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The market for modernisation measures at European glass factories will increase considerably in the years to come: By 2020, about 14 billion EUR will be invested in the European glass industry – an annual increase of up to 45 per cent in comparison to the past years’ average. The main reason for this growth is the coming into force of the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED), which defines EU-wide limit values for air and water emissions for different industrial sectors, from 2016 on. The specific limit values are determined in the BAT reference documents (BAT stands for Best Available Techniques) and the BAT conclusions. The glass industry is one of the first industries BAT conclusions have already been published for. The content of these conclusions and the way the affected glass factories will handle them thus also give a signal to other industries. More than 420 European glass factories have to comply with the limit values from 2016 on. The limit values for nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides will be particularly challenging for many glass factory operators, both in technical and financial terms – and especially in countries with so far less strict legal frameworks, as is the case in many Eastern European states. However, there are also many glass factories lacking state-of-the-art technology in countries such as France and Spain. This means that most glass manufacturers have to invest in modernising their factories. Funds will go to optimising individual production processes or to new technical components for flue gas cleaning, furnace technology or sealing the melter. In the light of this development, ecoprog has collected information on the affected glass factories and calculated the investment potentials by country.

The analyst version of the study “Glass Factories under the Industrial Emissions Directive” includes:
- A detailed analysis of the IED, the BAT conclusions and other important legal frameworks as well as the assessment of their importance for the glass industry.
- geographical presentation of the largest national markets in Europe.
- A reliable estimation of future investment volumes by country.
- A competitive analysis of the most important glass manufacturers in the European market.
- An overview of the most important plant technology and cost structures in the glass industry.

Table Of Contents

Glass Factories under the Industrial Emissions Directive (Analyst Version)
Content

Preface to the Analyst Version 10
Preface .. 11
Management summary . 12
1 Background .. 16
1.1 Introduction .. 16
1.2 Differentiation .. 16
1.3 Definitions . 18
2 Plant technology . 19
2.1 Glass batch preparation . 20
2.2 Glass melting and refining . 20
2.3 Cooling and forming . 24
2.4 Flue gas cleaning .. 25
3 Costs . 26
3.1 Investment costs 26
3.2 Current costs 27
3.3 Costs for reducing emissions .. 28
4 Current legal framework and market factors . 30
4.1 Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) . 30
4.2 BAT conclusions for the glass manufacturing industry . 32
4.3 European Union Emissions Trading Scheme .. 35
4.4 Concentration processes in Europe .. 38
4.5 Transport and dependencies 39
5 Glass factories and market .. 41
5.1 Glass factories 41
5.2 Market . 46
6 Competition .. 54
6.1 Glass manufacturers 54
6.2 Technology providers .. 58
7 National markets and sites .. 60
7.1 Austria . 60
7.2 Belgium .. 65
7.3 Bulgaria .. 70
7.4 Croatia 75
7.5 Czech Republic .. 78
7.6 Denmark 84
7.7 Estonia 88
7.8 Finland 91
7.9 France . 95
7.10 Germany . 101
7.11 Greece . 107
7.12 Hungary .. 111
7.13 Italy 116
7.14 Latvia 122
7.15 Lithuania . 125
7.16 Luxembourg .. 128
7.17 Netherlands 130
7.18 Norway . 136
7.19 Poland .. 140
7.20 Portugal 145
7.21 Romania .. 150
7.22 Slovakia .. 155
7.23 Slovenia .. 160
7.24 Spain . 163
7.25 Sweden 169
7.26 United Kingdom 173
Data origin and methodology 179
Glossary . 182


Figures

Figure 1: Analysed area. 17
Figure 2: Schematic illustration of a glass factory .. 19
Figure 3: Types of glass furnaces in European glass factories . 21
Figure 4: Model of a regenerative glass furnace, end-port .. 22
Figure 5: Model of a (recuperative) glass furnace, side-port .. 23
Figure 6: Melting capacities of different type of furnaces . 24
Figure 7: Melting phases in glass manufacturing 25
Figure 8: Overview investment costs 26
Figure 9: Breakdown of investment costs in glass factories 27
Figure 10: Current costs of glass manufacturing . 28
Figure 11: Investment costs for emission reduction measures .. 28
Figure 12: BAT emission limit value ranges or air emissions . 33
Figure 13: BAT emission limit values for sewages . 34
Figure 14: Kyoto targets and status of implementation . 35
Figure 15: Price development of EU certificate trading . 37
Figure 16: Glass production development in Europe 2002-2012.. 38
Figure 17: Production and balance of foreign trade in Europe 2012 39
Figure 18: Overview on associated Industries.. 40
Figure 19: Glass factories in Europe according to the IED.. 41
Figure 20: IED glass production sites in Europe . 42
Figure 21: IED production capacities in Europe .. 42
Figure 22: Production capacity per region and glass type at IED sites in Europe.. 43
Figure 23: Annual glass production in Europe.. 44
Figure 24: Data on the glass industry per country .. 45
Figure 25: Market forecast Europe 46
Figure 26: Investment potential by industrial sector in Europe 2014-2020 47
Figure 27: Emission reduction measures 47
Figure 28: Investment evaluation per region and adaption technology .. 48
Figure 29: Market volume in Europe 2014-2020 . 49
Figure 30: Temporal distribution of investments in Europe 2014-2020 .. 51
Figure 31: Investment potential in European countries . 51
Figure 32: Market volume investments in glass factories 2014-2020 (in million €) 53
Figure 33: The most important European glass manufactures .. 54
Figure 34: The ten largest glass factory operators in Europe . 55
Figure 35: Structure of the glass industry in Austria .. 60
Figure 36: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Austria .. 61
Figure 37: Glass production in Austria . 62
Figure 38: Glass industry's energy purchase in Austria 62
Figure 39: Investment potential by industrial sector in Austria 2014-2020 63
Figure 40: Market forecast Austria 63
Figure 41: Structure of the glass industry in Belgium 65
Figure 42: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Belgium 66
Figure 43: Glass production in Belgium .. 67
Figure 44: Glass industry's energy purchase in Belgium . 67
Figure 45: Glass factories in Belgium .. 68
Figure 46: Investment potential by industrial sector in Belgium 2014-2020 . 68
Figure 47: Market forecast Belgium .. 69
Figure 48: Structure of the glass industry in Bulgaria 70
Figure 49: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Bulgaria 71
Figure 50: Glass production in Bulgaria .. 72
Figure 51: Investment potential by industrial sector in Bulgaria 2014-2020 . 72
Figure 52: Market forecast Bulgaria . 73
Figure 53: Structure of the glass industry in Croatia .. 75
Figure 54: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Croatia.. 75
Figure 55: Glass production in Croatia 76
Figure 56: Investment potential by industrial sector in Croatia 2014-2020 76
Figure 57: Market forecast Croatia 77
Figure 58: Structure of the glass industry in the Czech Republic . 78
Figure 59: Glass factories in the Czech Republic 79
Figure 60: Analysed sites by industrial sector in the Czech Republic . 80
Figure 61: Glass production in the Czech Republic 80
Figure 62: Glass industry's energy purchase in the Czech Republic .. 81
Figure 63: Investment potential by industrial sector in the Czech Republic 2014-2020 .. 82
Figure 64: Market forecast Czech Republic .. 82
Figure 65: Structure of the glass industry in Denmark .. 84
Figure 66: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Denmark .. 84
Figure 67: Glass production in Denmark and Ireland 85
Figure 68: Glass industry's energy purchase in Denmark 85
Figure 69: Investment potential by industrial sector in Denmark 2014-2020 86
Figure 70: Market forecast Denmark 87
Figure 71: Structure of the glass industry in Estonia . 88
Figure 72: Glass production in the Baltic states .. 89
Figure 73: Glass industry's energy purchase in Estonia .. 89
Figure 74: Investment potential by industrial sector in Estonia 2014-2020 .. 90
Figure 75: Market forecast Estonia 90
Figure 76: Structure of the glass industry in Finland .. 91
Figure 77: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Finland . 92
Figure 78: Glass production in Finland and Sweden . 92
Figure 79: Glass industry's energy purchase in Finland .. 93
Figure 80: Investment potential by industrial sector in Finland 2014-2020 94
Figure 81: Market forecast Finland 94
Figure 82: Structure of the glass industry in France .. 95
Figure 83: Analysed sites by industrial sector in France .. 96
Figure 84: Glass production in France . 97
Figure 85: Glass industry's energy purchase in France 97
Figure 86: Glass factories in France . 98
Figure 87: Investment potential by industrial sector in France 2014-2020 99
Figure 88: Market forecast France . 100
Figure 89: Structure of the glass industry in Germany 101
Figure 90: Glass production in Germany . 102
Figure 91: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Germany 103
Figure 92: Glass industry's energy purchase in Germany 103
Figure 93: Investment potential by industrial sector in Germany 2014-2020 . 104
Figure 94: Glass factories in Germany . 105
Figure 95: Market forecast Germany . 106
Figure 96: Structure of the glass industry in Greece 107
Figure 97: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Greece .. 108
Figure 98: Glass production in Greece . 108
Figure 99: Glass industry's energy purchase in Greece 109
Figure 100: Investment potential by industrial sector in Greece 2014-2020 .. 109
Figure 101: Market forecast Greece .. 110
Figure 102: Structure of the glass industry in Hungary .. 111
Figure 103: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Hungary .. 112
Figure 104: Glass production in Hungary. 112
Figure 105: Glass industry's energy purchase in Hungary 113
Figure 106: Investment potential by industrial sector in Hungary 2014-2020 114
Figure 107: Market forecast Hungary 114
Figure 108: Structure of the glass industry in Italy 116
Figure 109: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Italy .. 117
Figure 110: Glass production in Italy . 118
Figure 111: Glass industry's energy purchase in Italy 118
Figure 112: Glass factories in Italy . 119
Figure 113: Investment potential by industrial sector in Italy 2014-2020 . 120
Figure 114: Market forecast Italy . 121
Figure 115: Structure of the glass industry in Latvia 122
Figure 116: Glass production in the Baltic states . 123
Figure 117: Glass industry's energy purchase in Latvia. 123
Figure 118: Investment potential by industrial sector in Latvia 2014-2020 . 124
Figure 119: Market forecast Latvia . 124
Figure 120: Structure of the glass industry in Lithuania . 125
Figure 121: Glass production in the Baltic states . 126
Figure 122: Glass industry's energy purchase in Lithuania .. 126
Figure 123: Investment potential by industrial sector in Lithuania 2014-2020 .. 127
Figure 124: Market forecast Lithuania .. 127
Figure 125: Structure of the glass industry in Luxembourg .. 128
Figure 126: Market forecast Luxembourg 128
Figure 127: Structure of the glass industry in the Netherlands 130
Figure 128: Analysed sites by industrial sector in the Netherlands 131
Figure 129: Glass production in the Netherlands . 131
Figure 130: Glass industry's energy purchase in the Netherlands. 132
Figure 131: Investment potential by industrial sector in the Netherlands 2014-2020 . 133
Figure 132: Market forecast Netherlands . 133
Figure 133: Glass factories in the Netherlands . 134
Figure 134: Structure of the glass industry in Norway 136
Figure 135: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Norway 137
Figure 136: Glass industry's energy purchase in Norway . 137
Figure 137: Investment potential by industrial sector in Norway 2014-2020 . 138
Figure 138: Market forecast Norway.. 139
Figure 139: Structure of the glass industry in Poland . 140
Figure 140: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Poland . 141
Figure 141: Glass production in Poland 142
Figure 142: Investment potential by industrial sector in Poland 2014-2020 .. 142
Figure 143: Market forecast Poland .. 143
Figure 144: Glass factories in Poland 144
Figure 145: Structure of the glass industry in Portugal .. 145
Figure 146: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Portugal .. 146
Figure 147: Glass production in Portugal . 147
Figure 148: Glass industry's energy purchase in Portugal 147
Figure 149: Investment potential by industrial sector in Portugal 2014-2020 148
Figure 150: Market forecast Portugal 148
Figure 151: Structure of the glass industry in Romania . 150
Figure 152: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Romania . 151
Figure 153: Glass production in Romania 152
Figure 154: Glass industry's energy purchase in Romania .. 152
Figure 155: Investment potential by industrial sector in Romania 2014-2020 .. 153
Figure 156: Market forecast Romania .. 154
Figure 157: Structure of the glass industry in Slovakia .. 155
Figure 158: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Slovakia .. 156
Figure 159: Glass production in Slovakia. 157
Figure 160: Glass industry's energy purchase in Slovakia 157
Figure 161: Market forecast Slovakia 158
Figure 162: Investment potential by industrial sector in Slovakia 2014-2020 158
Figure 163: Structure of the glass industry in Slovenia .. 160
Figure 164: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Slovenia.. 161
Figure 165: Glass production in Slovenia 161
Figure 166: Investment potential by industrial sector in Slovenia 2014-2020 162
Figure 167: Market forecast Slovenia 162
Figure 168: Structure of the glass industry in Spain 163
Figure 169: Analysed sites by industrial sector in Spain 164
Figure 170: Glass factories in Spain .. 165
Figure 171: Glass production in Spain .. 165
Figure 172: Glass industry's energy purchase in Spain . 166
Figure 173: Investment potential by industrial sector in Spain 2014-2020 . 167
Figure 174: Market forecast Spain . 167
Figure 175: Structure of the glass industry in Sweden 169
Figure 176: Glass production in Sweden and Finland 170
Figure 177: Glass industry's energy purchase in Sweden 170
Figure 178: Investment potential by industrial sector in Sweden 2014-2020. 171
Figure 179: Market forecast Sweden . 171
Figure 180: Structure of the glass industry in the United Kingdom 173
Figure 181: Analysed sites by industrial sector in the United Kingdom 174
Figure 182: Glass production in the United Kingdom . 175
Figure 183: Glass industry's energy purchase in the United Kingdom . 175
Figure 184: Glass factories in the United Kingdom.. 176
Figure 185: Investment potential by industrial sector in the United Kingdom 2014-2020 . 177
Figure 186: Market forecast United Kingdom . 178
Figure 187: Differentiation of market regions . 179

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