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  4. > Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Market, By Application (Packaging, Food Services, Bio-medical, Agriculture) & Raw Material — Global Trends & Forecasts to 2018

Rising demand of biodegradable materials, positive attitude of governments towards green procurement policies, and rising oil prices are attracting companies to invest in PHA (Polyhydroxyalkanoate) market. Many large companies such as Meredian (U.S.), Ecomann (China), and Bio-on (Italy) are focusing on increasing production capacities.

Large number of companies, particularly small and middle-sized ones, initiated the experimental and industrialized manufacturing of all types of PHAs. PHA can be produced using various renewable raw materials. Currently, majority of PHA is produced using plant sugar, which can be easily obtained from sugarcane, corn sugar, and sugar beet, making it an ideal raw material for PHA. Considerable amount of PHA is also produced using plant or vegetable oils such as soybean oil, palm oil, and corn oil. Waste lipids and milk whey are the other raw materials at experimental stage and can be commercialized soon.

Although the existing PHA plant capacities are underutilized at present, the companies are still planning for further capacity expansions. Analyzing the wide range of possible applications and upcoming trends of biodegradable plastics, companies are expecting significant growth in PHA demand in the near future. Currently, high prices and performance issues are the two major restraints for PHA market. Generally, the cost of production of biodegradable plastics such as PHA is 20% to 80% higher than the conventional plastics. This is primarily due to the high polymerization cost of biodegradable plastics as most of the processes are still in the developmental stage. PHA is at its initial stage of technology cycle and not yet achieved economies of scale. The market is at a stage where there is high capacity but low consumption. Most of the players are into research and development for increasing the performance of their produced PHA.

In future, with increase in production, the prices will come down. Companies trying to produce PHA in near future are opting for increasing the performance of their products through investments in R&D. This is to ensure that the new products developed are more distinguished and revolutionary in terms of features than the ones already available. Lower prices and improved performance of PHA will boost its demand in future.

The report studies PHA market in all major regions namely North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World (Latin America and Middle East & Africa). PHA applications such as packaging, food services, bio-medical, agriculture, and others have been identified and analyzed. The report segments the global as well as all regional markets by applications. The report also details and estimates the shares of various sources of production of PHA.

This report analyzes various marketing trends and establishes the most effective growth strategy in the market.
It identifies market dynamics such as drivers, restraints, opportunities, burning issues, and winning imperatives.
Major companies such as Metabolix Inc. (U.S.), Meredian Inc. (U.S.), Biomer (Germany), Tianjin GreenBio Materials Co. Ltd (China), Shenzhen Ecomann Technology Co. Ltd (China), etc. have also been profiled in this report.

For this report, various secondary sources such as bioplastics and chemical magazines, encyclopedia, directories, technical handbooks, company annual reports, industry association publications, articles, trade websites, and databases have been referred to identify and collect information useful for this extensive commercial study. The primary sources - experts from related industries and suppliers -; have been interviewed to obtain and verify critical information as well as to assess the future prospects and market estimations.

Scope of the report

On the basis of geography:
North America
Asia-Pacific
Europe
ROW

On basis of applications:
Packaging
Food services
Bio-medical
Agriculture
Other applications

Table Of Contents

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Market, By Application (Packaging, Food Services, Bio-medical, Agriculture) and Raw Material — Global Trends and Forecasts to 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION 15

1.1 KEY TAKE AWAYS 15
1.2 REPORT DESCRIPTION 16
1.3 MARKETS COVERED 16
1.4 STAKE HOLDERS 17
1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 17
1.5.1 MARKET SIZE 17
1.5.2 KEY DATA POINTS TAKEN FROM SECONDARY RESOURCES 18
1.5.3 LIST OF SECONDARY DATA SOURCES 18
1.5.4 KEY DATA POINTS TAKEN FROM PRIMARY SOURCES 19
1.5.5 ASSUMPTIONS MADE FOR THIS REPORT 19

2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 20

3 PREMIUM INSIGHTS 22

3.1 MARKET SEGMENTATION 22
3.2 EUROPE and NORTH AMERICA - BEST MARKETS TO INVEST 23
3.3 MARKET REVENUE TRENDS, BY GEOGRAPHY 24
3.4 EUROPE CONTINUES TO DOMINATE THE MARKET 25
3.5 PACKAGING - THE MAJOR PHA APPLICATION 26
3.6 CONSUMPTION TRENDS, BY APPLICATIONS 27
3.7 MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DEVELOPMENTS IN 2012 28
3.8 MAXIMUM RandD IN EUROPE 29
3.9 PHA PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS 30

4 MARKET OVERVIEW 33

4.1 INTRODUCTION 34
4.2 VALUE CHAIN 35
4.3 MARKET DYNAMICS 36
4.3.1 BURNING ISSUES 36
4.3.1.1 Under-utilization of PHA producing plants 36
4.3.1.2 Technology still in its initial phase 38
4.3.2 DRIVERS 38
4.3.2.1 Positive attitude of governments toward green procurement policies 39
4.3.2.2 Vast availability of renewable and cost effective raw materials 41
4.3.2.3 Biodegradability driving the consumption 42
4.3.2.4 Increasing concerns for human health and safety 44
4.3.2.5 Rising oil prices driving bio-based materials 47
4.3.3 RESTRAINTS 49
4.3.3.1 High price compared to conventional polymers 49
4.3.3.2 Performance issues 50
4.3.4 OPPORTUNITIES 51
4.3.4.1 Increasing scope in end-user segments 51
4.3.4.2 New raw materials 53
4.3.4.3 Potential for cost reduction through economy of scale 53
4.3.4.4 Under penetration in Asia-Pacific countries 53
4.3.5 WINNING IMPERATIVES 54
4.3.5.1 Focus on products development and innovation 54
4.4 PORTER'S FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS 56
4.4.1 DEGREE OF COMPETITION 57
4.4.2 SUPPLIERS' POWER 57
4.4.3 BUYERS' POWER 57
4.4.4 THREAT OF SUBSTITUTES 58
4.4.5 THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS 58
4.5 PATENT ANALYSIS 59

5 SOURCES OF PHA PRODUCTION 62

5.1 INTRODUCTION 63
5.2 GENERAL PRODUCTION PROCESS 65
5.2.1 CHOICE OF RAW MATERIALS 65
5.2.2 PHA COST BY RAW MATERIALS 66
5.2.3 STRAINS SELECTION 67
5.2.4 BIOPROCESSES and DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING 67
5.3 PLANT SUGAR 68
5.4 PLANT OIL 70
5.5 WASTE LIPIDS 71
5.6 MILK WHEY 73
5.7 OTHER FEASIBLE SOURCE OF PRODUCTION 74
5.7.1 ENGINEERED MICROBES 74
5.7.2 SWITCHGRASS 74
5.7.3 TOBACCO PLANT 74
5.7.4 OILSEED CROP 74

6 GLOBAL PHA MARKET, BY APPLICATIONS 75

6.1 INTRODUCTION 76
6.2 SHIFTING TRENDS TOWARDS BIOPLASTICS 77
6.3 MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATIONS 78
6.3.1 PACKAGING 81
6.3.1.1 Introduction 81
6.3.1.2 Rigid packaging to have highest PHA usage in this application 82
6.3.1.3 Europe: Largest market for packaging applications 84
6.3.2 FOOD SERVICES 86
6.3.2.1 Demand for packaged food items are rising 86
6.3.2.2 North America will be the largest market for food services application 87
6.3.3 BIO-MEDICAL 89
6.3.3.1 Biodegradability driving PHA consumption in bio-medical applications 89
6.3.3.2 Bio-medical application to have highest growth rate in Asia-Pacific 90
6.3.4 AGRICULTURE 92
6.3.4.1 PHA helps in solving disposal problems 92
6.3.4.2 Rising PHA application in agriculture will drive the market 93
6.3.5 OTHER APPLICATIONS 95
6.3.5.1 Specialty applications of PHA are increasing 95
6.3.5.2 Asia-Pacific to have the highest growth for other applications market 96

7 PHA MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY 98

7.1 INTRODUCTION 99
7.2 GLOBAL PHA CONSUMPTION V/S REVENUE 100
7.3 MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS, BY GEOGRAPHY 101
7.4 EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA TO DRIVE THE GLOBAL PHA MARKET 102
7.4.1 NORTH AMERICA 104
7.4.1.1 Rising environmental concerns driving North American market 104
7.4.1.2 Corn present in abundance in North America 105
7.4.1.3 Bio-medical and food services application to drive PHA consumption in North America 106
7.4.2 EUROPE 108
7.4.2.1 European PHA market driven by stringent regulations 108
7.4.2.2 Milk whey and sugar beet most promising raw materials in Europe 109
7.4.2.3 Packaging application to drive the European PHA market 110
7.4.3 ASIA-PACIFIC 112
7.4.3.1 Waste disposal is a serious problem in Asia-Pacific 112
7.4.3.2 Huge reserves of sugarcane and palm oil in Asia-Pacific 113
7.4.3.3 Packaging applications to drive growth in Asia-Pacific 114
7.4.4 ROW 116
7.4.4.1 Brazil - Emerging market 116
7.4.4.2 Brazil - Largest sugarcane producer 116
7.4.4.3 Moderate growth rate expected in ROW 117

8 COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE 119

8.1 STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENTS 120
8.1.1 MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENTS IN 2012 122
8.1.2 NORTH AMERICA: REGION WITH MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENTS 124
8.1.3 EXPANSION: MOST POPULAR GROWTH STRATEGY 125
8.1.4 NEW PRODUCTS LAUNCH/DEVELOPMENTS 127
8.1.5 PARTNERSHIPS 129
8.1.6 RandD 130
8.1.7 OTHER DEVELOPMENTS 131

9 COMPANY PROFILES 132

9.1 BIOMATERA 132
9.2 BIOMER 134
9.3 BIO-ON SRL 137
9.4 KANEKA CORPORATION 139
9.5 MEREDIAN INC. 141
9.6 METABOLIX INC. 144
9.7 NEWLIGHT TECHNOLOGIES, LLC 148
9.8 PHB INDUSTRIAL S.A. 151
9.9 POLYFERM CANADA INC. 153
9.10 SHENZHEN ECOMANN BIOTECHNOLOGY CO. LTD 155
9.11 TIANAN BIOLOGIC MATERIALS CO. LTD 158
9.12 TIANJIN GREENBIO MATERIALS CO. LTD 161

APPENDIX 163

U.S. PATENTS 163
EUROPE PATENTS 170
JAPAN PATENTS 184
CHINA PATENTS 188



LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1 COMPARISON OF PHA PRODUCTS, BY COMPANIES 30
TABLE 2 GLOBAL PHA PRODUCTION CAPACITY, BY COMPANIES,
2011 - 2013 (MT/YEAR) 37
TABLE 3 NORTH AMERICA and EU REGULATIONS 40
TABLE 4 CONVENTIONAL PLASTICS: HEALTH CONCERNS 44
TABLE 5 PHA MARKET GROWTH RATE, BY APPLICATIONS, 2013 - 2018 52
TABLE 6 NEW PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT 54
TABLE 7 PHA: PRODUCTION PROCESS and RAW MATERIAL, BY COMPANIES 63
TABLE 8 PHA: COST ANALYSIS OF RAW MATERIAL 66
TABLE 9 GLOBAL PLASTICS MARKET VOLUME, 2011 - 2018 (‘000 MT) 77
TABLE 10 GLOBAL PHA MARKET VOLUME, BY APPLICATIONS, 2011 - 2018 (MT) 79
TABLE 11 GLOBAL PHA MARKET REVENUE, BY APPLICATIONS,
2011 - 2018 ($THOUSAND) 80
TABLE 12 PACKAGING: PHA MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY TYPES,
2011 - 2018 (MT) 82
TABLE 13 OVERALL PACKAGING: PHA MARKET REVENUE, BY TYPES,
2011 - 2018 ($THOUSAND) 83
TABLE 14 PACKAGING: PHA MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY GEOGRAPHY,
2011 - 2018 (MT) 84
TABLE 15 PACKAGING: PHA MARKET REVENUE, BY GEOGRAPHY,
2011 - 2018 ($THOUSAND) 85
TABLE 16 FOOD SERVICES: PHA MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY GEOGRAPHY,
2011 - 2018 (MT) 87
TABLE 17 FOOD SERVICES: PHA MARKET REVENUE, BY GEOGRAPHY,
2011 - 2018 ($THOUSAND) 88
TABLE 18 BIO-MEDICAL: PHA MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY GEOGRAPHY,
2011 - 2018 (MT) 90
TABLE 19 BIO-MEDICAL: PHA MARKET REVENUE, BY GEOGRAPHY,
2011 - 2018 ($THOUSAND) 91
TABLE 20 AGRICULTURE: PHA MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY GEOGRAPHY,
2011 - 2018 (MT) 93
TABLE 21 AGRICULTURE: PHA MARKET REVENUE, BY GEOGRAPHY,
2011 - 2018 ($THOUSAND) 94
TABLE 22 OTHER: PHA MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY GEOGRAPHY,
2011 - 2018 (MT) 96
TABLE 23 OTHER: PHA MARKET REVENUE, BY GEOGRAPHY,
2011 - 2018 ($THOUSAND) 97
TABLE 24 GLOBAL PHA MARKET VOLUME (MT) and REVENUE ($THOUSAND),
2011 - 2018 100
TABLE 25 PHA: MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2011 - 2018 (MT) 102
TABLE 26 PHA: MARKET REVENUE, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2011 - 2018 ($THOUSAND) 103
TABLE 27 NORTH AMERICA: RAW MATERIAL AVAILABILITY ('000 MT) 105
TABLE 28 NORTH AMERICA: PHA MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY APPLICATIONS, 2011 - 2018 (MT) 106
TABLE 29 NORTH AMERICA: PHA MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY APPLICATIONS, 2011 - 2018 ($THOUSAND) 107
TABLE 30 EUROPE: RAW MATERIAL AVAILABILITY ('000 MT) 109
TABLE 31 EUROPE: PHA MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY APPLICATIONS,
2011 - 2018 (MT) 110
TABLE 32 EUROPE: PHA MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY APPLICATIONS,
2011 - 2018 ($THOUSAND) 111
TABLE 33 APAC: RAW MATERIAL AVAILABILITY ('000 MT) 113
TABLE 34 APAC: PHA MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY APPLICATIONS,
2011 - 2018 (MT) 114
TABLE 35 APAC: PHA MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY APPLICATIONS,
2011 - 2018 ($THOUSAND) 115
TABLE 36 ROW: RAW MATERIAL AVAILABILITY ('000 MT) 116
TABLE 37 ROW: PHA MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY APPLICATIONS,
2011 - 2018 (MT) 117
TABLE 38 ROW: PHA MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY APPLICATIONS,
2011 - 2018 ($THOUSAND) 118
TABLE 39 COMPETITIVE DEVELOPMENTS, BY APPROACHES, 2009 - 2013 122
TABLE 40 EXPANSIONS, 2009 - 2013 126
TABLE 41 NEW PRODUCTS LAUNCH/DEVELOPMENTS, 2010 - 2013 127
TABLE 42 PARTNERSHIPS, 2012 - 2013 129
TABLE 43 RandD, 2010 - 2012 130
TABLE 44 OTHER DEVELOPMENTS, 2009 - 2013 131
TABLE 45 BIOMATERA: PRODUCT SPECIFICATION 133
TABLE 46 BIOMER: PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS 134
TABLE 47 BIOMER: PRODUCT GRADES and ITS APPLICATIONS 135
TABLE 48 BIO-ON: PRODUCT SPECIFICATION 137
TABLE 49 KANEKA: PRODUCT SPECIFICATION 139
TABLE 50 MEREDIAN: PRODUCT SPECIFICATION 142
TABLE 51 METABOLIX: PRODUCT DESCRIPTION 145
TABLE 52 NEWLIGHT: PRODUCT SPECIFICATION 149
TABLE 53 PHB INDUSTRIAL: PRODUCT DESCRIPTION 151
TABLE 54 POLYFERM: PRODUCTS SPECIFICATION 153
TABLE 55 POLYFERM: VERSAMER PHA NAMING CONVENTION 154
TABLE 56 ECOMANN: PRODUCT SPECIFICATION 156
TABLE 57 TIANAN: PRODUCT SPECIFICATION 159
TABLE 58 TIANAN: ENMAT GRADES and ITS APPLICATIONS 159
TABLE 59 TIANJIN: PRODUCT SPECIFICATION 161



LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1 PHA: MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY APPLICATIONS and GEOGRAPHY,
2012 (MT) 20
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL PHA MARKET SEGMENTATION 22
FIGURE 3 PHA MARKET SCENARIO IN DIFFERENT REGIONS 23
FIGURE 4 PHA MARKET REVENUE TREND, BY GEOGRAPHY,
2011 - 2018 ($THOUSAND) 24
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL PHA MARKET SNAPSHOT 25
FIGURE 6 PHA MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY APPLICATIONS and GEOGRAPHY,
2013 (MT) 26
FIGURE 7 PHA CONSUMPTION, BY APPLICATIONS, 2013 - 2018 (MT) 27
FIGURE 8 YEAR WISE STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENTS 28
FIGURE 9 PATENT ANALYSIS, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2009 - 2012 29
FIGURE 10 VALUE CHAIN FOR PHA MARKET 35
FIGURE 11 IMPACT OF GLOBAL PHA MARKET DRIVERS 39
FIGURE 12 WASTE DISPOSAL METHODS FOR NON-BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS and MATERIALS 43
FIGURE 13 OIL IMPORT PRICE ESTIMATES, 2000 - 2030 48
FIGURE 14 IMPACT OF GLOBAL PHA MARKET RESTRAINTS 49
FIGURE 15 PRICE COMPARISON - CONVENTIONAL and UNCONVENTIONAL PLASTICS 50
FIGURE 16 IMPACT OF GLOBAL PHA MARKET OPPORTUNITIES 51
FIGURE 17 PORTER'S FIVE FORCES FOR PHA MARKET 56
FIGURE 18 PATENT ANALYSIS, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2009 - 2012 59
FIGURE 19 PATENT ANALYSIS, BY YEARS, 2009 - 2012 60
FIGURE 20 NUMBER OF PATENTS, BY COMPANIES, 2009 - 2012 61
FIGURE 21 PHA RAW MATERIAL AVAILABILITY 64
FIGURE 22 PHA PRODUCTION PROCESS 65
FIGURE 23 PHA PRODUCTION FROM SUGAR CANE 68
FIGURE 24 PHA PRODUCTION FROM PLANT(PALM) OIL 70
FIGURE 25 PHA PRODUCTION FROM WASTE LIPIDS 71
FIGURE 26 PHA PRODUCTION FROM WASTE LIPIDS 72
FIGURE 27 PHA PRODUCTION FROM MILK WHEY 73
FIGURE 28 PHA MARKET SEGMENTATION, BY APPLICATIONS 76
FIGURE 29 GLOBAL PHA MARKET SHARE, BY APPLICATIONS, 2012 78
FIGURE 30 PHA MARKET SEGMENTATION, BY GEOGRAPHY 99
FIGURE 31 PHA: MARKET CONSUMPTION, BY GEOGRAPHY, 2012 101
FIGURE 32 GLOBAL PHA MARKET DEVELOPMENTS, BY COMPANIES, 2009 - 2013 120
FIGURE 33 COMPETITIVE DEVELOPMENTS, BY TYPES, 2009 - 2013 121
FIGURE 34 GROWTH STRATEGIES OF TOP 2 COMPANIES, 2009 - 2012 123
FIGURE 35 DEVELOPMENTS, BY REGIONS, 2009 - 2013 124
FIGURE 36 EXPANSIONS, 2009 - 2013 125

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