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Synthetic Biology: Global Markets

  • January 2017
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 266 pages

Report Highlights
The global synthetic-biology market reached nearly $3.9 billion in 2016 and should reach $11.4 billion by 2021, growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 24.0% through 2021.

Report Includes
- An overview of the global markets for synthetic biology.
- Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2015, estimates for 2016, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2021.
- Coverage of core synthetic biology products: synthetic genes, other DNA parts, chassis organisms, synthetic cells
- Coverage of enabling technologies: DNA sequencing, oligonucleotides, specialty media, bioinformatics
- Coverage of enabled technologies: biofuels, specialty chemicals, diagnostics, pharmaceuticals, agriculture
- Analysis of the synthetic biology industry structure, competitors and intellectual property landscape
- An assessment of the products and technologies most commercially viable in the immediate and near-future time frame.
- Profiles of major players in the industry

Report Scope
The study scope includes core synthetic-biology products (synthetic genes, biobrick parts, delivery plasmids, chassis organisms, synthetic cells, production systems), enabling technologies (DNA sequencing, DNA synthesis and assembly, genome editing, bioinformatics and specialty media) and enabled technologies (biofuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, agriculture) that are already commercialized or are forecast to be commercialized within the next five years.

We analyze key synthetic-biology technologies and products to determine present and future market status, and forecasted growth from 2016 through 2021. We also discuss strategic alliances, industry structures, competitive dynamics, patents and market driving forces.

BCC Research examines the synthetic-biology industry by market segment, including the following segments: DNA sequencing; DNA synthesis; genome editing; synthetic-biology foundries; industrial biotechnology; pharmaceuticals; and agriculture. The role of key strategic alliances and acquisitions from 2014 through 2016 is discussed. Emerging markets including synthetic genes, synthetic-biology-enabled drugs and vaccines, genome-edited crops, chassis organisms, as well as metabolically engineered factories for producing synthetic fuels and specialty chemicals are analyzed, and more than 135 companies in these fields are highlighted.

Table Of Contents

Synthetic Biology: Global Markets
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND FOR WHOM 3
SCOPE AND FORMAT 3
METHODOLOGY 4
INFORMATION SOURCES 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL VALUE OF SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL VALUE OF SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 7
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 11
SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY TECHNOLOGIES COVERED IN THIS REPORT 11
TABLE 1 SCOPE 11
FIGURE 1 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY VALUE-ADDED CHAIN 11
WHAT IS SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY? 12
DEVELOPMENT STAGE OF SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY 13
FIGURE 2 FROM THE NATURAL TO THE ARTIFICIAL 13
TABLE 2 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PARADIGM 14
FORCES DRIVING SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY MARKET GROWTH 15
TABLE 3 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY GROWTH: DRIVING FORCES 15
GLOBAL MARKETS FOR SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PRODUCTS 16
TABLE 4 GLOBAL VALUE OF SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 16
LIFE-CYCLE STATUS OF PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGIES 17
TABLE 5 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGY LIFE-CYCLE STAGE 18
SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY INDUSTRY 19
TABLE 6 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY COMPETITORS BY MARKET FOCUS 19
CHAPTER 4 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY TECHNOLOGIES 22
INTRODUCTION 22
SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY DEFINED 22
TABLE 7 SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY DEFINITIONS 22
HISTORY OF SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY 23
TABLE 8 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY HISTORY 23
PARADIGM SHIFT IN BIOLOGY 26
TABLE 9 PARADIGM SHIFT CAUSED BY SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY 26
TABLE 10 GENETIC ENGINEERING AND SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY COMPARED 27
FIGURE 3 SCALE OF SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY 29
SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 30
TABLE 11 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY APPLICATIONS BY TECHNOLOGY 30
ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES 31
TABLE 12 IMPORTANCE OF ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES 31
DNA-SYNTHESIS AND DNA-SEQUENCING COST TRENDS 31
TABLE 13 COST TO SEQUENCE A SINGLE HUMAN GENOME, 2001-2015 ($) 32
TABLE 14 DNA-SYNTHESIS COSTS, 2006 AND 2016 ($/BP) 32
DNA-SYNTHESIS TECHNOLOGIES 33
FIGURE 4 SCHEMATIC OF DNA-SYNTHESIS TECHNOLOGIES 33
TABLE 15 COMPARISONS OF GENE-SYNTHESIS TECHNOLOGIES 35
PCR-Based Approaches 35
Solid-Phase-Based Approaches 36
MICROFLUIDIC TECHNOLOGIES 36
TABLE 16 IMPORTANCE OF MICROFLUIDICS TECHNOLOGIES IN SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY 36
DNA Microarrays 37
FIGURE 5 MICROARRAYS IN DNA SYNTHESIS 37
NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING TECHNOLOGIES 37
TABLE 17 NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING TECHNOLOGIES, BY COMPANY 38
GENOME-EDITING TOOLS 39
TABLE 18 COMPARISON OF GENENOME-EDITING PLATFORMS 39
TABLE 19 GENOME-EDITING TECHNOLOGIES: ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS 41
GENE DRIVES 42
TABLE 20 POTENTIAL MARKET APPLICATIONS FOR GENE-DRIVE- MODIFIED ORGANISMS 42
BIOINFORMATICS TECHNOLOGIES 43
TABLE 21 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY BIOINFORMATICS TECHNOLOGIES 43
BIOLOGIC COMPONENTS AND INTEGRATED SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES 44
TABLE 22 NUCLEIC ACIDS, GENES AND GENOMES 44
SYNTHETIC DNA 44
TABLE 23 SYNTHETIC DNA 45
TABLE 24 SYNTHETIC GENES AS MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY TOOL 45
TABLE 25 SYNTHETIC GENES VERSUS PCR CLONING 46
BIOBRICK PARTS 48
TABLE 26 DNA CONSTRUCTS 48
FIGURE 6 ROLE OF PROMOTERS AND REPORTERS IN SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY SYSTEMS 50
MINIMAL GENOMES AND CHASSIS ORGANISMS 50
TABLE 27 ATTRIBUTES OF A MINIMAL GENOME 50
Case Study: Minimal E. coli Genome 52
Role of Directed Evolution in Designing Biologic Parts 53
ENABLED TECHNOLOGIES 53
TABLE 28 ENABLED TECHNOLOGIES: KEY APPLICATION FIELDS 53
PATHWAY ENGINEERING 54
FIGURE 7 HOW SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY CREATES ENABLED PRODUCTS 54
TABLE 29 METABOLIC ENGINEERING FOR ARTEMISINIC ACID 55
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS 56
TABLE 30 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS FOR SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PRODUCTS 56
BIOFUELS TECHNOLOGIES 57
OVERVIEW 57
TABLE 31 ADVANCED BIOFUELS TYPES 57
FIRST- AND SECOND-GENERATION BIOFUEL TECHNOLOGIES 58
TABLE 32 FIRST--AND SECOND-GENERATION BIOFUELS COMPARED 59
CROP FEEDSTOCKS 60
TABLE 33 ENERGY BALANCE OF SELECTED FIRST-GENERATION BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCKS 60
CELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCKS 60
TABLE 34 APPROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF CELLULOSIC BIOMASS (%) 61
TABLE 35 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY STRATEGIES FOR CONVERTING CELLULOSIC BIOMASS INTO ETHANOL 61
ALGAE FEEDSTOCKS 62
TABLE 36 BIODIESEL YIELD OF SELECTED CROPS (GALLONS/ACRE/YEAR) 62
CARBON DIOXIDE FEEDSTOCKS 63
BIOFUEL END PRODUCTS 63
TABLE 37 EFFICIENCY OF VARIOUS FUELS (%) 64
Cellulosic Ethanol 64
FIGURE 8 CELLULOSIC ETHANOL PRODUCTION SCHEMATIC 64
Biodiesel 66
TABLE 38 IODINE NUMBER OF VARIOUS OILS 66
Other Biofuels 67
Role of Genetic Engineering and Synthetic Biology in Biofuels 67
TABLE 39 CONTRIBUTION OF SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY TO BIOFUELS 67
SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY INITIATIVES 68
TABLE 40 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY INITIATIVES 68
CHAPTER 5 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY APPLICATIONS 71
ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATIONS 71
TABLE 41 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PRODUCTS IMPACTED BY ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES 71
BIOLOGIC COMPONENTS AND INTEGRATED SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS 72
TABLE 42 BIOLOGIC COMPONENTS AND INTEGRATED SYSTEMS NEAR-TERM APPLICATIONS 72
SYNTHETIC GENES 72
TABLE 43 SYNTHETIC GENES NEAR-TERM APPLICATIONS 73
BIOBRICK PARTS 75
INTEGRATED SYSTEMS 76
TABLE 44 E. COLI AS A CHASSIS ORGANISM 77
ENABLED PRODUCTS APPLICATIONS 78
PHARMACEUTICALS 78
Drug Discovery and Development 78
TABLE 45 DRUG-DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS FOR SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PRODUCTS 79
Genome-Edited Pharmaceuticals 80
TABLE 46 GENOME-EDITING NEAR-TERM CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 80
Immuno-Oncology 81
TABLE 47 CAR-T CELL ALLIANCES AND SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PLATFORMS 82
Other Pharmaceuticals Applications 83
TABLE 48 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY-ENABLED PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS 83
INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS 87
Biofuels 87
TABLE 49 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY-ENABLED BIOFUELS APPLICATIONS 88
TABLE 50 GROWTH STATUS OF SPECIALTY VERSUS DROP-IN BIOFUELS, 2000-2020 88
Chemicals 88
TABLE 51 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY-ENABLED CHEMICALS APPLICATIONS 89
AGRICULTURE AND ANIMALS APPLICATIONS 90
TABLE 52 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY-ENABLED AGRICULTURE AND ANIMALS APPLICATIONS 90
TABLE 53 REGULATORY STATUS OF GENOME-EDITIED CROPS 91
DNA STORAGE APPLICATIONS 91
CHAPTER 6 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY INDUSTRY 94
INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY VALUE CHAIN 94
FIGURE 9 INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY VALUE CHAIN WITH SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY LEVERAGE POINTS 94
INDUSTRY STRUCTURAL FORCES 95
TABLE 54 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY INDUSTRY STRUCTURAL FORCES 95
PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGY LIFE CYCLE 97
TABLE 55 SYNTHETIC--BIOLOGY PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGY LIFE-CYCLE STAGE 97
DNA-SEQUENCING INSTRUMENT INDUSTRY 98
TABLE 56 NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING INSTRUMENT COMPANIES SUMMARY 98
THIRD-GENERATION SEQUENCING INDUSTRY 102
TABLE 57 THIRD-GENERATION SEQUENCING INDUSTRY 102
OLIGONUCLEOTIDE SYNTHESIS INDUSTRY 104
TABLE 58 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF OLIGONUCLEOTIDE SYNTHESIS INDUSTRY, BY COMPANY, 2016 ($ MILLIONS/%) 105
GENE-SYNTHESIS INDUSTRY 106
WORKFLOW 106
TABLE 59 GENE-SYNTHESIS WORKFLOW 106
COMPETITORS 107
TABLE 60 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF GENE-SYNTHESIS INDUSTRY, BY COMPANY, 2016 ($ MILLIONS/%) 108
TABLE 61 GENE-SYNTHESIS KEY COMPETITOR STRATEGIES 109
VALUE CHAIN 111
GENE-SYNTHESIS MARKET SEGMENTS 112
Standardized Segment 112
Value-Added Segment 113
TABLE 62 GENE-SYNTHESIS MARKET FACTORS OF DIFFERENTIATION 113
GENOME-EDITING TOOLS INDUSTRY 114
TABLE 63 GENOME-EDITING TOOLS INDUSTRY 114
SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY FOUNDRIES INDUSTRY 116
TABLE 64 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY FOUNDRIES INDUSTRY 116
PHARMACEUTICALS INDUSTRY 117
TABLE 65 PHARMACEUTICALS INDUSTRY SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY STRATEGIES 118
TABLE 66 MICROBIOME THERAPEUTICS INDUSTRY 121
AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY 122
TABLE 67 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY 122
ACQUISITIONS AND STRATEGIC ALLIANCES 124
TABLE 68 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY INDUSTRY ACQUISITIONS, 2014-2016 124
TABLE 69 STRATEGIC ALLIANCES, 2014-2016 126
CHAPTER 7 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY MARKETS 136
INDUSTRY GROWTH-DRIVING FORCES 136
TABLE 70 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY GROWTH-DRIVING FORCES 136
SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY MARKETS BY END-USER INDUSTRY 138
RESEARCH MARKET 138
TABLE 71 GLOBAL VALUE OF RESEARCH MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 138
PHARMACEUTICALS MARKET 139
TABLE 72 GLOBAL VALUE OF PHARMACEUTIALS MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 139
CHEMICALS MARKET 140
TABLE 73 GLOBAL VALUE OF CHEMICALS MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 141
ENERGY MARKET 141
TABLE 74 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENERGY MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 142
AGRICULTURE MARKET 142
TABLE 75 GLOBAL VALUE OF AGRICULTURE MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 143
SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY MARKET BY PRODUCT TYPE 143
TABLE 76 GLOBAL VALUE OF SYNTHETIC--BIOLOGY MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 144
ENABLING PRODUCTS MARKETS 145
TABLE 77 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENABLING PRODUCTS, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 145
TABLE 78 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENABLING PRODUCTS, BY END-USE INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 147
BIOLOGIC COMPONENTS MARKET 148
TABLE 79 GLOBAL VALUE OF BIOLOGIC COMPONENTS MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 148
Synthetic-Gene Standardized Market Segment 149
Synthetic-Gene Value-Added Market Segment 149
TABLE 80 GLOBAL VALUE OF BIOLOGIC COMPONENTS MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 150
INTEGRATED SYSTEMS MARKET 150
TABLE 81 GLOBAL VALUE OF INTEGRATED SYSTEMS MARKET, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 151
TABLE 82 GLOBAL VALUE OF INTEGRATED SYSTEMS, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 153
ENABLED PRODUCTS MARKET 154
SOURCES OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE 154
TABLE 83 BIODIESEL FUEL PERFORMANCE COMPARISON 154
TABLE 84 ARTEMISININ DRUG PRODUCTION COMPARISON 155
TABLE 85 SWEETENER PRODUCT COMPARISON 155
TABLE 86 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENABLED PRODUCTS MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 156
PHARMACEUTICALS MARKET 157
TABLE 87 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENABLED PHARMACEUTICALS MARKET, BY DRUG CLASS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 157
CHEMICALS MARKET 160
TABLE 88 FACTORS FOR SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY-BASED CHEMICAL PROCESSES 161
TABLE 89 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENABLED CHEMICALS MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 162
ENERGY MARKET 165
TABLE 90 ADVANCED BIOFUEL GROWTH FACTORS 166
TABLE 91 CRUDE OIL PRICES, 2011-2016 166
TABLE 92 STRATEGIC SHIFTS IN BIOFUELS 167
TABLE 93 GLOBAL VALUE OF THE ENERGY MARKET, BY FUEL TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 168
AGRICULTURE MARKET 169
TABLE 94 GLOBAL VALUE OF AGRICULTURE MARKET, BY END USE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 169
Animals Market 170
TABLE 95 GLOBAL VALUE OF ANIMAL MARKET, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 170
Pest-Control Market 171
TABLE 96 MOSQUITO-CONTROL METHODS 171
TABLE 97 AEDES AEGYPTI INITIAL MARKETS 172
Seeds Market 174
TABLE 98 GLOBAL VALUE OF SEED MARKETS, BY END-USE APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 174
TABLE 99 ADVANTAGES OF GENOME EDITING FOR CROP MODIFICATION 175
TABLE 100 GENOME-EDITED CROPS MARKET LANDSCAPE (MILLION TONNES) 176
TABLE 101 GENOME-EDITED CROPS COMMERCIALIZATION PATHWAY 177
REGIONAL MARKETS 178
SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PRODUCTS BY REGION 178
TABLE 102 GLOBAL VALUE OF SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY MARKET, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 178
ENABLING PRODUCTS MARKET BY REGION 179
TABLE 103 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENABLING PRODUCTS MARKET, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 179
CORE PRODUCTS BY REGION 180
TABLE 104 GLOBAL VALUE OF CORE PRODUCTS MARKET, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 180
ENABLED PRODUCTS BY REGION 180
TABLE 105 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENABLED PRODUCTS MARKET, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 181
TABLE 106 BIOFUELS BLEND MANDATES IN KEY COUNTRIES (%) 182
CHAPTER 8 PATENTS 185
INTRODUCTION 185
TABLE 107 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PATENT SCOPE 185 FOUNDATIONAL PATENTS 186
TABLE 108 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY FOUNDATIONAL PATENTS 186
SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY INDUSTRY PATENT ANALYSIS 188
TABLE 109 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PATENT LANDSCAPE, BY COMPANY 188 TABLE 110 PATENT DESCRIPTION BY COMPANY 189
GENOME EDITING - CRISPR/CAS9 PATENT LANDSCAPE 192
TABLE 111 GENOME-EDITING PATENT LEADERS 192
TABLE 112 CRISPR-CAS9 IP LANDSCAPE 193
CHAPTER 9 COMPANY PROFILES 196
20N LABS INC. 196
ABEONA THERAPEUTICS INC. 196
ACTIVE MOTIF 196
AGILIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS LLC 197
AGRIVIDA 197
TABLE 113 AGRIVIDA TECHNICAL APPROACH 198
ALGENUITY 198
AMBRX INC. 199
AMYRIS INC. 199
ARAKNITEK 200
ARZEDA CORP. 200
ASTRAZENECA PLC 200
ATG BIOSYNTHETICS GMBH 201
ATUM 201
AVIDBIOTICS CORP. 202
BASF AG 203
BAYER AG 204
BETA RENEWABLES 205
BIOAMBER INC. 205
BIO BASIC CANADA INC. 206
BIOMAX INFORMATICS AG 207
BIONEER CORP. 207
BIO SandT INC. 208
BLUEBIRD BIO 208
BLUE MARBLE BIOMATERIALS 208
BOLT THREADS 209
BRITISH PETROLEUM 209
BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB 210
CALYSTA INC. 210
CARGILL INC. 211
CARIBOU BIOSCIENCES INC. 212
CELL DESIGN LABS 213
CELLECTIS SA 213
CHAIN BIOTECHNOLOGY LTD 214
CIBUS INC. 214
CODEXIS INC. 215
DEMURIS LIMITED 216
DESKTOP GENETICS LTD. 216
DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY 217
E.I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS AND COMPANY 217
DYADIC INTERNATIONAL INC. 219
EDITAS MEDICINE INC. 219
ENBIOTIX INC. 220
ENEVOLV INC. 220
EPOCH LIFE SCIENCE INC. 221
EUROFINS MWG OPERON 221
EVOLVA SA 222
TABLE 114 EVOLVA'S GENETIC CHEMISTRY PLATFORM 223
EVONETIX 224
EXXONMOBIL CORP. 224
GEN9 INC. 225
TABLE 115 LINEAR GENE-SYNTHESIS PRODUCTS 225
GENEMED SYNTHESIS INC. 226
GENE ORACLE INC. 226
GENEWORKS PTY. LTD. 226
GENOMATICA 227
GENSCRIPT 228
GEVO INC. 228
GINKGO BIOWORKS 229
TABLE 116 ENGINEERED-ORGANISM WORKFLOW 230
GLAXOSMITHKLINE PLC 230
GLOBAL BIOENERGIES 231
GLYCOS BIOTECHNOLOGIES INC. 232
GOODYEAR TIRE and RUBBER CO. 232
GREEN BIOLOGICS LTD. 232
HELIX NANOTECHNOLOGIES INC. 233
ILLUMINA INC. 233
TABLE 117 RECENT PLATFORMS INTRODUCED BY ILLUMINA 234
INDUSTRIAL MICROBES INC. 235
INGENZA LTD. 235
INOVIO PHARMACEUTICALS INC. 235
INTEGRATED DNA TECHNOLOGIES INC. 236
INTELLIA THERAPEUTICS 237
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES 238
INTREXON CORP. 238
JOULE UNLIMITED 239
JUNO THERAPEUTICS INC. 240
LABGENIUS LTD. 241
LANZATECH 241
LATTICE AUTOMATION INC. 242
LC SCIENCES 242
LYGOS INC. 242
MERCK and CO. 243
METABOLIX INC. 243
MICHELIN SA 244
MICROSOFT CORP. 244
MODULAR GENETICS INC. 245
MORPHOSYS AG 245
MYRIANT TECHNOLOGIES LLC 246
NEW ENGLAND BIOLABS 247
NOVARTIS PHARMA AG 248
NOVOZYMES A/S 249
OMEGA BIO-TEK INC. 249
ORAGENICS INC. 249
ORIGENE TECHNOLOGIES INC. 250
PACIFIC BIOSCIENCES OF CALIFORNIA INC. 251
PFIZER INC. 252
PHYLOGICA LIMITED 253
PHYTOWELT GREEN TECHNOLOGIES GMBH 253
PRECISION BIOSCIENCES 254
PROKARIUM HOLDINGS LTD. 254
QTEROS INC. 255
RADIANT GENOMICS INC. 255
RENNOVIA INC. 256
ROOSTERBIO INC. 256
ROYAL DSM NV 257
SAMPLE6 TECHNOLOGIES 258
SANGAMO THERAPEUTICS INC. 258
SANOFI-AVENTIS 259
SCARAB GENOMICS LLC 259
SEA6 ENERGY PVT LTD. 260
SGI-DNA INC. 260
SHANGHAI GENERAY BIOTECH CO. LTD. 261
SHANGHAI SHINEGENE MOLECULAR BIO-TECHNOLOGIES INC. 261
SIGMA ALDRICH CORP. 262
SILICOLIFE LDA. 262
SOLIGENIX INC. 263
SPIBER INC. 263
SYNLOGIC 264
SYNPROMICS LTD. 264
SYNTHACE LTD. 265
SYNTHETIC BIOLOGICS INC. 265
SYNTHETIC GENOMICS INC. 266
SYNTHORX INC. 267
SYNVITROBIO INC. 268
TAXA BIO-ENGINEERING 268
TEEWINOT LIFE SCIENCES CORP. 268
TERRAVIA HOLDINGS INC. 269
TESELAGEN BIOTECHNOLOGY INC. 269
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC. 270
TOUCHLIGHT GENETICS LTD 271
TRANSCRIPTIC INC. 271
TRITON ALGAE INNOVATIONS LTD. 271
TWIST BIOSCIENCE 272
VERDEZYNE INC. 273
ZIOPHARM ONCOLOGY INC. 274
ZYMERGEN 274

LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL VALUE OF SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 7
TABLE 1 SCOPE 11
TABLE 2 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PARADIGM 14
TABLE 3 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY GROWTH: DRIVING FORCES 15
TABLE 4 GLOBAL VALUE OF SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 16
TABLE 5 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGY LIFE-CYCLE STAGE 18
TABLE 6 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY COMPETITORS BY MARKET FOCUS 19
TABLE 7 SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY DEFINITIONS 22
TABLE 8 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY HISTORY 23
TABLE 9 PARADIGM SHIFT CAUSED BY SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY 26
TABLE 10 GENETIC ENGINEERING AND SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY COMPARED 27
TABLE 11 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY APPLICATIONS BY TECHNOLOGY 30
TABLE 12 IMPORTANCE OF ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES 31
TABLE 13 COST TO SEQUENCE A SINGLE HUMAN GENOME, 2001-2015 ($) 32
TABLE 14 DNA-SYNTHESIS COSTS, 2006 AND 2016 ($/BP) 32
TABLE 15 COMPARISONS OF GENE-SYNTHESIS TECHNOLOGIES 35
TABLE 16 IMPORTANCE OF MICROFLUIDICS TECHNOLOGIES IN SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY 36
TABLE 17 NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING TECHNOLOGIES, BY COMPANY 38
TABLE 18 COMPARISON OF GENENOME-EDITING PLATFORMS 39
TABLE 19 GENOME-EDITING TECHNOLOGIES: ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS 41
TABLE 20 POTENTIAL MARKET APPLICATIONS FOR GENE-DRIVE- MODIFIED ORGANISMS 42
TABLE 21 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY BIOINFORMATICS TECHNOLOGIES 43
TABLE 22 NUCLEIC ACIDS, GENES AND GENOMES 44
TABLE 23 SYNTHETIC DNA 45
TABLE 24 SYNTHETIC GENES AS MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY TOOL 45
TABLE 25 SYNTHETIC GENES VERSUS PCR CLONING 46
TABLE 26 DNA CONSTRUCTS 48
TABLE 27 ATTRIBUTES OF A MINIMAL GENOME 50
TABLE 28 ENABLED TECHNOLOGIES: KEY APPLICATION FIELDS 53
TABLE 29 METABOLIC ENGINEERING FOR ARTEMISINIC ACID 55
TABLE 30 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS FOR SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PRODUCTS 56
TABLE 31 ADVANCED BIOFUELS TYPES 57
TABLE 32 FIRST--AND SECOND-GENERATION BIOFUELS COMPARED 59
TABLE 33 ENERGY BALANCE OF SELECTED FIRST-GENERATION BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCKS 60
TABLE 34 APPROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF CELLULOSIC BIOMASS (%) 61
TABLE 35 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY STRATEGIES FOR CONVERTING CELLULOSIC BIOMASS INTO ETHANOL 61
TABLE 36 BIODIESEL YIELD OF SELECTED CROPS (GALLONS/ACRE/YEAR) 62
TABLE 37 EFFICIENCY OF VARIOUS FUELS (%) 64
TABLE 38 IODINE NUMBER OF VARIOUS OILS 66
TABLE 39 CONTRIBUTION OF SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY TO BIOFUELS 67
TABLE 40 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY INITIATIVES 68
TABLE 41 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PRODUCTS IMPACTED BY ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES 71
TABLE 42 BIOLOGIC COMPONENTS AND INTEGRATED SYSTEMS NEAR-TERM APPLICATIONS 72
TABLE 43 SYNTHETIC GENES NEAR-TERM APPLICATIONS 73
TABLE 44 E. COLI AS A CHASSIS ORGANISM 77
TABLE 45 DRUG-DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS FOR SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PRODUCTS 79
TABLE 46 GENOME-EDITING NEAR-TERM CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 80
TABLE 47 CAR-T CELL ALLIANCES AND SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PLATFORMS 82
TABLE 48 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY-ENABLED PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS 83
TABLE 49 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY-ENABLED BIOFUELS APPLICATIONS 88
TABLE 50 GROWTH STATUS OF SPECIALTY VERSUS DROP-IN BIOFUELS, 2000-2020 88
TABLE 51 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY-ENABLED CHEMICALS APPLICATIONS 89
TABLE 52 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY-ENABLED AGRICULTURE AND ANIMALS APPLICATIONS 90
TABLE 53 REGULATORY STATUS OF GENOME-EDITIED CROPS 91
TABLE 54 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY INDUSTRY STRUCTURAL FORCES 95
TABLE 55 SYNTHETIC--BIOLOGY PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGY LIFE-CYCLE STAGE 97
TABLE 56 NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING INSTRUMENT COMPANIES SUMMARY 98
TABLE 57 THIRD-GENERATION SEQUENCING INDUSTRY 102
TABLE 58 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF OLIGONUCLEOTIDE SYNTHESIS INDUSTRY, BY COMPANY, 2016 ($ MILLIONS/%) 105
TABLE 59 GENE-SYNTHESIS WORKFLOW 106
TABLE 60 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF GENE-SYNTHESIS INDUSTRY, BY COMPANY, 2016 ($ MILLIONS/%) 108
TABLE 61 GENE-SYNTHESIS KEY COMPETITOR STRATEGIES 109
TABLE 62 GENE-SYNTHESIS MARKET FACTORS OF DIFFERENTIATION 113
TABLE 63 GENOME-EDITING TOOLS INDUSTRY 114
TABLE 64 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY FOUNDRIES INDUSTRY 116
TABLE 65 PHARMACEUTICALS INDUSTRY SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY STRATEGIES 118
TABLE 66 MICROBIOME THERAPEUTICS INDUSTRY 121
TABLE 67 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY 122
TABLE 68 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY INDUSTRY ACQUISITIONS, 2014-2016 124
TABLE 69 STRATEGIC ALLIANCES, 2014-2016 126
TABLE 70 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY GROWTH-DRIVING FORCES 136
TABLE 71 GLOBAL VALUE OF RESEARCH MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 138
TABLE 72 GLOBAL VALUE OF PHARMACEUTIALS MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 139
TABLE 73 GLOBAL VALUE OF CHEMICALS MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 141
TABLE 74 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENERGY MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 142
TABLE 75 GLOBAL VALUE OF AGRICULTURE MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 143
TABLE 76 GLOBAL VALUE OF SYNTHETIC--BIOLOGY MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 144
TABLE 77 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENABLING PRODUCTS, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 145
TABLE 78 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENABLING PRODUCTS, BY END-USE INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 147
TABLE 79 GLOBAL VALUE OF BIOLOGIC COMPONENTS MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 148
TABLE 80 GLOBAL VALUE OF BIOLOGIC COMPONENTS MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 150
TABLE 81 GLOBAL VALUE OF INTEGRATED SYSTEMS MARKET, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 151
TABLE 82 GLOBAL VALUE OF INTEGRATED SYSTEMS, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 153
TABLE 83 BIODIESEL FUEL PERFORMANCE COMPARISON 154
TABLE 84 ARTEMISININ DRUG PRODUCTION COMPARISON 155
TABLE 85 SWEETENER PRODUCT COMPARISON 155
TABLE 86 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENABLED PRODUCTS MARKET, BY END-USER INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 156
TABLE 87 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENABLED PHARMACEUTICALS MARKET, BY DRUG CLASS, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 157
TABLE 88 FACTORS FOR SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY-BASED CHEMICAL PROCESSES 161
TABLE 89 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENABLED CHEMICALS MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 162
TABLE 90 ADVANCED BIOFUEL GROWTH FACTORS 166
TABLE 91 CRUDE OIL PRICES, 2011-2016 166
TABLE 92 STRATEGIC SHIFTS IN BIOFUELS 167
TABLE 93 GLOBAL VALUE OF THE ENERGY MARKET, BY FUEL TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 168
TABLE 94 GLOBAL VALUE OF AGRICULTURE MARKET, BY END USE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 169
TABLE 95 GLOBAL VALUE OF ANIMAL MARKET, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 170
TABLE 96 MOSQUITO-CONTROL METHODS 171
TABLE 97 AEDES AEGYPTI INITIAL MARKETS 172
TABLE 98 GLOBAL VALUE OF SEED MARKETS, BY END-USE APPLICATION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 174
TABLE 99 ADVANTAGES OF GENOME EDITING FOR CROP MODIFICATION 175
TABLE 100 GENOME-EDITED CROPS MARKET LANDSCAPE (MILLION TONNES) 176
TABLE 101 GENOME-EDITED CROPS COMMERCIALIZATION PATHWAY 177
TABLE 102 GLOBAL VALUE OF SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY MARKET, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 178
TABLE 103 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENABLING PRODUCTS MARKET, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 179
TABLE 104 GLOBAL VALUE OF CORE PRODUCTS MARKET, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 180
TABLE 105 GLOBAL VALUE OF ENABLED PRODUCTS MARKET, BY REGION, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 181
TABLE 106 BIOFUELS BLEND MANDATES IN KEY COUNTRIES (%) 182
TABLE 107 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PATENT SCOPE 185
TABLE 108 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY FOUNDATIONAL PATENTS 186
TABLE 109 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY PATENT LANDSCAPE, BY COMPANY 188
TABLE 110 PATENT DESCRIPTION BY COMPANY 189
TABLE 111 GENOME-EDITING PATENT LEADERS 192
TABLE 112 CRISPR-CAS9 IP LANDSCAPE 193
TABLE 113 AGRIVIDA TECHNICAL APPROACH 198
TABLE 114 EVOLVA'S GENETIC CHEMISTRY PLATFORM 223
TABLE 115 LINEAR GENE-SYNTHESIS PRODUCTS 225
TABLE 116 ENGINEERED-ORGANISM WORKFLOW 230
TABLE 117 RECENT PLATFORMS INTRODUCED BY ILLUMINA 234

LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL VALUE OF SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY MARKET, BY PRODUCT TYPE, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 7
FIGURE 1 SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY VALUE-ADDED CHAIN 11
FIGURE 2 FROM THE NATURAL TO THE ARTIFICIAL 13
FIGURE 3 SCALE OF SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY 29
FIGURE 4 SCHEMATIC OF DNA-SYNTHESIS TECHNOLOGIES 33
FIGURE 5 MICROARRAYS IN DNA SYNTHESIS 37
FIGURE 6 ROLE OF PROMOTERS AND REPORTERS IN SYNTHETIC-BIOLOGY SYSTEMS 50
FIGURE 7 HOW SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY CREATES ENABLED PRODUCTS 54
FIGURE 8 CELLULOSIC ETHANOL PRODUCTION SCHEMATIC 64
FIGURE 9 INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY VALUE CHAIN WITH SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY LEVERAGE POINTS 94

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