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Adaptive Optics: Technologies and Global Markets

  • June 2014
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 229 pages

This BCC Research report gives a 10-year study of the global market growth potential of adaptive optics (AO) systems. It provides details of AO revenues through 2022 for scientific researches along with military, medical, industrial, and consumer industries. Present findings on the technology, commercial drivers in the deployment of AO systems, nature of competition and the issues faced by vendors have also been covered in this report.

Use this report to:
- Receive detailed analysis of the global adaptive optics (AO) systems market.
- Receive information on the technology and commercial drivers for the deployment of AO systems in applied scientific research, military, medical, industrial and consumer markets.
- Receive information on regulatory issues of the industry.
- Receive information on the nature of the competition and the major competitive issues being faced by vendors in these markets.

Highlights
- The global market for adaptive optics (AO) systems reached $139 million in 2013. This market is expected to grow to $157 million in 2014 and about $40.7 billion in 2022, a
compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 87.9% over the nine-year period from 2013 to 2022.
- Military, as a segment, reached $81 million in 2013. It is projected to grow to $756 million in 2022, with a CAGR of 28.2% over the nine-year period from 2013 to 2022.
- Medical, as a segment, reached $30 million in 2013. It is projected to grow to $9.4 billion in 2022, with a CAGR of 89.5% over the nine-year period from 2013 to 2022.

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
This report will take a 10-year look at the global market growth potential for adaptive optics (AO) systems. The report will also present findings on the technology and
commercial drivers for the deployment of AO systems in applied scientific research, military, medical, industrial and consumer markets. It provides forecasts of the growth
of AO revenues through 2022 for the scientific research, military, medical, industrial and consumer industries.

AO has emerged from the shadows of astronomy research because of its stunning success in allowing large ground-based telescopes to outperform highly publicized
space-based systems such as Hubble. It does this by removing aberrations from starlight caused by the Earth’s atmosphere. AO can be used to improve the quality of
any image, whether presented to the human retina or for further processing in other image capture systems such as machine vision (MV) or additive manufacturing (AM)
systems.

AO is a fast developing optical system technology that will affect a broad range of industries. Although the concept is simple, it is currently a complex system technology.
However, the potential for system simplification and cost reduction has far-reaching implications and creates real commercial opportunities. This report will try to balance
just enough technical information with commercial factors. It will provide a broad understanding of how AO can be integrated into many different products and industries.

It is important to note that, for the purposes of this report, the definition of an AO system is “a system technology that achieves the desired goal of adding or removing
aberrations to or from light wavefronts to improve image clarity and resolution for delivery to a vision system, biological or machine.” Thus, the current complexity can be
simplified with dramatic system cost reductions.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
The human eye is sensitive to display quality and AO provides a significant improvement in display clarity. Each individual’s eyes have different aberration profiles
and AO can compensate for this on an individual basis. This is a major driver for the consumer market. Technologies are being developed that will reduce AO system costs
to a level appropriate for consumer markets and applications. The markets for these applications are, or will become, very competitive. This report looks into the nature of
the competition and the major competitive issues facing vendors in these markets.

Although the integration of AO systems into consumer products was practically nonexistent in 2013, this will change quite rapidly as system costs decrease
dramatically. Current markets for AO systems are primarily the scientific research, military and medical industries. Academia, government and industry are keen to see
AO component costs driven down to consumer levels (see Appendix II). It is important that vendors understand the market dynamics and potential for AO, as consumer
growth will be explosive. The development of new products and technologies that benefit from AO makes this more complicated for decision makers. Vendors need to
understand the market forces and technology integration possibilities of AO in order to take advantage of consumer products integration.

SCOPE OF REPORT
The primary scope of this report is to investigate market revenue growth prospects for AO systems. These include near eye displays, mobile displays, machine vision,
adaptive driver assistance systems (ADAS) for automobiles, medical systems and emerging markets such as 3D printing. The report forecasts growth of existing AO
markets, including scientific research applications, medical and military applications. It also includes estimates of the system cost reductions resulting from technology
developments and the economies of manufacturing consumer quantities of components.

Various factors were taken into account in making the market forecast, including new technologies, and the rate of technology and market adoption with realistic
assessments of the role of AO as a disruptive as well as a sustaining technology. The report will look at how the development of new technologies affects price and
performance. In some cases, the need for the highest quality AO system will mean system prices remain high. However, the introduction of new materials and
technologies will enable AO systems to be integrated into high-volume consumer products.

Recent advances in materials technology, including graphene, electrically sensitive polymers and other materials, can dramatically reduce the cost of components.
Advances in the interrogation and modulation of an aberrated wavefront offer reduced cost and increased speed. These and other advantages provide large cost reductions
for applications in the medical, military, industrial and consumer segments. The report also recognizes major global social and economic trends and their impact on
market growth as drivers of technology development in all market segments.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE
This study takes a first look at how a scientific research technology will play a disruptive role in vision delivery systems over the next 10 years. The report reviews
emerging technologies that will benefit from AO, and it should be read by any organization engaged in research or product development involving video or image
display, manipulation or redirection. This includes developers of smartphones, smart cameras, entertainment systems, ophthalmoscopy devices, endoscopic devices,
eyewear and other near eye displays, additive manufacturing systems such as machine vision and 3D printing and automobile manufacturers.

It will also be of interest to nanosystem researchers. The ability of AO systems to provide real-time high-resolution manipulation of objects at the molecular scale
provides great flexibility in manipulating nanosystem architectures. For example, AO-enhanced optical tweezers have been used to manipulate DNA.

Also included is a brief review of the patent landscape. It includes the rate of AO-related patent submissions, as well as a note of significant intellectual property (IP)
relating to AO. Although an analysis of patents within the various system component technologies would be helpful, it is beyond the scope of this report. However, the IP
issue can be a game changer both ways. It can be a serious barrier to market entry at the same time as stimulating novel and innovative ways to overcome the technical and
IP challenges in developing effective, low-cost AO systems. Finally, the study will be of value to the investment community as a tool to measure
the financial potential for new technology, product and distribution investment opportunities in the field of AO.

METHODOLOGY
Primary and secondary methodologies were used for this report. BCC Research conducted a comprehensive literature search, including technical newsletters, optics
industry associations and their publications. Data were collected through interviews with industry executives and through research at a major photonics trade show,
Photonics West, San Francisco, in Feb. 2014. Projections are based on estimates and a synthesis of many individual market forecasts and trends analysis. Due to the newness
of AO in a market deployment sense, an extensive forecast model was developed to ensure that individual market segment forecasts are internally consistent.

INFORMATION SOURCES
Data for this study was obtained from direct contact with manufacturers, very often from C-level executives, industry associations, government agencies and a number of
databases, including Factiva, EBSCO, ProQuest, JAMA, JSTOR and ABI Inform. Several hundred individual research reports, Ph.D. thesis papers, journals, indexes, abstracts,
press releases and product literatures were reviewed. In addition to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), several online patent databases were polled to
uncover the intellectual property activity concerning AO.

Table Of Contents

Adaptive Optics: Technologies and Global Markets
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
METHODOLOGY 4
INFORMATION SOURCES 4
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 5
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 7

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL REVENUE GROWTH OF AO MARKET, THROUGH 2022 ($
MILLIONS) 9
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL REVENUE GROWTH OF AO MARKET, 2013-2022 ($
MILLIONS) 9

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW OF ADAPTIVE OPTICS 11

TABLE 1 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF ADAPTIVE OPTICS SYSTEMS 12
TABLE 2 CURRENT USES OF ADAPTIVE OPTICS SYSTEMS 13
TABLE 3 FUTURE USES OF AO SYSTEMS 13
TABLE 4 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ADAPTIVE OPTICS SYSTEMS 14
TABLE 5 APPLICATIONS OF ADAPTIVE OPTICS SYSTEMS 14
TABLE 6 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN ADAPTIVE OPTICS SYSTEMS 15

CHAPTER 4 REGULATORY ISSUES 18

FDA 18
WHAT ARE MOBILE MEDICAL APPS? 19
HOW WILL THE FDA REGULATE MOBILE MEDICAL APPS? 19
MOBILE MEDICAL APPS THAT THE FDA WILL REGULATE 19
MOBILE APPS FOR WHICH THE FDA INTENDS TO EXERCISE ENFORCEMENT
DISCRETION 20
DOES THE FDA REGULATE MOBILE DEVICES AND MOBILE APP STORES? 20
DOES THE GUIDANCE APPLY TO ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS? 21
EUROPEAN UNION 21
EMERGING MARKETS 21
REGULATION OF LASERS 21
TABLE 7 LASER STANDARDS AND SAFETY CLASSES 22

CHAPTER 5 AO SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY AND NEW DEVELOPMENTS 24

WAVEFRONT SENSOR 24
GENERAL 24
Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor 24
Pyramid Wavefront Sensor 25
Interferometric Techniques 25
Polarized Shearing Interferometer (PSI) 25
Ray Tracing Aberrometry 26
Wavelet Transform Profilometry 26
Numerical Holograms 26
Wavefront Sensorless Adaptive Optics 26
Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography 27
Walsh Functions 27
LASER GUIDE STAR CREATION 27
ASTRONOMY 27
MEDICAL 28
Alternatives 28
MILITARY 28
INDUSTRIAL 28
CONSUMER 28
WAVEFRONT MODULATOR 28
ZERNIKE POLYNOMIALS 28
ALTERNATIVES 29
DEFORMABLE MIRRORS 29
TABLE 8 TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR LOW-COST AO WAVEFRONT
CORRECTION ALTERNATIVE TO DEFORMABLE MIRRORS 31
TABLE 9 LIST OF DEFORMABLE MIRROR MANUFACTURERS 31

CHAPTER 6 MAJOR GROWTH TRAJECTORY FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS 33

OVERVIEW 33
APPLIED SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 34
INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH ASTRONOMY 34
TABLE 10 NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 2013 PRO-RATA FUNDING OF
PROJECTS WITH AO COMPONENTS ($) 35
TABLE 11 NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 2013 PRO-RATA ASTRONOMY
DIVISION FUNDING OF AO-RELATED PROJECTS BY UNIVERSITY ($ MILLIONS) 36
FIGURE 1 NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 2013 PRO-RATA ASTRONOMY DIVISION
FUNDING OF AO-RELATED PROJECTS BY UNIVERSITY ($ MILLIONS) 36
RESEARCH MICROSCOPY 36
TABLE 12 TYPES OF MICROSCOPY 37
ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPES 38
TABLE 13 AFM MANUFACTURERS BY REGION 38
FIGURE 2 AFM MANUFACTURERS BY REGION 39
MILITARY 40
MAJOR RESEARCH ACTIVITY 40
LIDAR/LADAR 40
High Energy Laser (HEL) 40
Battlefield 40
FACTORS AFFECTING MILITARY FORECAST 41
Political Uncertainty on Budgets 41
Expectation that AO System Costs will Drop as Forecast 41
Special Operations Forces Will Integrate AO Despite Budget Issues 41
Space-Based Defense Technology Spending will be Maintained at
2013 Levels. 41
MEDICAL 41
TABLE 14 LIST OF INNOVATIVE MEDICAL RESEARCH PROJECTS BY ACADEMIA AND
MANUFACTURERS 43
INDUSTRIAL 45
TABLE 15 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGIES 46
TABLE 16 LIST OF 3D PRINTER MANUFACTURERS 46
FIGURE 3 3D PRINTER MANUFACTURERS BY REGION 48
CONSUMER 48
TABLE 17 CONSUMER MARKET UNIT SHIPMENTS FOR OTHER DISPLAY SYSTEMS,
THROUGH 2022 (THOUSANDS OF UNITS) 50
FIGURE 4 CONSUMER MARKET UNIT SHIPMENTS FOR OTHER DISPLAY SYSTEMS,
2015 AND 2022 (THOUSANDS OF UNITS) 50
TABLE 18 CONSUMER MARKET REVENUES FROM OTHER DISPLAY SYSTEMS,
THROUGH 2022 ($ BILLIONS) 51
FIGURE 5 CONSUMER MARKET REVENUES FROM OTHER DISPLAY SYSTEMS, 2015
AND 2022 ($ BILLIONS) 51

CHAPTER 7 GLOBAL TRENDS AND REGIONAL AO REVENUES 54

APPLIED SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 56
TABLE 19 REVENUE GROWTH FOR APPLIED SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH APPLICATIONS
BY REGION, THROUGH 2022 ($ MILLIONS) 57
FIGURE 6 REVENUE GROWTH FOR APPLIED SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH APPLICATIONS
BY REGION, 2013-2022 ($ MILLIONS) 57
MILITARY APPLICATIONS 58
TABLE 20 REVENUE GROWTH FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS BY REGION, 2013-2022
($ MILLIONS) 59
FIGURE 7 REVENUE GROWTH FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS BY REGION 2013-2022
($ MILLIONS) 59
MEDICAL APPLICATIONS 60
TABLE 21 REVENUE GROWTH FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS BY REGION, THROUGH
2022 ($ MILLIONS) 60
FIGURE 8 REVENUE GROWTH FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS BY REGION, 2013-2022
($ MILLIONS) 60
TABLE 22 REVENUE GROWTH FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2022 ($ MILLIONS) 61
FIGURE 9 REVENUE GROWTH FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS BY REGION,
2013-2022 ($ MILLIONS) 61
TABLE 23 REVENUE GROWTH FOR CONSUMER APPLICATIONS BY REGION,
2013-2022 ($ MILLIONS) 62
FIGURE 10 REVENUE GROWTH FOR CONSUMER APPLICATIONS BY REGION,
2013-2022 ($ MILLIONS) 62

CHAPTER 8 AO MARKETS BY INDUSTRY AND APPLICATION 64

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 64
TABLE 24 REVENUE GROWTH BY APPLICATION SEGMENT FOR SCIENTIFIC
RESEARCH, THROUGH 2022 ($ MILLIONS) 64
FIGURE 11 REVENUE GROWTH BY APPLICATION SEGMENT FOR SCIENTIFIC
RESEARCH, 2013-2022 ($ MILLIONS) 64
ASTRONOMY 65
TABLE 25 GLOBAL LARGE TELESCOPE DEVELOPMENT AND INSTALLATION
LOCATIONS WITH AO 66
MILITARY 66
LIDAR/LADAR 66
COMMUNICATIONS 67
BATTLEFIELD 70
LOGISTICS 71
SECURITY 71
TABLE 26 ADAPTIVE OPTICS CENTER OF EXCELLENCE FOR NATIONAL SECURITY
LABORATORIES 71
TABLE 27 REVENUE GROWTH BY APPLICATION SEGMENT FOR MILITARY, THROUGH
2022 ($ MILLIONS) 73
FIGURE 12 REVENUE GROWTH BY APPLICATION SEGMENT FOR MILITARY,
2013-2022 ($ MILLIONS) 73
MEDICAL 74
RESEARCH 74
Optical Tweezers 74
Autologous Cell Therapy (ACT) 75
Cell Processing Professionals 75
Cell Biologists 75
Bioprocess Engineers 75
Bioprinting 76
APPLICATIONS 76
TABLE 28 REVENUE GROWTH BY MEDICAL APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH
2022 ($ MILLIONS) 78
FIGURE 13 REVENUE GROWTH BY MEDICAL APPLICATION SEGMENT, 2013-2022 ($
MILLIONS) 78
INDUSTRIAL 78
3D PRINTING 79
Industrial 79
Consumer 80
Target Age Groups 81
Ages 8-18 81
Ages 19-50 81
Age 51+ 81
MACHINE VISION 81
Semiconductor Fabrication and Design 82
Nanomanufacturing 83
TABLE 29 LIST OF NANOMANUFACTURING RESEARCH CENTERS AND THEIR
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 84
AUTOMOBILE 91
TABLE 30 AUTOMOBILE ELECTRONIC SYSTEM MANUFACTURERS 92
TABLE 31 REVENUE GROWTH FOR INDUSTRIAL BY APPLICATION SEGMENT,
THROUGH 2022 ($ MILLIONS) 95
FIGURE 14 REVENUE GROWTH FOR INDUSTRIAL BY APPLICATION SEGMENT,
2013-2022 ($ MILLIONS) 95
CONSUMER 96
OVERVIEW 96
TABLE 32 REVENUE GROWTH FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2022 ($ MILLIONS) 97
FIGURE 15 REVENUE GROWTH FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, 2013-2022 ($ MILLIONS) 97
HEAD MOUNTED DISPLAYS 97
TABLE 33 A BRIEF HISTORY OF HMD TECHNOLOGY 98
TABLE 34 HMD SYSTEM VENDORS 99
TABLE 35 MICRODISPLAY SILICON FOUNDRIES FOR HMD DISPLAY SILICON 102
TABLE 36 LCOS VENDORS FOR HMD DISPLAYS 103
TABLE 37 NON-LCOS VENDORS FOR HMD DISPLAYS 103
TABLE 38 HMD MICRODISPLAY RESEARCH CENTERS 104
SMART COMMUNICATIONS 104
VRD 105
Microdisplays 105
TABLE 39 TOTAL SMART COMMUNICATION DEVICE UNIT SHIPMENTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2022 (MILLIONS) 106
FIGURE 16 TOTAL SMART COMMUNICATION DEVICE UNIT SHIPMENTS BY REGION,
2013 AND 2022 ($ MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 40 VRD SMART COMMUNICATION DEVICES UNIT SHIPMENTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2022 (MILLION UNITS) 107
FIGURE 17 VRD SMART COMMUNICATION DEVICES UNIT SHIPMENTS BY REGION,
2013 AND 2022 (MILLION UNITS) 107
TABLE 41 SCREEN DISPLAY SMART COMMUNICATION DEVICES UNIT SHIPMENTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2022 (MILLIONS) 108
FIGURE 18 SCREEN DISPLAY SMART COMMUNICATION DEVICES UNIT SHIPMENTS
BY REGION, 2013 AND 2022 (MILLION UNITS) 108
AMATEUR ASTRONOMY 108
TABLE 42 AMATEUR ASTRONOMY MANUFACTURERS 109

CHAPTER 9 INTERNATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 111

AGE DEMOGRAPHICS 111
TABLE 43 GLOBAL INCREASE IN OLDER AGE GROUPS, 2010-2030 (%) 111
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL INCREASE IN OLDER AGE GROUPS, 2010-2030 (%) 112
TABLE 44 GLOBAL INCREASE IN ALL AGE GROUPS, 2010 AND 2022 (BILLION) 112
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL INCREASE FOR ALL AGE GROUPS, 2010 AND 2022 ($ BILLIONS) 112
TABLE 45 AGE GROUP SIZE BY REGION, 2010 (BILLIONS) 113
FIGURE 21 AGE GROUP SIZE BY REGION, 2010 ($ BILLIONS) 113
GLOBAL ECONOMIC INDICATORS 113
AO MARKETS 114
Medical 114
Industrial 114
Consumer 114
GLOBAL ECONOMIC ACTIVITY 114
TABLE 46 WORLD GDP GROWTH, 2013-2016 (%) 115
FIGURE 22 WORLD GDP GROWTH, 2013-2016 (%) 115
TABLE 47 GLOBAL DEPENDENCY RATIOS FOR THE PERIOD OF 2010-2030 (% RATIO) 116
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL DEPENDENCY RATIOS FOR THE PERIOD OF 2010-2030 (%
RATIO) 116

CHAPTER 10 CONCLUSIONS 118

TECHNOLOGY GOALS 118
REGULATORY CONCERNS 118
COMMERCIAL CONCERNS 119
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY 119
COST REDUCTION 119
REGULATORY ISSUES 120
MARKET FACTORS 120

CHAPTER 11 COMPANY PROFILES 122

ASTRONOMY 122
PROFESSIONAL 122
3S Photonics S.A.S. 122
Avensys Inc. (North America) 122
ALPAO SAS 122
Boston Micromachines Corp. 123
CILAS 123
Imagine Optic 123
Iris AO Inc. 125
AMATEUR 125
Astro-Physics Inc. 125
Celestron LLC 126
Edmund Optics Inc. 126
Obsession Telescopes 126
Orion Telescopes and Binoculars 126
Santa Barbara Instrument Group (SBIG) 127
MILITARY 127
AAI Corp. 127
Aeryon Labs Inc. 127
Aoptix 128
Insitu Inc. 128
Lockheed Martin Corp. 129
Northrop Grumman Corp. 129
Northrop Grumman AOA Xinetics Division 129
Raytheon Co. 130
MEDICAL 130
OPHTHALMIC 130
Abbott Laboratories 130
Bioptigen Inc. 131
Canon Inc. 133
Carl Zeiss Meditec 133
3D DIGITAL VISUALIZATION 134
Heidelberg Engineering 134
NIDEK Inc. 134
Optovue Inc. 134
OTHER 135
Agfa HealthCare Corp. 135
Boston Scientific Corp. 135
Conmed Co. 135
Cook Medical Inc. 135
HOYA Corp. USA 136
Karl Storz Endoscopy-America Inc. 136
Olympus 136
Richard Wolf GmbH 136
Stryker 137
Stryker Endoscopy 137
Topcon Medical Systems Inc. 137
BIOPRINTING 137
Regenovo Biotechnology Co. 137
Organovo Holdings Inc. 138
Printerinks 140
University of Wollongong-BioPen 140
INDUSTRIAL 142
3D PRINTING 142
3D Systems 142
3Geometry Manufacturing Systems 143
Arcam 144
Asiga Global 144
Aspect Inc. 144
BeAM Machines 145
CMET Inc. 145
Concept Laser GmbH 146
CRP Technology SRL (Windform) 146
EnvisionTEC GmbH 147
EOS-Electro Optical Systems GmbH 148
ExOne 148
Netfabb GmbH 149
Lithoz GmbH 149
LUXeXceL 150
Mcor Technologies Ltd. 150
MicroFab Technologies Inc. 151
Microfabrica Inc. 152
Optomec 152
Renishaw PLC 153
RepRap.org 154
Sciaky Inc. 154
Sigma Labs Inc. 155
SLM Solutions GmbH 155
Stratasys Ltd. 156
Stratasys Ltd. (USA) 156
Trump Precision Machinery Co. Ltd. 156
Voxeljet GmbH 157
Zecotek Photonics Inc. 158
MACHINE VISION 159
Adimec 159
Advanced Vision Technology Ltd. (AVT) 160
PHO008A - Adaptive Optics: Technologies and Global Markets
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
Allied Vision Technologies GmbH 160
Automated Vision LLC 161
Basler AG 162
Cognex Corp. 162
Teledyne Dalsa Inc. 164
Teledyne DALSA Imaging 165
Edmund Optics 166
Fairchild Imaging 166
Integral Vision Inc. 167
ISRA Vision AG 167
Keyence Corp. 168
Navitar Inc. 169
Phoenix Imaging 170
Stemmer Imaging GmbH 171
Vision and Control GmbH 172
Vision Components GmbH 172
Wintriss Engineering 173
AUTOMOBILE 173
ADASENS Automotive GmbH 173
Apple Inc. 173
Airbiquity Inc. 174
Aisin-Seiki Co. Ltd. 175
Autoliv Inc. 175
Banner Engineering Corporate 176
Car Connectivity Consortium (CCC) 176
Continental Aktiengesellschaft 177
Delphi Automotive LLP 177
Denso Corp. 177
Fujitsu Ten Ltd. 178
Gentex Corp. 178
Google Inc. 179
Harman International 179
Mobileye N.V. 180
Robert Bosch GmbH 181
Valeo Vision Tech Center 181
LITHOGRAPHY 182
aBeam Technologies Inc. 182
Applied Materials 182
Aselta Nanographics 182
ASML 183
ASML U.S. 183
Attocube Systems AG 183
Attocube Systems Inc. (U.S.) 184
Berliner Glas 184
Berliner Glas US Office for Photonics 184
Brewer Science 185
Brion Technologies Inc. 185
Cadence Design Systems Inc. 185
Carl Zeiss SMS GmbH 186
Coventor Inc. 186
Cedrat Technologies SA 186
Corning Inc. 186
Cymer 187
Entegris 187
Eulitha AG 188
Micro Resist Technology GmbH 188
Lightspeed Technologies Inc. 188
TSMC 189
CONSUMER 189
HMD/VRD 189
Atheer Labs Inc. 189
BAE Systems PLC 189
Canon U.S.A. Inc. 190
Carl Zeiss 190
Elbit Systems Ltd. 190
eMagin Corp. 192
Seiko Epson Corp. 192
Forth Dimension Displays Ltd. 193
GlassUp 193
Google Inc. 194
Himax Display Inc. 194
Innovega Inc. 194
Kopin Corp. 195
Lumus Ltd. 196
MicroVision Inc. 196
NVIDIA 197
Oculon Optoelectronics Inc. 198
Oculus VR Inc. 198
Olympus Corp. 198
Optinvent SA 199
Penny 199
Rockwell Collins 200
SBG Labs Inc. 200
Sensics Inc. 200
Sony Computer Entertainment America LLC 201
The Technology Partnership PLC 202
Vuzix Corp. 202
SMART COMMUNICATION OPERATING SYSTEMS 203
Apple Inc. 203
Microsoft Corp. 203
Google Inc. 203
OTHER DISPLAY SYSTEMS 204
3M 204
Acer 204
ASUSTeK Computer Inc. 204
AU Optronics Corp. America 205
Compaq 206
Dell Inc. 207
Eizo Corp. 207
LG Electronics Inc. 208
NEC Display Solutions 208
Royal Philips 209
Samsung Display 210
Sceptre Inc. 210
Sharp Electronics Corp. 211
Viewsonic International 212

CHAPTER 12 APPENDIX I: AN OVERVIEW OF THE HUMAN EYE 214

FIGURE 24 THE HUMAN EYE 214

CHAPTER 13 APPENDIX II: COST STRUCTURE OF AO FOR HIGH-END AND LOW-END

CONSUMER MARKETS 217
TABLE 48 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR ASTRONOMY APPLICATIONS,
2013-2015 ($) 218
FIGURE 25 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR ASTRONOMY APPLICATIONS,
2013-2015 ($) 218
TABLE 49 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR LOW-COST SYSTEMS BASED ON
CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2015 ($) 219
FIGURE 26 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR LOW-COST SYSTEMS BASED ON
CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2015 ($) 219
TABLE 50 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR CONSUMER APPLICATIONS BASED ON
SUSTAINING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, 2015-2022 ($) 220
FIGURE 27 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR CONSUMER APPLICATIONS BASED ON
SUSTAINING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, 2015-2022 ($) 220
TABLE 51 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR CONSUMER APPLICATIONS BASED ON
DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, 2015-2022 ($) 221
FIGURE 28 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR CONSUMER APPLICATIONS BASED ON
DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, 2015-2022 ($) 221

CHAPTER 14 APPENDIX III: RECENT AO-RELATED PATENT ACTIVITY 223

TABLE 52 MOST RECENT 48 USPTO AND WIPO PATENTS FILED OR ISSUED WITH AO
MENTIONED IN PATENT ABSTRACT, MARCH 5, 2013 TO MARCH 4, 2014 223
TABLE 53 MOST RECENT 48 USPTO AND WIPO PATENTS FILED OR ISSUED WITH
THE PHRASE "ADAPTIVE OPTICS" IN THE PATENT ABSTRACT BY COUNTRY, MARCH
5, 2013 TO MARCH 4, 2014 (NO. OF PATENTS)
226
FIGURE 29 MOST RECENT 48 USPTO AND WIPO PATENTS FILED OR ISSUED WITH
THE PHRASE “ADAPTIVE OPTICS” IN THE PATENT ABSTRACT BY COUNTRY, MARCH
5, 2013 TO MARCH 4, 2014 (NO. OF PATENTS)
226
TABLE 54 MOST RECENT 48 PATENTS FILED OR ISSUED WITH THE PHRASE
""ADAPTIVE OPTICS" IN THE PATENT ABSTRACT BY FILER OR ASSIGNEE TYPE,
MARCH 5, 2013 TO MARCH 4, 2014 (NO. OF PATENTS)
227
FIGURE 30 MOST RECENT 48 PATENTS FILED OR ISSUED WITH THE PHRASE
“ADAPTIVE OPTICS” IN THE PATENT ABSTRACT BY FILER OR ASSIGNEE TYPE,
MARCH 5, 2013 TO MARCH 4, 2014 (NO. OF PATENTS)
227
PHO008A - Adaptive Optics: Technologies and Global Markets
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
TABLE 55 MOST RECENT 48 PATENTS FILED OR ISSUED WITH THE PHRASE (NO. OF
PATENTS/%) 229
FIGURE 31 MOST RECENT 48 PATENTS FILED OR ISSUED WITH THE PHRASE
“ADAPTIVE OPTICS” IN THE PATENT ABSTRACT BY REPORT SEGMENT, MARCH 5,
2013 TO MARCH 4, 2014 (%)
229

CHAPTER 15 APPENDIX IV: : FDA MOBILE MEDICAL ADVISORY 231

EXAMPLES OF MOBILE APPS THAT ARE NOT MEDICAL DEVICES 231
EXAMPLES OF MOBILE APPS FOR WHICH FDA INTENDS TO EXERCISE
ENFORCEMENT DISCRETION 233
EXAMPLES OF MOBILE APPS THAT ARE THE FOCUS OF FDA'S REGULATORY
OVERSIGHT (MOBILE MEDICAL APPS) 236
MOBILE APPS THAT TRANSFORM A MOBILE PLATFORM INTO A REGULATED
MEDICAL DEVICE AND THEREFORE ARE MOBILE MEDICAL APPS 236
MOBILE APPS THAT CONNECT TO AN EXISTING DEVICE TYPE FOR
PURPOSES OF CONTROLLING ITS OPERATION, FUNCTION OR ENERGY
SOURCE AND THEREFORE ARE MOBILE MEDICAL APPS
238
MOBILE APPS THAT DISPLAY, TRANSFER, STORE, OR CONVERT
PATIENT-SPECIFIC MEDICAL DEVICE DATA FROM A CONNECTED DEVICE
AND THEREFORE ARE MOBILE MEDICAL APPS
238

CHAPTER 16 APPENDIX V: : ACRONYMS 241


LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL REVENUE GROWTH OF AO MARKET, THROUGH 2022 ($
MILLIONS) 9
TABLE 1 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF ADAPTIVE OPTICS SYSTEMS 12
TABLE 2 CURRENT USES OF ADAPTIVE OPTICS SYSTEMS 13
TABLE 3 FUTURE USES OF AO SYSTEMS 13
TABLE 4 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ADAPTIVE OPTICS SYSTEMS 14
TABLE 5 APPLICATIONS OF ADAPTIVE OPTICS SYSTEMS 14
TABLE 6 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN ADAPTIVE OPTICS SYSTEMS 15
TABLE 7 LASER STANDARDS AND SAFETY CLASSES 22
TABLE 8 TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR LOW-COST AO WAVEFRONT
CORRECTION ALTERNATIVE TO DEFORMABLE MIRRORS 31
TABLE 9 LIST OF DEFORMABLE MIRROR MANUFACTURERS 31
TABLE 10 NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 2013 PRO-RATA FUNDING OF PROJECTS
WITH AO COMPONENTS ($) 35
TABLE 11 NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 2013 PRO-RATA ASTRONOMY DIVISION
FUNDING OF AO-RELATED PROJECTS BY UNIVERSITY ($ MILLIONS) 36
TABLE 12 TYPES OF MICROSCOPY 37
TABLE 13 AFM MANUFACTURERS BY REGION 38
TABLE 14 LIST OF INNOVATIVE MEDICAL RESEARCH PROJECTS BY ACADEMIA AND
MANUFACTURERS 43
TABLE 15 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGIES 46
TABLE 16 LIST OF 3D PRINTER MANUFACTURERS 46
TABLE 17 CONSUMER MARKET UNIT SHIPMENTS FOR OTHER DISPLAY SYSTEMS,
THROUGH 2022 (THOUSANDS OF UNITS) 50
TABLE 18 CONSUMER MARKET REVENUES FROM OTHER DISPLAY SYSTEMS,
THROUGH 2022 ($ BILLIONS) 51
TABLE 19 REVENUE GROWTH FOR APPLIED SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH APPLICATIONS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2022 ($ MILLIONS) 57
TABLE 20 REVENUE GROWTH FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS BY REGION, 2013-2022
($ MILLIONS) 59
TABLE 21 REVENUE GROWTH FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS BY REGION, THROUGH
2022 ($ MILLIONS) 60
TABLE 22 REVENUE GROWTH FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2022 ($ MILLIONS) 61
TABLE 23 REVENUE GROWTH FOR CONSUMER APPLICATIONS BY REGION,
2013-2022 ($ MILLIONS) 62
TABLE 24 REVENUE GROWTH BY APPLICATION SEGMENT FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH,
THROUGH 2022 ($ MILLIONS) 64
TABLE 25 GLOBAL LARGE TELESCOPE DEVELOPMENT AND INSTALLATION
LOCATIONS WITH AO 66
TABLE 26 ADAPTIVE OPTICS CENTER OF EXCELLENCE FOR NATIONAL SECURITY
LABORATORIES 71
TABLE 27 REVENUE GROWTH BY APPLICATION SEGMENT FOR MILITARY, THROUGH
2022 ($ MILLIONS) 73
TABLE 28 REVENUE GROWTH BY MEDICAL APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2022
($ MILLIONS) 78
TABLE 29 LIST OF NANOMANUFACTURING RESEARCH CENTERS AND THEIR
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 84
TABLE 30 AUTOMOBILE ELECTRONIC SYSTEM MANUFACTURERS 92
TABLE 31 REVENUE GROWTH FOR INDUSTRIAL BY APPLICATION SEGMENT,
THROUGH 2022 ($ MILLIONS) 95
TABLE 32 REVENUE GROWTH FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2022 ($ MILLIONS) 97
TABLE 33 A BRIEF HISTORY OF HMD TECHNOLOGY 98
TABLE 34 HMD SYSTEM VENDORS 99
TABLE 35 MICRODISPLAY SILICON FOUNDRIES FOR HMD DISPLAY SILICON 102
TABLE 36 LCOS VENDORS FOR HMD DISPLAYS 103
TABLE 37 NON-LCOS VENDORS FOR HMD DISPLAYS 103
TABLE 38 HMD MICRODISPLAY RESEARCH CENTERS 104
TABLE 39 TOTAL SMART COMMUNICATION DEVICE UNIT SHIPMENTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2022 (MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 40 VRD SMART COMMUNICATION DEVICES UNIT SHIPMENTS BY REGION,
THROUGH 2022 (MILLION UNITS) 107
TABLE 41 SCREEN DISPLAY SMART COMMUNICATION DEVICES UNIT SHIPMENTS BY
REGION, THROUGH 2022 (MILLIONS) 108
TABLE 42 AMATEUR ASTRONOMY MANUFACTURERS 109
TABLE 43 GLOBAL INCREASE IN OLDER AGE GROUPS, 2010-2030 (%) 111
TABLE 44 GLOBAL INCREASE IN ALL AGE GROUPS, 2010 AND 2022 (BILLION) 112
TABLE 45 AGE GROUP SIZE BY REGION, 2010 (BILLIONS) 113
TABLE 46 WORLD GDP GROWTH, 2013-2016 (%) 115
TABLE 47 GLOBAL DEPENDENCY RATIOS FOR THE PERIOD OF 2010-2030 (% RATIO) 116
TABLE 48 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR ASTRONOMY APPLICATIONS, 2013-2015
($) 218
TABLE 49 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR LOW-COST SYSTEMS BASED ON
CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2015 ($) 219
TABLE 50 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR CONSUMER APPLICATIONS BASED ON
SUSTAINING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, 2015-2022 ($) 220
TABLE 51 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR CONSUMER APPLICATIONS BASED ON
DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, 2015-2022 ($) 221
TABLE 52 MOST RECENT 48 USPTO AND WIPO PATENTS FILED OR ISSUED WITH AO
MENTIONED IN PATENT ABSTRACT, MARCH 5, 2013 TO MARCH 4, 2014 223
TABLE 53 MOST RECENT 48 USPTO AND WIPO PATENTS FILED OR ISSUED WITH THE
PHRASE "ADAPTIVE OPTICS" IN THE PATENT ABSTRACT BY COUNTRY, MARCH 5,
2013 TO MARCH 4, 2014 (NO. OF PATENTS)
226
TABLE 54 MOST RECENT 48 PATENTS FILED OR ISSUED WITH THE PHRASE
""ADAPTIVE OPTICS" IN THE PATENT ABSTRACT BY FILER OR ASSIGNEE TYPE,
MARCH 5, 2013 TO MARCH 4, 2014 (NO. OF PATENTS)
227
TABLE 55 MOST RECENT 48 PATENTS FILED OR ISSUED WITH THE PHRASE (NO. OF
PATENTS/%) 229


LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL REVENUE GROWTH OF AO MARKET, 2013-2022 ($
MILLIONS) 9
FIGURE 1 NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 2013 PRO-RATA ASTRONOMY DIVISION
FUNDING OF AO-RELATED PROJECTS BY UNIVERSITY ($ MILLIONS) 36
FIGURE 2 AFM MANUFACTURERS BY REGION 39
FIGURE 3 3D PRINTER MANUFACTURERS BY REGION 48
FIGURE 4 CONSUMER MARKET UNIT SHIPMENTS FOR OTHER DISPLAY SYSTEMS,
2015 AND 2022 (THOUSANDS OF UNITS) 50
FIGURE 5 CONSUMER MARKET REVENUES FROM OTHER DISPLAY SYSTEMS, 2015
AND 2022 ($ BILLIONS) 51
FIGURE 6 REVENUE GROWTH FOR APPLIED SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH APPLICATIONS BY
REGION, 2013-2022 ($ MILLIONS) 57
FIGURE 7 REVENUE GROWTH FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS BY REGION 2013-2022 ($
MILLIONS) 59
FIGURE 8 REVENUE GROWTH FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS BY REGION, 2013-2022
($ MILLIONS) 60
FIGURE 9 REVENUE GROWTH FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS BY REGION,
2013-2022 ($ MILLIONS) 61
FIGURE 10 REVENUE GROWTH FOR CONSUMER APPLICATIONS BY REGION,
2013-2022 ($ MILLIONS) 62
FIGURE 11 REVENUE GROWTH BY APPLICATION SEGMENT FOR SCIENTIFIC
RESEARCH, 2013-2022 ($ MILLIONS) 64
FIGURE 12 REVENUE GROWTH BY APPLICATION SEGMENT FOR MILITARY, 2013-2022
($ MILLIONS) 73
FIGURE 13 REVENUE GROWTH BY MEDICAL APPLICATION SEGMENT, 2013-2022 ($
MILLIONS) 78
FIGURE 14 REVENUE GROWTH FOR INDUSTRIAL BY APPLICATION SEGMENT,
2013-2022 ($ MILLIONS) 95
FIGURE 15 REVENUE GROWTH FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, 2013-2022 ($ MILLIONS) 97
FIGURE 16 TOTAL SMART COMMUNICATION DEVICE UNIT SHIPMENTS BY REGION,
2013 AND 2022 ($ MILLIONS) 106
FIGURE 17 VRD SMART COMMUNICATION DEVICES UNIT SHIPMENTS BY REGION,
2013 AND 2022 (MILLION UNITS) 107
FIGURE 18 SCREEN DISPLAY SMART COMMUNICATION DEVICES UNIT SHIPMENTS BY
REGION, 2013 AND 2022 (MILLION UNITS) 108
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL INCREASE IN OLDER AGE GROUPS, 2010-2030 (%) 112
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL INCREASE FOR ALL AGE GROUPS, 2010 AND 2022 ($ BILLIONS) 112
FIGURE 21 AGE GROUP SIZE BY REGION, 2010 ($ BILLIONS) 113
FIGURE 22 WORLD GDP GROWTH, 2013-2016 (%) 115
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL DEPENDENCY RATIOS FOR THE PERIOD OF 2010-2030 (% RATIO) 116
FIGURE 24 THE HUMAN EYE 214
FIGURE 25 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR ASTRONOMY APPLICATIONS,
2013-2015 ($) 218
FIGURE 26 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR LOW-COST SYSTEMS BASED ON
CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2015 ($) 219
FIGURE 27 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR CONSUMER APPLICATIONS BASED ON
SUSTAINING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, 2015-2022 ($) 220
FIGURE 28 FORECAST AO SYSTEM COST FOR CONSUMER APPLICATIONS BASED ON
DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT, 2015-2022 ($) 221
FIGURE 29 MOST RECENT 48 USPTO AND WIPO PATENTS FILED OR ISSUED WITH
THE PHRASE “ADAPTIVE OPTICS” IN THE PATENT ABSTRACT BY COUNTRY, MARCH 5,
2013 TO MARCH 4, 2014 (NO. OF PATENTS)
226
FIGURE 30 MOST RECENT 48 PATENTS FILED OR ISSUED WITH THE PHRASE
“ADAPTIVE OPTICS” IN THE PATENT ABSTRACT BY FILER OR ASSIGNEE TYPE, MARCH
5, 2013 TO MARCH 4, 2014 (NO. OF PATENTS)
227
FIGURE 31 MOST RECENT 48 PATENTS FILED OR ISSUED WITH THE PHRASE
“ADAPTIVE OPTICS” IN THE PATENT ABSTRACT BY REPORT SEGMENT, MARCH 5,
2013 TO MARCH 4, 2014 (%)
229

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