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This BCC Research report assesses the current state-of-the-art in synthesizing QDs, identifies the current market players seeking to exploit QD behavior, evaluates actual or potential markets in terms of application, type and projected commercial market revenues. Forecast provided through 2021.

Use this report to:
- Gain insight into the current state regarding synthesizing quantum dots (QDs) and their focal applications.
- Identify the current market players seeking to exploit QD behavior; and evaluate potential markets in terms of application, type and projected commercial market revenues.
- Evaluate key patents based on developments in QD integration and technology.

Highlights
- The global market for quantum dots (QDs) totaled $610.0 million in revenue in 2016. The market should total over $3.4 billion by 2021, increasing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 41.3% from 2016 to 2021.
- The electronics sector totaled $470.0 million revenue in 2016. The market should total $1.1 billion by 2021, increasing at a CAGR of 18.5% from 2016 to 2021.
- The optoelectronics market for QDs totaled $14.0 million in 2016, and should total just over $1.8 billion in 2021, increasing at a CAGR of 164.3% from 2016 to 2021.

Introduction & Scope
Among the many subsets of nanomaterials, quantum dots (QDs) are like no other. At dimensions typically below 10 nanometers, nanocrystalline (NC) semiconductors (SCs), metals and magnetic materials can all exhibit extraordinary quantum confinement phenomena. Basically, at these dimensions, their physical size encroaches upon the fundamental quantum confinement dimensions of orbiting electrons that are uniquely prescribed by their atomic nucleus. Within the regime of these critical dimensions, QDs exhibit distinctly different behavior from their bulk form, which manifests itself, for example, in distinctly different optical, electronic and magnetic properties.

Today, scientists can precisely synthesize NC materials at these critical dimensions and thereby systematically tune their quantum confining behavior. As a result, there is currently enormous interest to exploit and capitalize on the unique properties exhibited by QD materials. As a harbinger for future business developments, colloidal quantum dot (CQD) bioconjugates were among the first wave of commercial product applications stimulating market interest. Primarily, these have quickly established a niche market in the life sciences and biomedical communities, where they provide unrivalled cellular imaging and therapeutic detection capabilities. Other more recent commercial launchings of SC QDs include: a new generation of flash-memory devices; nanomaterial enhancements for improving the performance of liquid crystal display (LCD) TV and monitor display backlights; flexible organic LEDs, as well as solid-state white-LED lighting; and in rigid and flexible solar panel coatings.
With these latest commercial developments and their enormous business potential, this report provides a timely assessment of quantum dot materials—where they are currently at, and where they might be in the foreseeable future.

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES
The primary objective of this report is threefold: to assess the current state-of-the-art in synthesizing QDs; to identify the current market players seeking to exploit QD behavior; and to evaluate actual or potential markets in terms of application, type and projected commercial market revenues.

SCOPE AND FORMAT
Since their parallel discovery in Russia and the U.S. over 30 years ago, SC QDs, until quite recently, have resided exclusively in the domain of solid-state physics, where they have been fabricated using expensive and sophisticated molecular beam epitaxy or chemical vapor deposition equipment. However, in a relatively short time frame, this situation has changed dramatically with the recent commercial availability of CQDs synthesized by less expensive wet-chemical processes. Practically, the availability of QDs in a colloidally dispersed form has helped demystify these somewhat esoteric materials. Most importantly, CQDs now provide access to a much broader industrial audience, which promises to further widen their potential market exploitation. Current and future applications of QDs impact a broad range of industrial markets. These include, for example: biology and biomedicine; computing and memory; electronics and displays; optoelectronic devices such as LEDs, lighting and lasers; optical components in telecommunications and image sensors; and security applications such as covert identification tagging or biowarfare detection sensors.
This report probes in considerable depth the early pioneers and champions in this field in industry, government and academic laboratories. The most active organizations, promising technical applications and developments realizable within the next five years, will all be highlighted.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY AND TARGET AUDIENCE
This report represents a major update of the BCC Research report (NAN027D) Quantum Dots: Technologies and Commercial Prospects, published in April 2014. The most significant revisions in the new edition include:
- An extensive updated patent analysis (2014 through 2015).
- An in-depth assessment of the unfolding commercial markets.
- Progress in the synthesis and commercial scale-up by QD producers.
- Interviews with leading producers.
- Updated company profiles of the producers and end users dictating market development.
- Updated five-year market projection analysis of the emerging QD market.

This is the fifth exclusive report to focus on QD nanomaterials from the perspective of their technology, applications and future business prospects. Thus, this up-to-date, technical assessment and business analysis should prove an especially valuable resource to individuals and organizations seeking more insight into the current status of QDs, their stand-alone capabilities within the spectrum of nanomaterials and time-to-market commercial development. The report’s comprehensive technical and business assessment on the current status of the QD-based industry should prove informative to nanomaterials manufacturers, investors seeking near-term commercialization opportunities, technologists confronted with nanomaterial device integration issues and companies specifically interested in exploiting QDs in biological, biomedical, electronics, energy, optics, optoelectronics, security and other applications.

METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION
Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report. This report is derived primarily from the enormous amount of patent and technical literature relating to QDs disclosed in the public domain. In addition, complementary information has also been drawn from the business community, such as company investment news, company profiles, press releases and personal telephone interviews with selected companies.

Table Of Contents

Quantum Dots: Global Market Growth and Future Commercial Prospects
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 2
SCOPE AND FORMAT 2
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY AND TARGET AUDIENCE 3
METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 4
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET REVENUE FOR QUANTUM DOTS BY SECTORS,
THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET REVENUE FOR QD-BASED PRODUCTS BY
SECTORS, 2016-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 9
CHAPTER 3 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 11
WHAT IS A QUANTUM DOT? 11
HISTORY OF QUANTUM DOTS 12
TABLE 1 CHRONOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF QUANTUM DOTS: FROM RESEARCH
CURIOSITY TO COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 12
PROPERTIES OF QUANTUM DOTS 13
FIGURE 1 LUMINESCENCE SIZE REGIMES FOR DIFFERENT SEMICONDUCTOR AND
METAL QUANTUM DOTS1 14
TABLE 2 COMPARISON OF EMISSION WAVELENGTH OF SC AND METAL NC
QUANTUM DOTS AS A FUNCTION OF THEIR SIZE (NM) 15
TABLE 3 OTHER PROPERTIES OF COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS 16
QUANTUM DOT INDUSTRY 16
APPLICATIONS AND STRUCTURAL TYPES OF QUANTUM DOTS 17
BASIC STRUCTURES 17
TABLE 4 HIERARCHY AND VARIOUS TYPES OF QUANTUM DOTS: BASIC
STRUCTURES 18
COMPOSITE STRUCTURES 19
TABLE 5 HIERARCHY AND VARIOUS TYPES OF QUANTUM DOTS: COMPOSITE
STRUCTURES 19
COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS 20
TABLE 6 QD MATERIAL TYPES AND THEIR COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS 20
TABLE 7 KEY QUANTUM DOT TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS 22
PATENT ANALYSIS 23
QUANTUM DOT PRODUCTION (SYNTHESIS) AND DEVICE ASSEMBLY 24
SYNTHESIS OF METAL-CHALCOGENIDE QUANTUM DOTS 24
VAPOR PHASE 24
TABLE 8 QUANTUM DOT PRODUCTION METHODS: VAPOR PHASE 25
Aerosol Drop Method 25
Melt Atomization 26
Chemical Vapor Deposition 26
Physical Vapor Deposition 26Molecular Beam Epitaxy 27
LIQUID PHASE ("WET"-COLLOID CHEMISTRY) 27
TABLE 9 QUANTUM DOT PRODUCTION METHODS: LIQUID PHASE 28
Colloid 29
Batch Process 29
Continuous Flow 30
Green Synthesis and Biomanufacturing 32
Precipitation 33
Surface Chemistry 33
SOLID PHASE 33
TABLE 10 QUANTUM DOT PRODUCTION METHODS: SOLID PHASE 33
SYNTHESIS OF NANOCRYSTALLINE SILICON QUANTUM DOTS 34
LIQUID-PHASE SYNTHESIS 34
TABLE 11 VARIOUS METHODS USED FOR SI-NC SYNTHESIS 35
SOLID-PHASE SYNTHESIS 37
VAPOR-PHASE SYNTHESIS 37
SYNTHESIS OF NANOCRYSTALLINE METAL-BASED QUANTUM DOTS 38
TABLE 12 VARIOUS SYNTHETIC METHODS AND PHOTOPHYSICAL BEHAVIOR OF
METAL-NANOCRYSTALS 39
SYNTHESIS OF CARBON-NANOMATERIAL-BASED QUANTUM DOTS 41
CARBON QUANTUM DOTS 41
GRAPHENE QUANTUM DOTS 42
ASSEMBLY OF QUANTUM DOT STRUCTURES 44
TABLE 13 QUANTUM DOT STRUCTURE ASSEMBLY METHODS 45
LITHOGRAPHY 46
Conventional Top-Down Methods 46
Nanolithography 46
FILM FORMATION 48
Cast Film 48
Langmuir-Blodgett 48
Layer-by-Layer 48
Metamaterials 49
Biomolecular Self-Assembly 50
Kinetics of Self-Assembly 51
Photopatternable Arrays 51
OTHER TECHNIQUES 51
Digital Printing 51
Nanoporous Templates 52
QUANTUM DOT APPLICATIONS AND POTENTIAL END USES 53
TABLE 14 MAIN APPLICATION SECTORS AND POTENTIAL INDUSTRIAL END-USES
IDENTIFIED FOR QUANTUM DOT TECHNOLOGY 54
BIOMEDICAL 55
ELECTRONICS 55
OPTICS 55
OPTOELECTRONICS 55
SECURITY 55
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY 56
MARKET SECTORS AND FIVE-YEAR REVENUE GROWTH TRENDS 56TABLE 15 GLOBAL MARKET REVENUE GENERATED BY QUANTUM DOTS
ACCORDING TO MAJOR MARKET SECTORS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 56
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL REVENUES GENERATED BY QUANTUM DOTS ACCORDING TO
MAJOR MARKET SECTORS, 2016 AND 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 56
CHAPTER 4 PATENT ANALYSIS 59
RATIONALE AND METHODOLOGY 59
U.S. PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE (USPTO) SEARCH 60
CHRONOLOGICAL GROWTH TRENDS IN USPTO ACTIVITY 60
FIGURE 3 U.S. QD PATENTS ISSUED, 1986-DECEMBER 29, 2015 (CUMULATIVE
TOTAL NUMBER: 9,396) 60
FIGURE 4 COMPARISON OF U.S. QD PATENTS ISSUED AND PENDING, 2001-2015
(CUMULATIVE TOTAL NUMBERS: 9,153 (ISSUED); 16,223 (PENDING) 61
USPTO ACTIVITY: ASIAN, EUROPEAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES 62
FIGURE 5 U.S. QD PATENTS ISSUED ASSIGNED TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES,
2014-DECEMBER 29, 2015 (TOTAL NUMBERS: ASIA [432], EUROPE [313], ROW
[120]) 63
FIGURE 6 U.S. QD FILED PATENTS ASSIGNED TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES,
2014-DECEMBER 29, 2015 (CUMULATIVE TOTAL NUMBER: ASIA [367], EUROPE
[243], ROW [54]) 63
USPTO ACTIVITY: SMALL U.S. COMPANIES 64
TABLE 16 LEADING U.S. SMALL BUSINESSES GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS FOR
QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 65
TABLE 17 OTHER U.S. SMALL BUSINESSES GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS FOR
QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 66
USPTO ACTIVITY: LARGE U.S. COMPANIES 66
TABLE 18 LEADING U.S. LARGE BUSINESSES GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS IN
QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 67
USPTO ACTIVITY: U.S. ACADEMIC AND GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS 68
TABLE 19 U.S. ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS IN
QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2013 69
TABLE 20 U.S. GOVERNMENT AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS GRANTED MULTIPLE
PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 70
USPTO ACTIVITY: ACCORDING TO FOREIGN OWNERSHIP 70
Asia 70
TABLE 21 LEADING SOUTH KOREAN ORGANIZATIONS GRANTED PATENTS IN
QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 71
TABLE 22 LEADING JAPANESE ORGANIZATIONS GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS IN
QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 72
TABLE 23 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS IN OTHER ASIAN COUNTRIES GRANTED
PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 73
Europe 73
TABLE 24 LEADING EUROPEAN ORGANIZATIONS U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN
QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 74
Rest of the World 75
TABLE 25 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS IN ROW COUNTRIES WITH PATENT ACTIVITY
IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 76
IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT-FUNDED RESEARCH ON PATENT ACTIVITY 76
TABLE 26 MAJOR U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FUNDING QD-BASED RESEARCH 77
CHAPTER 5 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS 79COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOT PRODUCERS/COMPANY PROFILES 79
COMMERCIAL GRADES 79
TABLE 27 COMMERCIAL PRODUCERS OF COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS 79
RESEARCH GRADES 82
TABLE 28 RESEARCH-GRADE PRODUCERS OF COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS 82
PROFILES OF COMMERCIAL AND RESEARCH-GRADE PRODUCERS 83
American Dye Source Inc. 83
American Elements 83
Bayer Technology Services GmbH 84
Crystalplex Corp. 85
Evident Technologies 86
TABLE 29 EVIDENT TECHNOLOGIES' QUANTUM DOT GRADES 88
TABLE 30 QD-BASED BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS AT EVIDENT TECHNOLOGIES,
2005-2011 89
Hanwha Nanotech Corp. 90
Innovalight Inc. (now acquired by DuPont) 91
InVisage Technologies Inc. 92
Life Technologies Corp. (now Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.) 93
Mesolight Inc. 97
Nanotech-Dubna 97
Nanoco Technologies, Ltd. 97
NanoPhotonica 100
Nanosquare Inc. 101
Nanosys Inc. 102
TABLE 31 NANOSYS' QD-FOCUSED BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS: 2009-2016 104
TABLE 32 NANOSYS' EARLIER NANOMATERIALS-BASED BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS,
2005-2008 106
Navillum Nanotechnologies LLC 107
NN-Labs LLC 108
Ocean NanoTech LLC 111
QD Solution 112
QD Vision Inc. 112
QLight Nanotech (recently acquired by Merck) 113
Quantum Materials Corp. 114
PlasmaChem GmbH 115
Reade Advanced Materials 116
Selah Technologies LLC (acquired by Lab21) 116
Voxtel Inc. 117
UbiQD LLC 119
SOLID-STATE-BASED QD SYNTHESIS 119
TABLE 33 U.S. LARGE CORPORATIONS INTERESTED IN SOLID-STATE SYNTHESIS OF
QUANTUM DOTS BASED ON PATENT ANALYSIS, 2008-2010* 120
COMMERCIAL QD-BASED APPLICATION PLATFORMS 120
NORTH AMERICAN-BASED COMPANIES 120
TABLE 34 NORTH AMERICAN PROPONENTS OF COMMERCIAL QD-BASED PRODUCT
APPLICATION PLATFORMS 121
FOREIGN-BASED COMPANIES 122
Wet-Chemical-Based Synthesis 122TABLE 35 LEADING ASIAN COMPANIES CURRENTLY DEVELOPING
SOLID-STATE-BASED QD-BASED DEVICES 123
TABLE 36 EUROPEAN AND OTHER FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS CURRENTLY
INVOLVED IN COMMERCIALLY DEVELOPING SOLID-STATE QD-BASED DEVICES 123
DRIVING FORCES IMPACTING QD INDUSTRY 124
PROGNOSIS FOR COMMODITY QD APPLICATIONS 124
DEVICE FABRICATION 125
TOP-DOWN IN SITU LITHOGRAPHIC FABRICATION 125
BOTTOM-UP ASSEMBLY 126
Solid-State Synthesis 126
Wet-Colloid Synthesis 126
BUILDING OF QUANTUM DOT DEVICES 127
TABLE 37 PROCESS SYNTHESIS AND DEVICE FABRICATION PARADIGMS FOR
COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS 127
TABLE 38 RECENT DEVICE FABRICATION DEVELOPMENTS FOR COLLOIDAL
QUANTUM DOTS 129
CHALLENGES AND ISSUES FACING THE QD INDUSTRY 129
TABLE 39 MAJOR ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FACING THE COLLOID QD INDUSTRY 130
NANOTOXICITY 130
TABLE 40 RECENT R andD STUDIES IN THE NANOTOXICOLOGY OF QD SYSTEMS 131
RoHS Directive 132
Nontoxic QD Systems 132
TABLE 41 RECENT RandD IN NONTOXIC QD SYSTEMS 133
PRODUCTION SCALE-UP OF QUANTUM DOTS 133
SURFACE CHEMICAL PASSIVATION 135
TRADE PRACTICES/REGULATORY ISSUES AND INFORMATION 135
REGULATORY ISSUES 135
TABLE 42 RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN NANOMATERIALS SAFETY AND IMPENDING
REGULATION 136
Toxicity Studies 137
Environmental Studies 138
GREEN CHEMISTRY 138
EVOLUTIONARY STAGE OF INDUSTRY 138
COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS 138
COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS VERSUS EPITAXIAL QUANTUM DOTS 139
CHAPTER 6 MARKETS BY APPLICATION 142
INTRODUCTION 142
TABLE 43 COMMERCIALLY PROMISING SECTORS WITH FIRST-GENERATION OR
PROTOTYPE QD-BASED PRODUCTS 142
BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOMEDICINE 143
BIOTECHNOLOGY 144
Biolabel Synthesis 144
TABLE 44 ADVANTAGES OF QUANTUM DOTS AS BIOLOGICAL LABELS 144
TABLE 45 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED AND FILED ON QD BIOLABEL SYNTHESIS,
2001-2003 146
QD-Tagged Microbeads 147
Live Cell Imaging 147
Molecular Species Diagnosis/Detection 149TABLE 46 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED AND FILED ON QD BIOTECHNOLOGY-MOLECULAR
SPECIES DIAGNOSIS/DETECTION, 2001-2003 150
Analytical/Instruments Methods 151
TABLE 47 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED ON QD BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON
ANALYTICAL/INSTRUMENT METHODS, 2001-2003 151
Sensor and Microarray Applications 152
TABLE 48 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED ON QD-BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON
SENSOR AND MICRO-ARRAY APPLICATIONS, 2001-2003 152
More Recent Developments in Biological Applications 153
Patent Activity: Commercial Organizations 153
2005 through 2008 153
TABLE 49 COMPANIES LEADING QD-BIOTECHNOLOGY/MEDICAL APPLICATIONS
BASED ON U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY, 2005-2008 154
2008 through 2010 155
TABLE 50 COMPANIES LEADING QD-BIOTECHNOLOGY/MEDICAL APPLICATIONS
BASED ON U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY, 2008-OCTOBER 28, 2010 155
2011 through 2013 156
TABLE 51 U.S. SMALL BUSINESSES GRANTED MUTIPLE PATENTS FOR QD-RELATED
BIO/MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY: 2011-OCTOBER 8, 2013 156
TABLE 52 U.S. LARGE BUSINESSES GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS IN QD-RELATED
BIO/MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY, 2011-OCTOBER 8, 2013 157
TABLE 53 FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS LEADING U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN
QD-RELATED BIO/MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY, 2011-OCTOBER 15, 2013 158
2014 through 2015 158
TABLE 54 U.S. SMALL BUSINESSES GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS FOR QD-RELATED
BIO/MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY: 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 158
TABLE 55 U.S. LARGE BUSINESSES GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS IN QD-RELATED
BIOMEDICAL TECHNOLOGY: 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 159
TABLE 56 FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS LEADING U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN
QD-RELATED BIO/MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY: 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 160
Patent Activity: Academic Organizations 161
TABLE 57 THE MOST ACTIVE UNIVERSITIES INVOLVED IN QD-BIOTECHNOLOGY
APPLICATIONS ACCORDING TO U.S. PATENTS ISSUED: 2005-2007 161
TABLE 58 LEADING UNIVERSITIES AND HOSPITALS INVOLVED IN QD-BIO/MEDICAL
APPLICATIONS ACCORDING TO U.S. PATENTS: 2008-OCTOBER 28, 2010 162
COMPANY PROFILES - BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 163
Affymetrix Inc. 163
Amnis Corp. 163
Applera Corp. 164
BioCrystal Ltd. 164
Clinical Micro Sensors Inc./Osmetech Molecular Diagnostics 165
Clontech Laboratories Inc. 166
Genoptix Inc. 167
Helicos and BioSciences Corp. 167
Illumina Inc. 168
Intel Corp. 168
Integrated Raman Bioanalyzer System 169
MEMS-Based Hydrodynamic Focusing 170
LI-COR Incorporated 170
Luminex Corp. 170Nanosphere Inc. 171
PPD Laboratories 171
U.S. Genomics Inc. (now PathoGenetix Inc.) 172
BIOMEDICINE 173
DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS 173
TABLE 59 QD MEDICAL APPLICATIONS DERIVED FROM U.S. PATENTS: 2000-2004 173
MORE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS 174
TABLE 60 QD MEDICAL APPLICATIONS DERIVED FROM U.S. PATENTS: 2005-2007 175
BIOPHARMACEUTICS 176
CANCER THERAPY AND DIAGNOSTICS 176
DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS 178
Alverix Inc. (acquired by Becton, Dickinson) 178
Ventana Medical Systems Inc. 178
DISEASE SCREENING 178
IMPLANTABLE DEVICES 179
Motorola Inc. 179
Intrinsiq Materials Ltd 180
SURGICAL AIDS 181
Medical Instrumentation 181
Spectros Corp. 181
Photodynamic Therapy 182
Light Sciences Oncology Inc. 182
Teledyne Lighting and Display Products 183
ELECTRONICS 183
TABLE 61 NOVEL QD-BASED DEVICES AND APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRONICS 183
LIMITATIONS OF CONVENTIONAL ELECTRONIC DEVICE FABRICATION 184
Top-Down QD Electronic Device Assembly 185
TABLE 62 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN QD INTEGRATION USING
CONVENTIONAL MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 1999-2004 185
TABLE 63 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN QD INTEGRATION USING
CONVENTIONAL MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 2005-2007 187
Bottom-Up QD Electronic Device Assembly - Molecular Electronics 187
TABLE 64 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN QD INTEGRATION INTO
UNCONVENTIONAL NANOELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 1999-2003 188
TABLE 65 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN QD INTEGRATION USING
UNCONVENTIONAL MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 2005-2007 189
TABLE 66 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN UNCONVENTIONAL QD-BASED
MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 2008-2010 190
TABLE 67 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN UNCONVENTIONAL QD-BASED
MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 2014-2015 190
QUANTUM COMPUTERS AND CRYPTOGRAPHY 191
Quantum Computing and Information Processing 191
Quantum Cryptography 191
Patent Activity in Quantum Computers and Quantum Cryptography 191
1999 through 2004 191
TABLE 68 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN QUANTUM COMPUTERS AND
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY, 1999-2004 192
2005 through 2007 193TABLE 69 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN QUANTUM COMPUTERS AND
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY, 2005-2007 193
2008 through 2010 193
TABLE 70 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN QUANTUM COMPUTERS AND
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY, 2008-2010 194
2011 through 2013 194
TABLE 71 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN QUANTUM COMPUTERS AND
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY, 2011-2013 194
D-Wave Systems Inc. 195
LTX-Credence Corp. 196
MagiQ Technologies Inc. 196
Qucor Pty. Ltd. 197
Toshiba Research Europe Ltd. 197
STORAGE/MEMORY DEVICES 198
Patent Developments 198
1999 through 2004 198
TABLE 72 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN MEMORY DEVICES,
1999-2004 198
2005 through 2007 199
TABLE 73 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN MEMORY DEVICES,
2005-2007 199
2008 through 2010 200
TABLE 74 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN MEMORY DEVICES,
2008-2010 200
2011 through 2013 201
TABLE 75 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN MEMORY DEVICES, 2011-2013 201 2014 through 2015 201
TABLE 76 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN MEMORY DEVICES,
2014-2015 201
Companies and Other Organizations Involved in Commercial
Development 202
Freescale Semiconductor Inc. (Acquired by NXP Semiconductors) 202
Hewlett-Packard 204
IBM 205
Micron Technology Inc. 206
Nanosys Inc. 207
SanDisk Corp. 208
Technical University of Berlin 208
University of California 209
University of Cambridge 209
Other Foreign Competition 210
Overall Commercial Perspective in Electronics 210
OPTOELECTRONICS 210
DISPLAYS 211
Patent Activity 211
2005 through 2007 211
TABLE 77 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES,
2005-2007 2112008 through 2010 212
TABLE 78 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES,
2008-2010 212
2011 through 2013 213
TABLE 79 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES,
2011-2013 213
2014 through 2015 213
TABLE 80 LATEST U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN DISPLAY
TECHNOLOGIES, 2014-2015 213
Commercial Developments 214
3DIcon Corp. 214
Boeing Company 215
Eastman Kodak Company 215
Imaging Systems Technology 216
LG Innotek Co. Ltd. 216
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 217
Microvision Inc. 218
Nanoco Technologies Ltd. 219
NanoPhotonica 219
Nanosys Inc. 219
Prysm Inc. 220
QD Vision Inc. 220
TABLE 81 BENEFITS OF QD LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES OVER OTHER DISPLAY
TECHNOLOGIES 221
TABLE 82 LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN QD VISION'S DISPLAY AND SOLID-STATE
LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES 222
QLight Nanotech 224
Quantum Materials Corp. 225
Samsung Electronics 225
Solexant Corp. 226
Superimaging Inc. 226
FLEXIBLE-DISPLAY INDUSTRY 227
TABLE 83 PIONEERING FLEXIBLE-DISPLAY MARKET PLAYERS 228
Some Early Commercial Proponents 229
E Ink Corp. 229
Nanobrick Co. Ltd. 230
Universal Display Corp. 230
Complementary Fabrication Technology 231
Ink-Jet Printing 231
Mist Deposition 231
LASERS 232
Patent Activity 232
2005 through 2007 233
TABLE 84 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN LASERS AND LASER DIODES
AND RELATED DEVICES AMONG U.S. ORGANIZATIONS, 2005-2007 233
TABLE 85 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN LASER DIODES AND
RELATED DEVICES AMONG FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS, 2005-2007 234
2008 through 2010 235TABLE 86 ORGANIZATIONS LEADING U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN
LASER DIODES AND RELATED DEVICES, 2008-2010 235
2011 through 2013 236
TABLE 87 ORGANIZATIONS LEADING U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN
LASER DIODES AND RELATED DEVICES, 2011-2013 236
2014 through 2015 236
TABLE 88 ORGANIZATIONS LEADING U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN
LASER DIODES AND RELATED DEVICES, 2014-2015 236
Commercial Developers 237
Finisar Corp. 237
Innolume GmbH 237
TABLE 89 ADVANTAGES OF QD DIODE LASERS 238
Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH 239
QD Laser Inc. 240
LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES AND LIGHTING 241
TABLE 90 ROADMAP RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SSL-LED TECHNOLOGY/ LAMP
TARGETS 242
TABLE 91 IMPORTANT PLAYERS IN THE GROWING WLED SSL INDUSTRY 242
Light-Emitting Diodes and Lighting Patent Analysis 244
2005 through 2007 244
TABLE 92 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES
AND RELATED DEVICES AMONG U.S. ORGANIZATIONS, 2005-2007 244
TABLE 93 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES
AND RELATED DEVICES AMONG FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS, 2005-2007 244
2008 through 2010 245
TABLE 94 ORGANIZATIONS LEADING U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN
LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES AND LIGHTING APPLICATIONS, 2008-2010 246
2011 through 2013 246
TABLE 95 ORGANIZATIONS LEADING U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN
LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES AND LIGHTING APPLICATIONS, 2011-2013 247
2014 through 2015 247
TABLE 96 ORGANIZATIONS LEADING U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN
LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES AND LIGHTING APPLICATIONS, 2014-2015 248
Commercial Developers 248
3M Company 249
Avago Technologies Ltd. 250
Cooledge Lighting Inc. 251
Cree Inc. 251
Crystalplex Corp. 252
Evident Technologies Inc. 253
Global OLED Technology LLC 254
Goldeneye Inc. 254
Group IV Semiconductor Inc. 255
Kopin Corp. 256
LEDnovation Inc. 256
Lighting Science Group 257
Los Alamos National Laboratory 257
Nanoco Technologies Ltd 258
NNCrystal/Nanjing Technology Corp. 259Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH 259
Pacific Light Technologies 260
Philips Lumileds Lighting Company 261
Quantum Materials Corp. 262
Sandia National Laboratories 262
TABLE 97 PROPERTY COMPARISON OF COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS AND
CONVENTIONAL LED PHOSPHORS 263
TABLE 98 CQD-BASED SOLID-STATE WHITE LIGHTING: ENABLING FEATURES AND
FUTURE TECHNICAL CHALLENGES 265
Soraa Inc. 266
YLX Corp. 266
OPTICAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND COMPONENTS 267
BACKGROUND 267
PATENT ACTIVITY 268
1999 through 2004 268
TABLE 99 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN OPTICAL COMPONENTS AND
RELATED DEVICES, 1999-2004 268
2005 through 2008 269
TABLE 100 RECENT U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN OPTICAL
COMPONENTS, 2005-2008 269
Trackdale Ltd. 270
University of Toronto 271
Virginia Polytechnic Institute/Lambda Instruments Inc. 271
2008 through 2010 272
TABLE 101 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS WITH U.S. PATENT-BASED QD
DEVELOPMENTS IN OPTICAL COMPONENTS, 2008-2010 272
2011 through 2013 273
TABLE 102 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS WITH U.S. PATENT-BASED QD
DEVELOPMENTS IN OPTICAL COMPONENTS, 2011-2013 273
TABLE 103 LATEST DEVELOPMENTS BY ACADEMIC, GOVERNMENT AND COMPANIES
IN QD OPTICAL APPLICATIONS, 2011-2013 274
2014 through 2015 274
TABLE 104 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS WITH U.S. PATENT-BASED QD OPTICAL
DEVELOPMENTS, 2014-2015 275
SECURITY 275
RATIONALE FOR QUANTUM DOTS AS AN ENABLING TECHNOLOGY 275
QDs versus Organic Fluorescent Dyes 275
Market Drivers 276
Counterfeiting 277
ORGANIZATIONS EXPLOITING QD-BASED SECURITY TECHNOLOGY 277
TABLE 105 KEY ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN SECURITY APPLICATIONS OF
QUANTUM DOTS OR COMPETITIVE MARKING MATERIALS 278
MORE RECENT SECURITY APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENTS 278
2005 through 2008 279
TABLE 106 QD SECURITY APPLICATIONS PATENTS, 2005-2008 279
2008 through 2010 280
TABLE 107 QD SECURITY APPLICATIONS PATENTS, 2008-2010 280
2014 through 2015 280
TABLE 108 QD SECURITY APPLICATIONS PATENTS, 2014-2015 280BioCrystal Ltd. 281
Center for Forensic Studies 282
Digimarc Corp. 282
Evident Technologies 283
Honeywell International Inc. 283
Life Technologies Corp. (acquired by Thermo Fisher Scientific) 284
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 285
Nanosolutions GmbH 285
National Research Council of Canada 286
NCR Corp. 287
New Light Industries Ltd. 287
Oxonica Inc./Nanoplex Technologies Inc. 288
Spectra Systems Corp. 290
Veritec Inc. 290
BUSINESS PROGNOSIS OF THE SECURITY MARKET 291
TABLE 109 RECENT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES FOCUSING ON NEW SECURITY
DEVELOPMENTS 291
Market Size 292
Digital Security Printing 292
DVDs 292
Counterfeit Drugs 293
SUSTAINABLE ENERGY 293
CHEMICAL REACTION ENERGY CONVERSION 293
SOLAR ENERGY 294
Organic Dye-Based Solar Cells 295
TABLE 110 ADVANTAGES OF FLEXIBLE POLYMER-BASED OVER CONVENTIONAL
RIGID SOLAR CELL DESIGNS 295
Organic QD-Based Solar Cells 297
TABLE 111 SOME ADVANTAGES OF COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS OVER ORGANIC
DYES USED IN PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR CELLS 297
Development of QD-Based Solar Cells 298
Development Prior to 2005 298
TABLE 112 EARLY PLAYERS INVOLVED IN PATENTING AND DEVELOPMENT OF
QD-ENHANCED SOLAR CELLS 298
Agfa-Gevaert (Belgium) 299
Harvard University 299
Los Alamos National Laboratory 300
Lund University (Sweden) 300
Nanosys Inc. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 300
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 302
University of California (Santa Barbara, Calif.) 302
University of Idaho 303
University of Rochester 303
Developments 2005 through 2008 303
TABLE 113 MORE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS BY MAJOR PLAYERS INVOLVED IN QD
SOLAR CELLS AND COMPETITIVE TECHNOLOGIES, 2005-2008 304
Developments 2008 through 2010 305
TABLE 114 LATEST DEVELOPMENTS BY ACADEMIC AND GOVERNMENT
ORGANIZATIONS IN QD SOLAR CELLS, 2008-2010 305TABLE 115 U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY BY MAJOR COMMERCIAL PLAYERS INVOLVED IN
QD-BASED SOLAR CELL APPLICATION, 2008-2010 306
Developments 2011 through 2013 307
TABLE 116 LATEST DEVELOPMENTS BY ACADEMIC AND GOVERNMENT
ORGANIZATIONS IN QD SOLAR CELLS, 2011-2013 307
TABLE 117 U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY BY MAJOR COMMERCIAL PLAYERS INVOLVED IN
QD-BASED SOLAR CELL APPLICATIONS, 2011-2013 309
Developments 2014 through 2015 310
TABLE 118 LATEST DEVELOPMENTS BY ACADEMIC AND GOVERNMENT
ORGANIZATIONS IN QD SOLAR CELLS, 2014-2016 310
TABLE 119 U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY BY MAJOR COMMERCIAL PLAYERS INVOLVED IN
QD-BASED SOLAR CELL APPLICATIONS, 2014-2015 311
THERMOELECTRIC ENERGY CONVERSION 312
TABLE 120 DEVELOPMENTS IN QD ENHANCEMENTS USED IN THERMOELECTRIC
ENERGY CONVERSION, 2005-2008 313
TABLE 121 PATENT DEVELOPMENTS IN QD ENHANCEMENTS USED IN
THERMOELECTRIC ENERGY CONVERSION, 2008-2013 313
TABLE 122 PATENT DEVELOPMENTS IN QD ENHANCEMENTS USED IN
THERMOELECTRIC ENERGY (TE) CONVERSION, 2014-2015 315
CHAPTER 7 MARKET ANALYSIS 317
QD COMMERCIAL PRODUCERS 317
LEADING COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOT PRODUCERS 317
U.S. Producers 317
TABLE 123 LEADING U.S. COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOT PRODUCERS, CURRENT
PRODUCT PORTFOLIOS AND COMMERCIAL MARKET APPLICATIONS 318
Production Scale-Up and Unit Pricing 320
Foreign Producers 321
TABLE 124 FOREIGN CQD PRODUCERS: CURRENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO AND
COMMERCIAL MARKET APPLICATIONS 322
COMPARISON WITH SOLID-STATE SYNTHESIZED QUANTUM DOTS 324
TABLE 125 LEADING PROPONENTS OF COMMERCIAL SOLID-STATE QD-BASED
PRODUCT APPLICATION PLATFORMS 324
MAJOR PRODUCTION CHALLENGES 325
TABLE 126 MAJOR CHALLENGES FACING COMMERCIAL QD PRODUCERS 325
TABLE 127 ANTICIPATED COMMERCIAL MARKET SECTORS FOR QUANTUM DOTS
AND PRODUCT OFFERINGS, 2015-2021 326
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QUANTUM DOTS IN BIOLOGY AND BIOMEDICINE 327
POTENTIAL MARKET SIZE 327
EVOLUTION OF NANOCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS IN BIOLOGICAL DETECTION 327
MORE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 328
COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR QUANTUM DOTS IN BIOLOGY AND
BIOMEDICINE 330
Crystalplex Nanotech 331
Cytoptics Corp. 331
Fio Corp. 332
Lab21 Ltd./Selah Technologies LLC 333
Nanoco Technologies Ltd. 334
Thermo Fisher Scientific (formerly Life Technologies Corp.) 334
EMERGING MARKETS FOR SMALL NANOCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS 335Stand-Alone Bioconjugate-QD Materials Market 336
TABLE 128 PREDICTED REVENUE GROWTH IN BIOCONJUGATE QUANTUM DOTS
AND DIAGNOSTIC BIOMEDICAL SENSORS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 337
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QUANTUM DOTS IN MEMORY APPLICATIONS 337
TABLE 129 QD AND OTHER FUTURE NANOMATERIALS-BASED MEMORY
ARCHITECTURES 338
FLASH, THE MEMORY OF CHOICE 339
OTHER NEAR-TERM COMPETITIVE TECHNOLOGIES 340
PROJECTED GROWTH IN QD-BASED FLASH-MEMORY MARKET 341
TABLE 130 PROJECTED MARKET REVENUES GENERATED BY FREESCALE'S
QD-BASED MEMORY PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2021 342
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QUANTUM DOTS IN RIGID AND FLEXIBLE LED WHITE
LIGHTING AND DISPLAYS 342
RIGID LED WHITE LIGHTING 343
TABLE 131 MAJOR ISSUES CONFRONTING THE IMPENDING USE OF QUANTUM DOTS
IN SSL WLED TECHNOLOGY 344
North American Interests 345
Foreign Interests 346
FLEXIBLE LED LIGHTING 346
MARKET PREDICTION IN LED LIGHTING 348
Rigid LED Lighting 348
Flexible LED Lighting 349
TABLE 132 PROJECTED RIGID AND FLEXIBLE QD LED LIGHTING REVENUES,
THROUGH 2021 349
RIGID AND FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS 350
TABLE 133 MAJOR PERFORMANCE ISSUES CONFRONTING OLED DISPLAY
TECHNOLOGY AND POTENTIAL ENHANCEMENTS PROVIDED BY QUANTUM DOTS 350
MARKET PREDICTION 356
Rigid LED Backlit LCD Displays 356
TABLE 134 CURRENT QD PRODUCERS TARGETING THE BACKLIGHT LCD DISPLAY
MARKET, 2016 356
Flexible OLED Displays 358
Other Displays 359
TABLE 135 PROJECTED RIGID- AND FLEXIBLE-DISPLAY REVENUES GENERATED BY
QD-BASED PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2021 360
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QUANTUM DOTS IN OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND
OTHER OPTICAL COMPONENTS 360
DOPED FIBER OPTICS 360
LASERS 361
Finisar Corp. 361
Innolume GmbH 362
Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH 362
QD Laser Inc. 363
QD Vision Inc. 364
OTHER OPTICAL COMPONENTS 364
Evident Technologies Inc. 364
InVisage Technologies Inc. 365
QD Chip/MIT 366
Siemens AG 366Trackdale Ltd. 367
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY 367
PROJECTED GROWTH FOR QUANTUM DOTS IN OPTICAL PRODUCTS 368
Optical Telecommunications 368
Quantum Cryptography 369
Portable Laser Projectors 369
Smartphone/Digital Camera Sensors 369
TABLE 136 PROJECTED REVENUES FOR QD-BASED OPTICAL TELECOM AND
PORTABLE COMMUNICATION DEVICES, THROUGH 2021 370
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QUANTUM DOTS IN SECURITY APPLICATIONS 370
TABLE 137 CLASSIFICATION OF COVERT QD SECURITY APPLICATIONS BY MARKET
SECTOR 371
INITIAL COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS 372
Life Technologies Corp. (Now Thermo Fisher Scientific) 372
Quantum Materials Corp. 372
Voxtel Inc. 373
Xerox Corp. 374
ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENTS 374
PROJECTED GROWTH IN THE QD-BASED SECURITY MARKET 375
TABLE 138 PROJECTED MARKET REVENUES GENERATED BY QD-BASED SECURITY
PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 376
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QUANTUM DOTS IN SOLAR CELL TECHNOLOGY 376
INITIAL COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS 376
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: ADDRESSING MAJOR ISSUES 377
TABLE 139 MAJOR ISSUES CONFRONTING THE IMPENDING USE OF COLLOIDAL
QUANTUM DOTS IN SOLAR CELL TECHNOLOGY 378
IMPENDING COMMERCIAL QD-BASED SOLAR PRODUCTS 379
TABLE 140 NOTABLE COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS IN QD-ENHANCED SOLAR
PHOTOVOLTAICS, 2014-2016 379
Azastra Opto Inc. 380
Cyrium Technologies Inc. 381
DuPont Innovalight 382
JDS Uniphase Corp. 384
Nanoco Technologies Ltd 385
Natcore Technology Inc. 386
QD Soleil Inc. (a subsidiary of Nanosys) 388
Quantum PV 389
Shrink Nanotechnologies Inc. 389
Spire Corp. 390
Siva Power (formerly Solexant Corp.) 391
Solterra Renewable Technologies 392
UbiQD LLC 394
COMPLEMENTARY DEVELOPMENTS IMPACTING QD SOLAR CELLS 394
TABLE 141 SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS BY ACADEMIC AND
GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS IN QD SOLAR CELLS, 2014-2016 395
First-Generation -- Bulk Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells 396
Second-Generation -- Inorganic Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells 396
Third-Generation Solar Cells 397
PROJECTED GROWTH IN QD-BASED SOLAR MARKET 398TABLE 142 PROJECTED MARKET REVENUES GENERATED BY QD-ENHANCED SOLAR
CELL PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2021 401
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QUANTUM DOTS IN OTHER ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES 401
BATTERY AND SUPERCAPACITOR PERFORMANCE 401
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 402
OPTICAL TO ELECTRICAL POWER CONVERSION PHOTOTRANSDUCERS 402
THERMOELECTRIC ENERGY CONVERSION 403
MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QUANTUM DOTS IN OTHER PROMISING SECTORS 405
FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS 405
CHAPTER 8 APPENDIX 408
ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS AND UNITS 408

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET REVENUE FOR QUANTUM DOTS BY SECTORS,
THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 8
TABLE 1 CHRONOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF QUANTUM DOTS: FROM RESEARCH
CURIOSITY TO COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 12
TABLE 2 COMPARISON OF EMISSION WAVELENGTH OF SC AND METAL NC QUANTUM
DOTS AS A FUNCTION OF THEIR SIZE (NM) 15
TABLE 3 OTHER PROPERTIES OF COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS 16
TABLE 4 HIERARCHY AND VARIOUS TYPES OF QUANTUM DOTS: BASIC STRUCTURES 18
TABLE 5 HIERARCHY AND VARIOUS TYPES OF QUANTUM DOTS: COMPOSITE
STRUCTURES 19
TABLE 6 QD MATERIAL TYPES AND THEIR COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS 20
TABLE 7 KEY QUANTUM DOT TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS 22
TABLE 8 QUANTUM DOT PRODUCTION METHODS: VAPOR PHASE 25
TABLE 9 QUANTUM DOT PRODUCTION METHODS: LIQUID PHASE 28
TABLE 10 QUANTUM DOT PRODUCTION METHODS: SOLID PHASE 33
TABLE 11 VARIOUS METHODS USED FOR SI-NC SYNTHESIS 35
TABLE 12 VARIOUS SYNTHETIC METHODS AND PHOTOPHYSICAL BEHAVIOR OF
METAL-NANOCRYSTALS 39
TABLE 13 QUANTUM DOT STRUCTURE ASSEMBLY METHODS 45
TABLE 14 MAIN APPLICATION SECTORS AND POTENTIAL INDUSTRIAL END-USES
IDENTIFIED FOR QUANTUM DOT TECHNOLOGY 54
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MARKET REVENUE GENERATED BY QUANTUM DOTS ACCORDING
TO MAJOR MARKET SECTORS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 56
TABLE 16 LEADING U.S. SMALL BUSINESSES GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS FOR
QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 65
TABLE 17 OTHER U.S. SMALL BUSINESSES GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS FOR
QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 66
TABLE 18 LEADING U.S. LARGE BUSINESSES GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS IN
QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 67
TABLE 19 U.S. ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS IN
QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2013 69
TABLE 20 U.S. GOVERNMENT AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS GRANTED MULTIPLE
PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 70
TABLE 21 LEADING SOUTH KOREAN ORGANIZATIONS GRANTED PATENTS IN
QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 71
TABLE 22 LEADING JAPANESE ORGANIZATIONS GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS IN
QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 72
TABLE 23 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS IN OTHER ASIAN COUNTRIES GRANTED
PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 73
TABLE 24 LEADING EUROPEAN ORGANIZATIONS U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN
QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 74
TABLE 25 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS IN ROW COUNTRIES WITH PATENT ACTIVITY IN
QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2014-DECEMBER 31, 2015 76
TABLE 26 MAJOR U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FUNDING QD-BASED RESEARCH 77
TABLE 27 COMMERCIAL PRODUCERS OF COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS 79
TABLE 28 RESEARCH-GRADE PRODUCERS OF COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS 82
TABLE 29 EVIDENT TECHNOLOGIES' QUANTUM DOT GRADES 88
TABLE 30 QD-BASED BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS AT EVIDENT TECHNOLOGIES,
2005-2011 89
TABLE 31 NANOSYS' QD-FOCUSED BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS: 2009-2016 104
TABLE 32 NANOSYS' EARLIER NANOMATERIALS-BASED BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS,
2005-2008 106
TABLE 33 U.S. LARGE CORPORATIONS INTERESTED IN SOLID-STATE SYNTHESIS OF
QUANTUM DOTS BASED ON PATENT ANALYSIS, 2008-2010* 120
TABLE 34 NORTH AMERICAN PROPONENTS OF COMMERCIAL QD-BASED PRODUCT
APPLICATION PLATFORMS 121
TABLE 35 LEADING ASIAN COMPANIES CURRENTLY DEVELOPING
SOLID-STATE-BASED QD-BASED DEVICES 123
TABLE 36 EUROPEAN AND OTHER FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS CURRENTLY INVOLVED
IN COMMERCIALLY DEVELOPING SOLID-STATE QD-BASED DEVICES 123

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