1. Market Research
  2. > Energy & Environment
  3. > Energy
  4. > Oil and Gas Energy Market Trends
  5. > Fracking Water Treatment: The North American Market

Fracking Water Treatment: The North American Market

  • May 2014
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 181 pages

Use this report to:

- Identify reasons behind re-evaluating water as a strategic element in the value chain as seen by oil and gas companies.
- Learn about treatment technologies which includes performance data as well as capital and operating-cost information.
- Gain information on the role of government in support of global markets, including regulatory support, government requirements and promotional incentives for various
technologies.

Highlights

- BCC Research estimates that the North American market for wastewater treatment equipment for hydraulically fractured oil and gas wells will increase at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.1% over the next five years increasing from $216 million in 2013 to $350 million in 2018.
- The market for hydraulically fractured gas wells should increase from $156 million in 2013 to $248 million in 2018, a projected CAGR of 9.7% from 2013 to 2018.
- The market for hydraulically fractured oil wells will increase at a CAGR of 11.2% growing from $60 million in 2013 to $102 million by 2018.

INTRODUCTION

Until renewable, sustainable energy sources are fully developed, the demand for fossil fuels will continue to grow. Recently, however, there has been a global shift in both
demand and production centers. According to the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) most recent World Energy Outlook (WEO2013), “Many of the long-held tenets of the
energy sector are being rewritten. Major importers are becoming exporters, while countries long-defined as major energy exporters are also becoming leading centers of
global demand growth. The right combination of policies and technologies is proving that the links between economic growth, energy demand and energy-related CO2
emissions can be weakened. The rise of unconventional oil and gas and of renewables is transforming our understanding of the distribution of the world’s energy resources.”
The capacity of technologies to unlock new types of resources, such as light tight oil, has driven up estimates of the amount of oil that remains to be produced. Although this does not mean the world is on the cusp of a new era of oil abundance, the development of the new resources is making the U.S. the largest global oil producer.

The IEA forecasts a bright future, even a golden age, for natural gas, especially for so-called unconventional gas, such as shale gas and coalbed methane (CBM). Unconventional gas now accounts for 50% of the estimated natural gas resource base. By 2035, unconventional gas is predicted to rise to 20% of total gas production,
although the pace of development will vary considerably by region. The growth in output also will depend on the gas industry dealing successfully with the environmental challenges. “A golden age of gas,” says the IEA, “will require golden standards for production.” The demand for carbon-based energy is a major market driver for products and
services used to treat the water produced during oil and gas exploration and production (E&P). Produced water and flowback, the effluent that rises to the surface during E&P, includes naturally occurring water in energy deposits and water injected into formations during hydraulic fracturing. This water comprises approximately 98% of the total waste volume generated by the industry. With the need to manage such large water volumes, the oil and gas production industry has become as much about water
as it is about energy.

In addition to large water volumes and high disposal costs, energy developers using traditional produced water practices are facing increased opposition from environmental activists, local and state governments, and the public. These groups are concerned that the water is leaking from traditional containment pits and entering groundwater and surface water bodies. Historically, produced water has been contained temporarily in pits and then either transported to treatment plants or evaporated. Throughout the well’s service life, the produced water must be separated from the oil it contains. Following treatment, the water may be handled via one of three methods: safely discharged (used mainly in offshore applications), reinjected into the hydrocarbon formation (deep well disposal), or reused (subsequent fracking jobs or in other beneficial applications). In most world regions and for all of the end uses/disposal options, treated water quality must meet certain standards, including low toxicity, high biodegradability and low potential for bioaccumulation in the food chain.

A number of water treatment technologies and equipment types are commercially available for use at oil or gas production sites. These processes can reduce the cost,
inefficiency and risks associated with treatment pits and the transport of toxic water. The treatment technologies include methods for de-oiling, desanding, desalinating and
disinfecting produced water. Numerous systems types are on the market. Choices include: separators; hydrocyclones; and distillation-, ion exchange-, adsorbent- and
membrane-based units; as well as proprietary equipment and combinations of equipment. Some of these products and technologies enable the treatment of produced water to a quality suitable for beneficial reuse. Presently, most of the water reused is employed for reinjection in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. However, there is also future potential for recycling the water in agriculture or as a new source of municipal or industrial water supply, especially where water scarcity is an issue. Implementing these technologies will likely require regulation. Although some operators may adopt best practices, standards must be implemented to give all oil and gas field developers equal opportunity. If applied properly, the regulations could drive innovation by creating a market for new technologies. The implementation of such technological innovation is essential to making hydraulically fractured hydrocarbons sustainable resources.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This report is intended to provide an in-depth analysis of the market for equipment used in oil and gas wastewater treatment in North America. To date, this region is the
world’s largest purchaser of systems and services for treating flowback and produced water. BCC Research assesses the North American market by country, by equipment type and by hydrocarbon resource. In the country analysis, market data are presented for the U.S., Canada and Mexico. Existing and expected regulations, unconventional oil and gas production levels, as well as the oil and gas industry’s desire to conserve water and improve its environmental stewardship will be examined as driving factors for market growth. The market evaluation by equipment type looks at produced water treatment systems within three broad categories: primary and secondary treatment oil separation
equipment (minimizes oil-in-water content to 25 parts per million [ppm] to 30 ppm); tertiary treatment equipment (further reduces oil in water to less than 10 ppm); and
advanced treatment (processes for desalinating produced water and/or enabling zero liquid discharge [ZLD]).

In the market analysis by hydrocarbon resource, value and growth are evaluated for equipment used in treating produced water from tight oil, tight gas, shale gas and CBM.
Technical and market drivers are considered in evaluating the current value of the technologies and in forecasting growth and trends over the next five years. The conclusions are illustrated with a wealth of statistical information on markets, applications, industry structure and dynamics along with technological developments. Because of the diverse and somewhat fragmented nature of the produced water treatment industry, it is difficult to find studies that gather such extensive data from such far-flung resources into one comprehensive document. This report contains a unique collection of information, analyses, forecasts and conclusions that are very hard or impossible to find elsewhere. Throughout this report, the term “produced water” is used to refer to both flowback and production phase water, since flowback is technically considered a subset of produced water. The generic term “wastewater” is also used to refer to both water types without differentiating between them.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Global population growth and economic expansion are driving energy demand, while simultaneously driving significant increases in the demand for water. The challenge of
meeting these demands is intensified by the nexus between water and energy. Large volumes of water are consumed to produce and generate energy, while vast amounts
of energy are used to treat and distribute clean water. Furthermore, there is growing competition for water from the municipal, agricultural and industrial sectors, which
exacerbates the mounting problem of global water scarcity. These issues pose a significant business risk to oil and gas companies seeking to achieve sustainable growth.

Major water-related challenges facing the oil and gas sector are: mature oilfields that increasingly require water-based enhanced oil recovery methods and produce more
water over time; growing E&P complexity due to emerging unconventional hydrocarbon resources and their large water needs; and greater environmental and
regulatory pressures related to water management and scarcity. For these reasons, oil and gas companies must re-evaluate water as a strategic element in their value chain. Water is no longer solely an environmental issue but is increasingly tied to production growth and cost. As a result, it must be handled through a strategy that recognizes its status as a critical component to ongoing viability in the oil and gas sector.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is designed to be of value to a wide array of readers. Those expected to have the greatest interest are players already active in oil and gas production and/or
produced water treatment. The study will be of value to start up companies with novel water treatment technology for the hydraulic fracturing sector, since that market is still
emerging and has no dominant players. Oilfield services businesses should find the report useful for its overview of treatment technologies, which includes performance
data, as well as capital and operating-cost information.

It should be of interest to venture investors, entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial companies interested in entering or expanding into the produced water treatment
sector. Other public- and private-sector interest groups, market analysts and general readers wishing to gain broader knowledge of the dynamics of the produced water
treatment-equipment market also are expected to find the report worthwhile.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The scope of this report is focused on the developing North American market for hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water treatment equipment for the oil and
gas industry. The market is broken down by several different parameters, including country, equipment type and wastewater source.

There are a number of expenses related to upstream oil and gas wastewater management, including expenditures for services and equipment for downhole water
minimization, for lifting water to the surface, for treatment, for reinjection and for hauling and off-site disposal. This report will evaluate only oil- and gas sector
purchases for treatment equipment.

The study covers the industry in the U.S., Canada and Mexico in terms of the manufacture and deployment of treatment systems. BCC Research examines
government roles in support of global markets, including regulatory support, government requirements and promotional incentives for various technologies as
relevant and available.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report. Research for this technical/marketing report began with an analysis of available
technical and business literature related to sludge treatment. Conversations with industry experts and company representatives provide the backbone for the analysis.

Internet, literature and patent searches were undertaken, and key industry participants were queried. Capital equipment expenditure estimates are based on anticipated
future treatment capacity, existing and expected regulatory standards, and alternatives for disposal of oil and gas field wastewater. Growth rates for each market were calculated based on expected revenues from sales of process equipment during the forecast period. Values and forecasts are given in current U.S. dollars. Construction,
engineering and design costs are excluded from market size calculations.

Table Of Contents

Fracking Water Treatment: The North American Market
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 3
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 4
INTENDED AUDIENCE 4
SCOPE OF REPORT 5
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 5
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 5
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 6
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 6
DISCLAIMER 6

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 8
SUMMARY TABLE NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR
WASTEWATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT FOR HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED OIL AND
GAS WELLS, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 10
SUMMARY FIGURE NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR
WASTEWATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT FOR HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED OIL AND
GAS WELLS, BY APPLICATION, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 10

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 12
WATER AND WASTEWATER AT UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS SITES 12
STORMWATER RUNOFF OF DISTURBED LAND 12
FRAC FLUIDS AND FLOWBACK 12
TABLE 1 ESTIMATED WATER NEEDS FOR DRILLING AND FRACTURING WELLS IN
SELECT SHALE GAS PLAYS (GALLONS) 13
HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 14
THE FRACKING PROCESS 14
WASTEWATER CHEMISTRY 15
Salts 16
Mineral Scales 16
Metals 16
Organic Compounds 16
Oil 17
Suspended Solids 17
Microorganisms 18
Chemical Additives 18
TABLE 2 VOLUMETRIC COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL FRACTURE FLUID 19
FIGURE 1 VOLUMETRIC COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL FRACTURE FLUID (%) 19
NORM 20
TABLE 3 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED WATER FROM
MARCELLUS SHALE DEVELOPMENT 21
TABLE 4 FINISHED WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR SPECIFIC TREATMENT GOALS 22
HOW MUCH WATER IS GENERATED? 23
FIGURE 2 FLOWBACK VOLUME AND TDS LEVELS OVER TIME 23
COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT 24
TABLE 5 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY
PROCESS STEP (%) 24
FIGURE 3 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY
PROCESS STEP (%) 25
TABLE 6 PRODUCED WATER DISPOSAL COSTS FOR OFF-SITE COMMERCIAL
FACILITIES, BY OPTION ($) 25
THE BENEFITS OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 26
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS RELATED TO FRACKING 26
WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 27
Injection for Recovering More Oil 27
Reuse in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids 27
Treatment Prior to Injection 28
Injection for Future Use 28
Aquifer Storage and Recovery 28
Injection for Hydrological Purposes 29
Subsidence Control 29
Saltwater Intrusion 29
Flow Augmentation 29
Agricultural Use 29
Crop Irrigation 30
Subsurface Irrigation 30
Livestock and Wildlife Watering 31
Aquaculture and Hydroponics 31
Managed Wetlands 31
Industrial Use 31
Cooling Water Makeup 32
Dust Control 32
Other 32
Drinking Water and Other Domestic Uses 32

CHAPTER 4 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 35
REUSE WITHOUT TREATMENT 35
DEEP WELL INJECTION 35
ON-SITE TREATMENT FOR REUSE 35
ON- OR OFF-SITE TREATMENT FOR DISCHARGE 36
TREATMENT OPTIONS 36
TREATMENT STAGES 36
TABLE 7 EQUIPMENT SELECTION BASED ON SIZE OF PARTICLES REMOVED
(MICRON) 37
TABLE 8 TYPICAL WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY 38
TREATMENT FOR WASTEWATER MANAGED THROUGH UNDERGROUND
INJECTION 38
TREATMENT FOR PRODUCED WATER REUSED IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 39
TABLE 9 WATER QUALITY GOALS FOR REUSE IN FRACTURING FLUIDS 39
TREATMENT FOR PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED TO SURFACE WATER
OR REUSED FOR IRRIGATION 40
SELECTING ON-SITE TREATMENT OPTIONS 40
Cost Considerations 41
PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT CHALLENGES 42
TABLE 10 PRODUCED WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL REQUIREMENTS AND
SUITABLE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 43
TECHNOLOGIES AND TREATMENT GOALS 43
DILUTION 43
DE-OILING 44
TABLE 11 DE-OILING TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 44
PHYSICAL SEPARATION 46
Gravity Separators 46
API Separators 46
Inclined Plate Separators 47
Flat Corrugated Plate Separators 47
Hydrocyclones 47
Centrifuges 48
Voraxial Separators 49
Media Filtration 49
Granular Media 49
Further Specifications 50
Biological Aerated Filtration 50
System Performance 50
Further Specifications 50
CHEMICAL SEPARATION/PRECIPITATION 51
COALESCENCE 51
FLOTATION 52
System Performance 52
Further Specifications 53
ADSORPTION 53
Organoclay 53
Activated Carbon 54
Zeolites 54
MyCelx 54
SOLVENT EXTRACTION 55
DESALINATION 55
TABLE 12 TDS REMOVAL AND DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FRAC
FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 56
TABLE 13 PRESSURE-DRIVEN MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT 57
Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration 59
MF 60
UF 60
Ceramic MF, UF 60
Polymeric MF, UF 61
NF 62
Vibratory Shear Enhanced Processing (VSEP) 63
System Performance 63
Costs 64
Further Specifications 64
RO 64
High-Efficiency RO (HERO) 64
System Performance 65
Costs 65
Further Specifications 65
Slurry Precipitation and Recycling RO (SPARRO) 66
Costs 66
Further Specifications 66
Dual-pass RO with Chemical Precipitation 67
System Performance 67
Further Specifications 67
CDM Smith Produced Water Technology 68
Further Specifications 69
Optimized Pretreatment and Separation Technology (OPUS) 69
System Performance 70
Further Specifications 70
GeoPure Advanced Hydro Treatment 71
System Performance 71
Costs 71
Further Specifications 71
CONCENTRATE MANAGEMENT 72
ZLD 73
Costs 73
Forward Osmosis (FO) 73
System Performance 74
Further Specifications 74
Hybrid FO/RO 75
Further Specifications 75
Electrodialysis (ED) and Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) 76
High Efficiency ED (HEED) 77
Further Specifications 78
Membrane Distillation (MD) 78
System Performance 78
Costs 79
Further Specifications 79
Ion Exchange 80
EMIT Higgins Loop 80
System Performance 81
Further Specifications 81
Drake Continuous Selective IX 81
System Performance 81
Further Specifications 82
Recoflo Compressed-bed IX 82
System Performance 83
Catalyx/RGBL IX 83
Capacitive Deionization 83
Electrocoagulation (EC) 84
Thermal Distillation 85
VC 85
System Performance 86
Costs 86
Further Specifications 86
MSF 87
System Performance 87
Costs 87
Further Specifications 88
MED 88
System Performance 89
Costs 89
Further Specifications 89
Other 89
Hybrid MED-VC 89
Freeze-Thaw Evaporation (FTE) 90
System Performance 90
Costs 90
Further Specifications 91
Dewvaporation 91
System Performance 92
Costs 92
Further Specifications 92
Enhanced Distillation/Evaporation 92
Aquatech MVC 92
Aqua-Pure MVR 93
System Performance 94
Further Specifications 94
212 Resources MVR 94
System Performance 95
Further Specifications 95
Intevras EVRAS 96
System Performance 96
Further Specifications 96
DISINFECTION 96
TABLE 14 DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 97
Ozonation 97
Ozonix 98
System Performance 98
Ultraviolet (UV) Light Disinfection 99
System Performance 99
Further Specifications 99
TABLE 15 COMPARISON OF ON-SITE FLOWBACK WATER TREATMENT
TECHNOLOGIES 100
BENEFICIAL REUSE 101

CHAPTER 5 OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 103
HYDROCARBONS PRODUCTION IN NORTH AMERICA 103
LIQUIDS PRODUCTION 103
Tight Oil 104
FIGURE 4 ESTIMATED U.S., RUSSIA AND SAUDI ARABIA PETROLEUM AND NATURAL
GAS PRODUCTION, 2008-2013 (QUADRILLION BTU, MILLION BBL OF OIL
EQUIVALENT)
104
GAS PRODUCTION 105
Shale Gas, Tight Gas and Coalbed Methane 105
TABLE 16 TOP TEN COUNTRIES WITH TECHNICALLY RECOVERABLE SHALE GAS
AND TIGHT OIL RESOURCES (TRILLION FT3/BILLION BBL.) 106
FIGURE 5 TOP TEN COUNTRIES WITH TECHNICALLY RECOVERABLE SHALE GAS
AND TIGHT OIL RESOURCES (TRILLION FT3/BILLION BBL.) 106
Shale gas 107
Tight Gas 107
CBM 108
CBM Produced Water Chemistry 109
TDS 109
Sodium 109
Other Constituents 109
TABLE 17 CBM PRODUCED WATER CHARACTERISTICS (POWDER RIVER BASIN) 109
HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED HYDROCARBONS IN THE U.S. 110
TABLE 18 NUMBER OF WELLS FRACKED IN THE U.S. BY STATE, SINCE 2005 AND IN
2012 ALONE 110
UNCONVENTIONAL GAS PRODUCTION 111
TABLE 19 U.S. UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY SOURCE,
1990-2040 (TRILLION FT3) 112
FIGURE 6 U.S. UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY SOURCE,
1990-2040 (TRILLION FT3) 112
FIGURE 7 U.S. SHALE PLAYS, LOWER 48 STATES 112
TABLE 20 NORTH AMERICAN SHALE GAS PRODUCTION BY FORMATION, 2007-2012
(BILLION FT3/DAY) 113
FIGURE 8 NORTH AMERICAN SHALE GAS PRODUCTION BY FORMATION, 2007-2012
(BILLION FT3/DAY) 113
CBM 114
TABLE 21 NORTH AMERICAN COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011
(BILLION FT3) 114
FIGURE 9 NORTH AMERICAN COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011
(BILLION FT3) 114
TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION 115
PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES IN THE U.S. 115
TABLE 22 WATER USED FOR HYDRAULIC FRACTURING BY STATE, 2005-2012
(MILLION GALLONS) 116
FIGURE 10 WATER USED FOR HYDRAULIC FRACTURING BY STATE, 2005-2012
(MILLION GALLONS) 116
TABLE 23 WASTEWATER PRODUCED BY HYDRAULIC FRACTURING BY STATE, 2012
(MILLION GALLONS) 117
FIGURE 11 COMPETITION FOR WATER IN U.S. SHALE-ENERGY DEVELOPMENT 118
U.S. REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS FOR PRODUCED WATER 118
Regulations Governing Produced Water Discharge 118
ELGs 119
Oil and Gas ELGs 119
Onshore Regulations 119
Regulations Governing Produced Water Injection 120
BLM Regulations 121
BOEMRE Regulations 121
State Regulations 122
Recent State Regulations 123
Anticipated Federal Regulations 123
Potential Fracking Legislation 124
ASTM Standards 124
State Requirements for Hydraulic Fracturing Activities 125
HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED HYDROCARBONS IN CANADA 125
TABLE 24 NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN CANADA, BY TYPE (TRILLION FT3, %) 125
FIGURE 12 NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN CANADA, BY TYPE (%) 125
Shale Gas Production 126
FIGURE 13 GROSS WITHDRAWALS FROM SELECTED SHALE PLAYS IN CANADA,
JANUARY 2005-MAY 2013 (BILLION FT3) 127
CBM 128
Tight Gas 128
Tight Oil 128
Canadian Regulatory Requirements 129
HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED HYDROCARBONS IN MEXICO 129
Tight Oil 129
Shale Gas 130
Regulatory Requirements 130
NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 131
BY COUNTRY 131
TABLE 25 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT, BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 131
FIGURE 14 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT, BY COUNTRY, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 132
BY EQUIPMENT TYPE 132
Primary and Secondary Treatment Equipment 133
Tertiary Treatment 133
Advanced Treatment 134
TABLE 26 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, THROUGH 2018 135
FIGURE 15 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 135
Centralized Treatment 136
BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE 136
Tight Oil 137
U.S. 137
Canada 137
Mexico 138
Shale Gas 138
U.S. 138
Canada 139
Mexico 140
Tight Gas 140
U.S. 141
FIGURE 16 MAJOR U.S. TIGHT GAS PLAYS, LOWER 48 STATES 141
Canada 141
Mexico 142
CBM 142
U.S. 142
TABLE 27 U.S. COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011 (BILLION FT3) 142
FIGURE 17 U.S. COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011 (BILLION FT3) 143
Canada 143
Mexico 143
TABLE 28 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED-WATER
PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS)
144
FIGURE 18 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 144

CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 146
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 146
UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS CAPITAL EQUIPMENT SPENDING 148

CHAPTER 7 COMPANY PROFILES 150
212 RESOURCES 150
ABSMATERIALS 150
ABTECH INDUSTRIES 151
AKER SOLUTIONS 152
ALTELA, INC. 152
AMCOL INTERNATIONAL CORP. 153
AQUA EWP 153
AQUA-PURE VENTURES 154
AQUATECH 154
ATLANTIS TECHNOLOGIES 155
BIOTEQ ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 156
CAMERON INTERNATIONAL CORP. 156
CANCEN OIL CANADA/SET CORP. 157
CLEAN RUNNER 158
CRYODESALINATION 158
DPS GLOBAL 159
DRAKE WATER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 159
ECOLOGIX ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS 160
ECOSPHERE TECHNOLOGIES 160
ECO-TEC 161
EVOQUA WATER TECHNOLOGIES 162
EXTERRAN 163
FMC TECHNOLOGIES (CDS) 163
FILTERBOXX PACKAGED WATER SOLUTIONS, INC. 164
FRAC WATER SYSTEMS, INC. (FWSI) 164
GE WATER and PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES 165
GEO-PROCESSORS PTY. LTD. 165
GEOPURE HYDROTECHNOLOGIES 166
GREENHUNTER RESOURCES 166
GREEN HYDRO 167
H20 INNOVATION 168
HALLIBURTON 168
HYDRATION TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION (HTI) 169
IDE TECHNOLOGIES, LTD. 169
INTEGRATED WATER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 170
JandT TECHNOLOGIES 170
KERFOOT TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (KTI) 171
LAYNE CHRISTENSEN 171
LIQTECH INTERNATIONAL 172
MEMSYS 172
MIOX CORP. 173
MYCELX TECHNOLOGIES CORP. 173
NEOHYDRO CORP. 174
NOV MISSION PRODUCTS 174
NEW LOGIC RESEARCH 175
NUVERRA ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS 176
OASYS WATER, INC. 176
OMNI WATER SOLUTIONS 177
ORIGINOIL, INC. 177
OVIVO 178
PARC 178
PROCESS PLANTS CORP. (PPC) 179
R3 FUSION 179
RG GLOBAL LIFESTYLES, INC. (RGBL) 180
STW RESOURCES HOLDING CORP. 180
SABRE ENERGY SERVICES 181
SALTWORKS TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 181
SCHLUMBERGER 182
SEVERN TRENT 183
THERMOENERGY 183
TOTAL SEPARATION SOLUTIONS 184
VEOLIA WATER SOLUTIONS and TECHNOLOGIES 185
VME PROCESS, INC. 186
WASTEWATER RESOURCES, INC. (WRI) 186
WATER STANDARD CO. 186
WATERTECTONICS 187
WATER and POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (WPT) 187


LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR WASTEWATER
TREATMENT EQUIPMENT FOR HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED OIL AND GAS WELLS, BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS)
10
TABLE 1 ESTIMATED WATER NEEDS FOR DRILLING AND FRACTURING WELLS IN
SELECT SHALE GAS PLAYS (GALLONS) 13
TABLE 2 VOLUMETRIC COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL FRACTURE FLUID 19
TABLE 3 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED WATER FROM
MARCELLUS SHALE DEVELOPMENT 21
TABLE 4 FINISHED WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR SPECIFIC TREATMENT GOALS 22
TABLE 5 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY
PROCESS STEP (%) 24
TABLE 6 PRODUCED WATER DISPOSAL COSTS FOR OFF-SITE COMMERCIAL
FACILITIES, BY OPTION ($) 25
TABLE 7 EQUIPMENT SELECTION BASED ON SIZE OF PARTICLES REMOVED (MICRON) 37
TABLE 8 TYPICAL WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY 38
TABLE 9 WATER QUALITY GOALS FOR REUSE IN FRACTURING FLUIDS 39
TABLE 10 PRODUCED WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL REQUIREMENTS AND
SUITABLE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 43
TABLE 11 DE-OILING TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 44
TABLE 12 TDS REMOVAL AND DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FRAC FLOWBACK
AND PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 56
TABLE 13 PRESSURE-DRIVEN MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT 57
TABLE 14 DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 97
TABLE 15 COMPARISON OF ON-SITE FLOWBACK WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 100
TABLE 16 TOP TEN COUNTRIES WITH TECHNICALLY RECOVERABLE SHALE GAS AND
TIGHT OIL RESOURCES (TRILLION FT3/BILLION BBL.) 106
TABLE 17 CBM PRODUCED WATER CHARACTERISTICS (POWDER RIVER BASIN) 109
TABLE 18 NUMBER OF WELLS FRACKED IN THE U.S. BY STATE, SINCE 2005 AND IN
2012 ALONE 110
TABLE 19 U.S. UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY SOURCE,
1990-2040 (TRILLION FT3) 112
TABLE 20 NORTH AMERICAN SHALE GAS PRODUCTION BY FORMATION, 2007-2012
(BILLION FT3/DAY) 113
TABLE 21 NORTH AMERICAN COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011 (BILLION
FT3) 114
TABLE 22 WATER USED FOR HYDRAULIC FRACTURING BY STATE, 2005-2012
(MILLION GALLONS) 116
TABLE 23 WASTEWATER PRODUCED BY HYDRAULIC FRACTURING BY STATE, 2012
(MILLION GALLONS) 117
TABLE 24 NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN CANADA, BY TYPE (TRILLION FT3, %) 125
TABLE 25 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT, BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 131
TABLE 26 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, THROUGH 2018 135
TABLE 27 U.S. COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011 (BILLION FT3) 142
TABLE 28 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED-WATER
PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS)
144


LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR
WASTEWATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT FOR HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED OIL AND
GAS WELLS, BY APPLICATION, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS)
10
FIGURE 1 VOLUMETRIC COMPOSITION OF A TYPICAL FRACTURE FLUID (%) 19
FIGURE 2 FLOWBACK VOLUME AND TDS LEVELS OVER TIME 23
FIGURE 3 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY
PROCESS STEP (%) 25
FIGURE 4 ESTIMATED U.S., RUSSIA AND SAUDI ARABIA PETROLEUM AND NATURAL
GAS PRODUCTION, 2008-2013 (QUADRILLION BTU, MILLION BBL OF OIL
EQUIVALENT)
104
FIGURE 5 TOP TEN COUNTRIES WITH TECHNICALLY RECOVERABLE SHALE GAS AND
TIGHT OIL RESOURCES (TRILLION FT3/BILLION BBL.) 106
FIGURE 6 U.S. UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY SOURCE,
1990-2040 (TRILLION FT3) 112
FIGURE 7 U.S. SHALE PLAYS, LOWER 48 STATES 112
FIGURE 8 NORTH AMERICAN SHALE GAS PRODUCTION BY FORMATION, 2007-2012
(BILLION FT3/DAY) 113
FIGURE 9 NORTH AMERICAN COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011 (BILLION
FT3) 114
FIGURE 10 WATER USED FOR HYDRAULIC FRACTURING BY STATE, 2005-2012
(MILLION GALLONS) 116
FIGURE 11 COMPETITION FOR WATER IN U.S. SHALE-ENERGY DEVELOPMENT 118
FIGURE 12 NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN CANADA, BY TYPE (%) 125
FIGURE 13 GROSS WITHDRAWALS FROM SELECTED SHALE PLAYS IN CANADA,
JANUARY 2005-MAY 2013 (BILLION FT3) 127
FIGURE 14 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT, BY COUNTRY, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 132
FIGURE 15 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 135
FIGURE 16 MAJOR U.S. TIGHT GAS PLAYS, LOWER 48 STATES 141
FIGURE 17 U.S. COALBED METHANE PRODUCTION, 1990-2011 (BILLION FT3) 143
FIGURE 18 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER
TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 144

View This Report »

Get Industry Insights. Simply.

  • Latest reports & slideshows with insights from top research analysts
  • 24 Million searchable statistics with tables, figures & datasets
  • More than 10,000 trusted sources
24/7 Customer Support

Talk to Amrita

+1 718 303 2019

Purchase Reports From Reputable Market Research Publishers
Crude Oil Flow Improvers Market by Type, Application, Supply Mode - Global Forecast to 2021

Crude Oil Flow Improvers Market by Type, Application, Supply Mode - Global Forecast to 2021

  • $ 12000
  • Industry report
  • September 2016
  • by MarketsandMarkets

“Rise in crude oil production worldwide drives the COFI market” The global market size of COFI is estimated to reach USD 1.73 billion by 2021 from 1.32 billion in 2016, at a CAGR of 5.5%. Excessive ...

Filter Bags Market - Global Industry, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2016 - 2024

Filter Bags Market - Global Industry, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2016 - 2024

  • $ 7000
  • Industry report
  • September 2016
  • by Transparency Market Research

The filter bags market report provides an in-depth analysis of the global filter bag market for the period 2014 – 2024, wherein 2015 is the base year and the years from 2016 to 2024 is the forecast period. ...


ref:plp2014

Reportlinker.com © Copyright 2016. All rights reserved.

ReportLinker simplifies how Analysts and Decision Makers get industry data for their business.