2020 146
5.4 Oman 147
Figure 5.22 Current and future steam EOR projects in Oman 147
5.4.1 Market forecast: Oman 148
Figure 5.23 Produced water volumes in steam EOR for heavy oil production, 2011-2020 148
Figure 5.24 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment in steam EOR for heavy oil, 2011-2020 148
5.5 Kuwait 149
Figure 5.25 Current and future steam EOR projects in Kuwait 149
5.5.1 Market forecast: Kuwait 150
Figure 5.26 Produced water volumes in steam EOR for heavy oil production, 2011-2020 150
Figure 5.27 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment in steam EOR for heavy oil, 2011-2020 150
5.6 Venezuela 151
Figure 5.28 Total oil reserves in Venezuela, 2012 151
5.6.1 Orinoco Oil Belt (FPO) 151
5.6.2 Recovery methods for heavy oil in Venezuela 151
5.6.3 International participation in heavy oil EandP 152
5.6.4 Market forecast: Venezuela 153
Figure 5.29 Produced water volumes in steam EOR for heavy oil production, 2011-2020 153
Figure 5.30 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment in steam EOR for heavy oil, 2011-2020 153
5.7 United States 154
5.7.1 Market overview 154
Figure 5.31 Heavy oil production from steam EOR in the US, 1990-2020 154
5.7.2 Regional overview 154
5.7.2.1 California 154
Figure 5.32 Heavy oil production in the four main Californian oil fields, 1977-2012 155
Figure 5.33 Water to oil ratio for years following initial steam flood 155
Figure 5.34 Produced water disposal methods in fields using steam EOR in California, 2005-2013 156
5.7.3 Market forecast: United States 157
Figure 5.35 Produced water volumes in steam EOR for heavy oil production, 2011-2020 157
Figure 5.36 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment in steam EOR for heavy oil, 2011-2020 157
5.8 Global forecast 158
Figure 5.37 Steam EOR in heavy oil: Global produced water volumes, 2011-2020 158
Figure 5.38 Steam EOR in heavy oil: Produced water capital expenditure by region, 2011-2020 159
Figure 5.39 Steam EOR in heavy oil: Produced water capital expenditure by system, 2011-2020 159
5.9 Regional forecast 160
5.9.1 North America 160
Figure 5.40 Produced water volumes in steam EOR for heavy oil production, 2011-2020 160
Figure 5.41 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment in steam EOR for heavy oil, 2011-2020 160
5.9.2 Latin America-Caribbean 161
Figure 5.42 Produced water volumes in steam EOR for heavy oil production, 2011-2020 161
Figure 5.43 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment in steam EOR for heavy oil, 2011-2020 161
5.9.3 Western Europe 162
Figure 5.44 Produced water volumes in steam EOR for heavy oil production, 2011-2020 162
Figure 5.45 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment in steam EOR for heavy oil, 2011-2020 162
5.9.4 East Asia-Pacific 163
Figure 5.46 Produced water volumes in steam EOR for heavy oil production, 2011-2020 163
Figure 5.47 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment in steam EOR for heavy oil, 2011-2020 163
5.9.5 Middle East-North Africa 164
Figure 5.48 Produced water volumes in steam EOR for heavy oil production, 2011-2020 164
Figure 5.49 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment in steam EOR for heavy oil, 2011-2020 164

Chapter 6
6. Conventional production 165
6.1 Water requirements for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) 165
Figure 6.1 Breakdown by country of global onshore enhanced oil production using EOR methods 165
Figure 6.2 Breakdown of global onshore enhanced oil production by EOR method used 166
Figure 6.3 Forecast of oil production by EOR from different countries in 2015 and 2030 166
6.2 The Middle East 168
6.2.1 Market overview 168
6.2.2 Market drivers 168
6.2.3 Produced water management and use 169
Figure 6.4 Estimated breakdown of management options for reinjection in the Middle East 169
6.2.4 Treatment trains 169
6.2.5 Procurement 170
6.2.5.1 Greenfield projects 170
6.2.5.2 Brownfield projects 171
6.2.5.3 Challenges and issues in the procurement process 171
6.2.6 Entering the market 171
6.2.7 Market players 172
6.2.7.1 EandP companies 172
6.2.7.2 EPC companies 172
Figure 6.5 Selected EPC companies active in the Middle East 172
6.2.7.3 Engineering consultants 173
Figure 6.6 Selected engineering companies active in the Middle East 173
6.2.7.4 Oilfield service companies 173
Figure 6.7 Selected oil service companies active in the Middle East 173
6.2.7.5 Water technology providers 174
Figure 6.8 Selected water technology companies active in the Middle East 174
6.2.8 Iraq 174
6.2.8.1 Oil and gas reserves and production 174
Figure 6.9 Proven oil and dry natural gas reserves in Iraq, 1980-2013 174
Figure 6.10 Map showing the main oil and gas fields in Iraq 175
Figure 6.11 Oil and dry natural gas production in Iraq, 1980-2012 176
6.2.8.2 Challenges in oil and gas industry development 176
6.2.8.3 Unconventional resources 177
6.2.8.4 Produced water management and use 177
6.2.8.5 Oil recovery methods 177
6.2.8.6 Treatment trains 178
6.2.8.7 Produced water market 178
6.2.9 Market forecast: Iraq 179
Figure 6.12 Produced water volumes in conventional oil and gas production, 2011-2020 179
Figure 6.13 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for conventional production, 2011-2020 179
6.2.10 Kuwait 180
6.2.10.1 Oil and gas reserves and production 180
Figure 6.14 Proven oil and natural gas reserves in Kuwait, 1980-2013 180
Figure 6.15 Map showing the main oil fields in Kuwait 180
Figure 6.16 Oil and dry natural gas production in Kuwait, 1980-2012 181
6.2.10.2 Unconventional resources 181
6.2.10.3 Produced water management and use 181
6.2.10.4 Enhanced oil recovery methods 182
Figure 6.17 Current and future oil recovery projects in Kuwait 182
6.2.10.5 Treatment trains 182
6.2.10.6 Produced water market 182
6.2.11 Oman 183
6.2.11.1 Oil and gas reserves and production 183
Figure 6.18 Proven oil and natural gas reserves in Oman, 1980-2013 183
Figure 6.19 Oil and dry natural gas production in Oman, 1980-2012 183
6.2.11.2 Unconventional resources 184
6.2.11.3 Produced water 184
6.2.11.4 Produced water management and use 184
6.2.11.5 Enhanced oil recovery methods 185
Figure 6.20 PDO's oil recovery methods 185
Figure 6.21 Current and future EOR projects in Oman 186
6.2.11.6 Treatment trains 186
6.2.12 Market forecast: Oman 187
Figure 6.22 Produced water volumes in conventional oil and gas production, 2011-2020 187
Figure 6.23 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for conventional production, 2011-2020 187
6.2.13 Saudi Arabia 188
6.2.13.1 Oil and gas reserves and production 188
Figure 6.24 Major onshore oil fields in Saudi Arabia 188
Figure 6.25 Map of major oil fields and reservoirs in Saudi Arabia 188
Figure 6.26 Proven oil and dry natural gas reserves in Saudi Arabia, 1980-2013 189
Figure 6.27 Oil and dry natural gas production in Saudi Arabia, 1980-2012 189
6.2.13.2 Unconventional resources 190
6.2.13.3 Produced water management and use 190
6.2.13.4 Oil recovery methods 190
6.2.13.5 Treatment trains 191
6.2.13.6 Produced water market 191
6.2.14 Market forecast: Saudi Arabia 192
Figure 6.28 Produced water volumes in conventional oil and gas production, 2011-2020 192
Figure 6.29 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for conventional production, 2011-2020 192
6.3 The United States 193
6.3.1 Market overview 193
6.3.2 Conventional oil production 193
Figure 6.30 US conventional oil production, 2000-2020 193
6.3.2.1 Regional overview 193
6.3.3 Conventional gas production 194
Figure 6.31 US conventional gas production, 2000-2020 194
6.3.3.1 Regional overview 194
Figure 6.32 Leading US states for conventional gas production 2007-2011 195
6.3.4 Market forecast: United States 196
Figure 6.33 Produced water volumes in conventional oil and gas production, 2011-2020 196
Figure 6.34 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for conventional production, 2011-2020 196
6.4 The Russian Federation 197
6.4.1 Major players 197
6.4.2 Improved and enhanced oil recovery 197
6.4.3 Produced water treatment 197
6.4.4 Market forecast: Russian Federation 198
Figure 6.35 Produced water volumes in conventional oil and gas production, 2011-2020 198
Figure 6.36 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for conventional production, 2011-2020 198
6.5 Global forecast 199
Figure 6.37 Conventional oil and gas: Global produced water volumes, 2011-2020 199
Figure 6.38 Conventional oil and gas: Produced water capital expenditure by region, 2011-2020 200
Figure 6.39 Conventional oil and gas: Produced water capital expenditure by system, 2011-2020 200
6.6 Regional forecast 201
6.6.1 North America 201
Figure 6.40 Produced water volumes in conventional oil and gas production, 2011-2020 201
Figure 6.41 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for conventional production, 2011-2020 201
6.6.2 Latin America-Caribbean 202
Figure 6.42 Produced water volumes in conventional oil and gas production, 2011-2020 202
Figure 6.43 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for conventional production, 2011-2020 202
6.6.3 Western Europe 203
Figure 6.44 Produced water volumes in conventional oil and gas production, 2011-2020 203
Figure 6.45 Capital expenditure on produced water treatment for conventional production, 2011-2020 203
6.6.4

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