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OTC Distribution in Europe - the 2014 much expanded edition is an in-depth strategic analysis that defines and explores the main themes of change running through the European region and shows how they will influence consumer healthcare manufacturers’ channel strategies. It provides a wealth of knowledge covering 22 European markets, together with insights into an increasingly complex market from a highly respected strategy consultant, James W. Dudley.

Expanded to include the new fast growing markets – Bulgaria and Romania

The 2014 edition of the OTC Distribution in Europe study builds on over 22 years of research into the European market for non-prescription and OTC medicines as well as associated consumer healthcare products.

OTC Distribution in Europe covers: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine and the United Kingdom.

OTC Distribution in Europe is a study of the factors driving change and presenting challenges and opportunities to manufacturers. It includes analysis and discussion of European and national statutory and regulatory developments; healthcare supply chain economics; evolving formal and informal channel structures; distribution channel competitors’ market shares, linkages and groupings.

OTC Distribution in Europe is an exploration of changes in manufacturer, retail customer and shopper needs and the unfolding strategies required by healthcare companies to adapt and lead Europe's self-medication markets.

OTC Distribution in Europe provides insights and understanding of inter-channel rivalries between pharmacy and the mass market operators and the need for retail pharmacy chains or voluntary groups to force the pace of innovation. This is needed to challenge emerging competing channels including supermarkets, mail order pharmacies and the Internet.

OTC Distribution in Europe provides up-to-date statistics, insights, discussion and opinions regarding the historic, present and future challenges and opportunities for the European consumer healthcare market together with consumer insights, market sizes, sales trends and distributor market shares

'OTC Distribution in Europe - the 2014 edition – Meeting the New Challenges, is the ninth edition of James W Dudley’s highly regarded consultancy study and marks the twentieth second year since the project began

OTC Distribution in Europe – Meeting the New Challenges

As much of Europe begins to emerge from a period of economic gloom the supply networks which serve 671 million people living in Europe with €36 billion worth of consumer health products are undergoing a major period of restructuring. While merger and acquisition activity is globalizing the supply chain, hybrid groupings of multi-channel retail pharmacies are reshaping the consumer channel into powerful chains. Yet at the same time, deregulation of the non-prescription healthcare sector is shifting consumer demand to non-pharmacy channels.

OTC Distribution in Europe – the 2014 edition explores a number of major factors that are coming into play and which will influence the competitive environment for the consumer healthcare industry. Not least of which is the emergence of global pharmaceutical retailers and distributors resulting from the mergers of leading American companies with Europe’s largest players. Furthermore, there is a changing retail sales mix as retailers seek ways to develop markets for goods and services in sectors which are not price regulated. For which consumer healthcare is an ideal target for this development.

Among the issues that will influence supplier strategies are:

Game changer mergers and strategic alliances putting procurement on a global scale
Major innovative developments led by Europe wide Multi-channel retail pharmacy brands driven by global retailers
The restructuring of the pharmaceutical supply chain and the reduction in the points along it based on increasing cost efficiencies and maximizing competitiveness
Continued reregulation of retail channels and the growth of mail order and cross-border Internet pharmacies
The growing importance of mixed estates of retail pharmacy groupings evolving into Europe-wide hybrid chains that overcome national restrictions on pharmacy ownership
Mass market retailers' ambitions to capture a share of the pharmacy market through products licensed for sale in non-pharmacy outlets and the acquisition of pharmacy licenses
The economics of Russian pharmacies and the impact of new tax reforms on groups
The expansion of international retailers from Central and Eastern Europe into the European consumer health and beauty markets
New distributor strategies shaping the Russian healthcare supply chain
These issues together will have a major influence on how manufacturers plan their strategies over the next few years.

Examples of findings of this new 22 country study are:

90.4% of the consumer health market turnover passes through 208,750 pharmacies, while 9.6% is accessed through supermarkets, discounters and druggists
15% of European pharmacies are branch of wholly owned pharmacy multiple
One in four Russian pharmacies is branch of a national or regional pharmacy chain
One in four European pharmacies is a member of a 'virtual chain' or affiliated cooperation chain
Nearly 69% of the intermediary pharmaceutical wholesale market is controlled by a handful of players

Table Of Contents

OTC Distribution in Europe : The 2014 edition "Meeting the New Challenges"
FORWARD TO THE 2014 STUDY OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF OTC MEDICINES IN
EUROPE 1
CHAPTER 1 3
DISTRIBUTION OF OTC MEDICINES IN EUROPE - INTRODUCTION, MARKET
DEFINITIONS AND SUMMARY OF KEY ISSUES 3
THE EUROPEAN NON-PRESCRIPTION OTC SELF-MEDICATION MARKET 2013 3
ESTIMATES OF THE MARKET SIZE FOR OTC MEDICINES OF THE 22 EUROPEAN
MARKETS FOR THE 2014 OTC DISTRIBUTION IN EUROPE STUDY 5
IMPACT OF DE-REIMBURSEMENT OF NON-PRESCRIPTION MEDICINES AND OTC SELFMEDICATION
MARKET DEMAND IN EUROPE 8
SHARE OF SALES BY MARKET 2013 - TOTAL PHARMACEUTICALS, OTC MEDICINES
AND SEMI-ETHICAL PRODUCTS IN EUROPE 10
BARRIERS TO GROWTH FOR THE NON-PRESCRIPTION AND OTC SELF-MEDICATION
MARKETS IN EUROPE 12
GROWTH CATEGORIES - CONSUMER HEALTHCARE AND OTC SELF-MEDICATION IN
EUROPE'S MAIN MARKETS 13
NON-PRESCRIPTION PHARMACEUTICALS AND OTC SELF-MEDICATION MEDICINES
COUNTRY MARKET GROWTH - EUROPE 2009 - 2013 15
NON-PRESCRIPTION PHARMACEUTICALS AND OTC SELF-MEDICATION MEDICINES
LEADING MANUFACTURERS' MARKET SHARES AND GROWTH - EUROPE . 17
REGULATORY CONTROLS ON DISTRIBUTING AND MERCHANDISING OF OTC
MEDICINES IN EUROPE 17
ANALYSIS OF PHARMACIES IN EUROPE 20
GROWTH OF RETAIL PHARMACIES IN EUROPE 22
RESTRAINTS ON THE GROWTH OF PHARMACY NUMBERS IN EUROPE 23
RESTRICTIONS ON PHARMACY NUMBERS IN EUROPE 23
THE ROLE OF THE RETAIL PHARMACIES IN EUROPE 25
ECONOMIC PRESSURES ON PHARMACIES IN EUROPE 25
SELF-MEDICATION - THE IMPORTANCE OF OTC MEDICINES TO PHARMACIES IN
EUROPE 26
PROMOTING CONSUMER HEALTHCARE IN EUROPE - RESTRICTIONS ON
MERCHANDISING OF OTC MEDICINES IN PHARMACIES IN DIFFERENT EUROPEAN
STATES 27
PRICE CONTROLS AND RESALE PRICE MAINTENANCE OF OTC SELF-MEDICATION
MEDICINES IN EUROPE 29
ANALYSIS OF TRENDS IN THE OWNERSHIP OF PHARMACIES IN EUROPE 29
LOCATION OF PHARMACIES IN MULTIPLES IN EUROPE 34
34
LEGAL CHALLENGES TO NATIONAL RESTRICTIONS ON PHARMACY OWNERSHIP IN
THE EUROPEAN UNION BASED ON ARTICLES 43 EC AND 48 EC [OF THE TREATY] .. 35
EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE RULING RESULTING FROM DOCMORRIS CASE CHALLENGING GERMAN OWNERSHIP OF
PHARMACIES LAWS 2009 AND ITS IMPACT ON EU PHARMACY LAW 35
PHARMACIST OWNED SMALL SCALE RETAIL MULTIPLES IN EUROPE 37
THE GROWTH OF LARGE RETAIL PHARMACY CHAINS IN EUROPE 37
EUROPEAN PHARMACY CHAINS 38
GROWTH OF ORGANISED OF VOLUNTARY GROUPINGS (VIRTUAL CHAINS) OF
INDEPENDENT PHARMACIES IN EUROPE 40
WHY DO INDEPENDENT PHARMACIES FORM INTO VOLUNTARY GROUPINGS,
VIRTUAL CHAINS AND AFFILIATED COOPERATION GROUPS IN EUROPE? . 41
UNBRANDED VOLUNTARY PHARMACY GROUPS IN EUROPE 42
BRANDED VOLUNTARY PHARMACY GROUPS IN EUROPE 43
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF VOLUNTARY PHARMACY OR COLLABORATION
PARTNER PHARMACY CHAINS IN EUROPE 43
PHARMACY FRANCHISE CONCEPTS IN EUROPE 44
EMERGENCE OF GLOBAL PHARMACY CHANNELS IN EUROPE 44
CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES CONTEST BETWEEN MULTI-CHANNEL RETAILING
AND ‘PUREPLAY' MAIL ORDER AND INTERNET PHARMACIES IN EUROPE . 46
MULTI-CHANNEL PHARMACIES IN EUROPE 47
THE DEVELOPMENT OF MIXED OWNERSHIP BRANDED MULTI-CHANNEL PHARMACY
CHAINS IN EUROPE 47
SUPERMARKET CHAINS - A GROWING FORCE IN PHARMACY RETAILING IN EUROPE 48
SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLINE FUTURE AGENDA FOR NON-PRESCRIPTION
MEDICINES AND OTC SELF-MEDICATION IN EUROPE TO 2017 49
THE FUTURE FOR LEADING PHARMACEUTICAL RETAIL GROUPINGS IN EUROPE……. 50
WALGREENS ENTRY INTO EUROPEAN PHARMACY RETAILING 50
THE EXPANSION OF MULTI-CHANNEL PHARMACY RETAILING IN EUROPE 50
RESPONSES TO INCREASED COMPETITION BY INDEPENDENT PHARMACIES 51
DEVELOPMENT OF PHARMACY OPPORTUNITIES IN RUSSIA AND UKRAINE 52
Chapter 1 Graphs and Figures
Graph 1: Development of Sales of the Total Non-prescription Bound and OTC
Self-medication market for 22 Country Study - € millions at Consumer Purchase
Prices 2009 - 2013 (estimates) 6
Graph 2: The European Non-prescription Medicines Market Year on Year
Growth Analysis 19 Country Study 2008 to 2014 7
Graph 3: Year on Year Sales Gains and Losses OTC Self-medication Sales
compared to Semi-ethical Prescriptions Europe 2009- 2013 est. 8
Graph 4: Analysis of Value Sales of Non-prescription Medicines following Major
De-reimbursement in Germany 2004 - Germany Compared to France 2003 to
2013 (2003 = 100) 9
Graph 5: Growth of the European Self-Medication Market 2010-2014 14
Graph 6: Growth of the European Self-Medication Market by Therapeutic
Category 2009 - 2013 est. 15
Graph 7: 22 Country Study - Europe % Share of Consumer OTC Self-Medication
Purchases by Value through Non-pharmacy Channels 18
Graph 8 European Pharmacies by Ownership Classification 2013 30
Graph 9: 22 Key Markets - % Share of Number of European Pharmacies by
Ownership Classification 2013 31
Graph 10: Celesio, Alliance Boots and Phoenix Pharmacy Estates and Affiliate
Partnerships in Europe 39
Graph 11: Europe % Pharmacies in Wholly Chains by Country 33
Graph 12: 22 Key Markets - Location of Chain Pharmacies by State in Europe
2013 34
Chapter 1 Tables
Table 1: Non-prescription Medicines % € Share Europe by Country Total Retail
Pharmaceutical, Non-prescription and OTC Self-medication Markets 2013est.
11
Table 2: Country % € Share of Non-prescription Medicines' taken by Prescription
Sales 2013 compared to 2011 and 2009 - Main European Markets 12
Table 3: Europe's Main Non-prescription and OTC Medicines Markets Total Nonprescription
and OTC Self-medication Business % € Growth 2009 - 2013 16
Table 4: Europe's Leading Non-prescription Medicines Manufacturers' % Market
Share 17
Table 5: Europe - Number of Pharmacies by Country and Population served per
Pharmacy 2013 21
Table 6: Growth in Retail Pharmacy Numbers by European State 2006 - 201322
Table 7: Controls on Pharmacy Numbers in Europe by Country 24
Table 8: Average Pharmacy Turnover by Business Sector 2013 27
Table 9: Freedoms on Merchandising and Self-selection for OTC Self-medication
Medicines in Pharmacies by European State 28
Table 10: Retail Pharmacies in Private and Public Chains in 22 Countries in
Europe - 2013 32
Table 11: Ownership Regulations for Pharmacies in Europe as at 2013 (22
Country Study) 36
Table 12: Ownership Regulations for Pharmacies in Europe as at 2013 (22
Country Study) 36
Table 13: Europe's Leading Retail Pharmacy Chains 2013 38
Table 14: % of Pharmacies in Virtual Retail Pharmacy Chains - Main European
Markets 2013 41
Table 15: Estimated Retail Market Share of Alliance Boots' and Celesio's Wholly
Owned Pharmacy Chains in Europe 45
Table 16: Growth of Pharmacies in Main Supermarket Groups in the UK 2006 -
2013 48
CHAPTER 2
European Pharmacy Channels entering a Global Era
CONSUMER HEALTHCARE WITHIN THE PHARMACEUTICAL SUPPLY CHAIN 2
THE ROLE OF WHOLESALERS WITHIN THE EUROPEAN PHARMACEUTICAL SUPPLY CHAIN 3
Services offered by European Pharmaceutical Wholesalers 5
THE BASIC OFFER 6
MARKETING AND TRAINING SUPPORT 6
ADDITIONAL SUPPORT SERVICES 7
FINANCIAL SERVICES 7
CONSOLIDATION OF THE EUROPEAN PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALING INDUSTRY.. 8
REALIGNMENT STRATEGIES OF MAJOR EUROPEAN PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALERS
12
IMPACT ON PHARMACEUTICAL DISTRIBUTORS STRATEGIES OF CHANGES TO THIRD
PARTY PHARMACY OWNERSHIP RULES IN EUROPE 13
MAJOR PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALERS IN EUROPE 14
LEADING EUROPEAN PHARMACEUTICAL DISTRIBUTORS' MARKET SHARE BY
COUNTRY 16
MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN THE EUROPEAN PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALE
INDUSTRY 19
ROLE OF MAJOR PHARMACEUTICAL DISTRIBUTORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF
MULTIPLE RETAIL PHARMACY CHAINS, MAIL ORDER AND INTERNET RETAILING IN
EUROPE 21
PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALERS IN RUSSIA 23
CONCLUSIONS - NEW BUSINESS MODELS FOR THE EUROPEAN PHARMACEUTICAL
SUPPLY CHAIN - A RESPONSE TO CHANGING MANUFACTURER, PHARMACY AND
PATIENT NEEDS 23
Chapter 2 Graphs and Figures
Figure 1: Pharmaceutical Supply Chain in Europe 3
Figure 2: Summary of Services Provided by Pharmaceutical Wholesalers 6
Figure 3: Evolving Pharmaceutical Wholesaler Strategies in Europe 11
Figure 3: Evolving Pharmaceutical Wholesaler Strategies in Europe 11
Graph 1: % Intermediary Market Share of Leading International Pharmaceutical
Distributors in Europe based on Wholesale/Logistics Turnover 2013 - 22
Country European Market Study 15
Graph 2: International European Pharmaceutical Distributor Groups' Turnover
2012/2013 (est. € millions) 16
Graph 3: Estimated - % Split of European Pharmaceutical Wholesalers'
Turnover between Wholesaling/Logistics and Retail Pharmacy Sales 2012 22
Chapter 2 Tables
Table 1: Market Shares of Top Pharmaceutical Distributors by Country in Europe
2013 9
Table 2: Major Pharmaceutical Wholesaler's' and Channel Managers'
National and Consolidated % Intermediary Market Share 2013 - 22 European
Market Study
Table 3: Leading International Pharmaceutical Wholesalers Rank Position by
Country Market 2013 17
CHAPTER 3
Profiles of Companies Driving the European Pharmaceutical Supply
Chain
CELESIO COMPANY PROFILE 4
CELESIO - PHARMACEUTICAL BUSINESS IN EUROPE AND BRAZIL 4
CELESIO BUSINESSES AND GEOGRAPHY 5
CELESIO'S RETAIL STRATEGIES IN EUROPE - RETAIL PHARMACY CHAINS 6
UNITED KINGDOM - LLOYDSPHARMACY BUSINESS 8
IRELAND - CELESIO REBRANDING PHARMACY CHAIN 9
CELESIO PHARMACIES NORWAY 9
CELESIO PHARMACIES IN ITALY 10
CELESIO PHARMACIES BELGIUM 10
CELESIO RETAIL PHARMACY CHAIN DEVELOPMENTS IN SWEDEN 10
CELESIO BROCACEF MERGER HOLLAND 11
CELESIO PHARMACIES CZECH REPUBLIC 11
CELESIO'S E-COMMERCE STRATEGIES IN EUROPE - SWITCH TO MULTI-CHANNEL 11
SHOPPING 11
CELESIO'S ENDS DOCMORRIS FRANCHISE CONCEPT CHAIN IN GERMANY 12
CELESIO PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALING - A HISTORY OF ACQUISITION 13
CELESIO WHOLESALE BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS IN EUROPE 13
CELESIO PHARMACY SERVICES AND COOPERATION CHAIN AND FRANCHISES IN
EUROPE 14
CELESIO WHOLESALING OPERATIONS IN ITALY 15
CELESIO NEW BUSINESS STRATEGIES - REALIGNMENT, CENTRAL PROCUREMENT,
END-TO-END LOGISTICS AND EUROPEAN PHARMACY NETWORK 15
CELESIO DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPEAN PHARMACY NETWORK 16
WALGREENS AND ALLIANCE BOOTS STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP 18
SUMMARY OF ALLIANCE BOOTS BUSINESS 18
ALLIANCE BOOTS REVENUES AND PROFIT STREAMS 18
ALLIANCE BOOTS HEALTH AND BEAUTY RETAIL BUSINESS 20
BOOTS THE CHEMIST HEALTH AND BEAUTY BUSINESS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM…. 21
BOOTS THE CHEMIST INTERNET SERVICES IN THE UK 23
ALLIANCE BOOTS INTERNATIONAL RETAIL PHARMACY OPERATIONS 24
BOOTS NORGE 25
BOOTS REPUBLIC OF IRELAND 25
BOOTS NETHERLANDS 25
ALLIANCE BOOTS OTHER HEALTH AND BEAUTY RETAIL BUSINESS 26
ALLIANCE HEALTHCARE - THE PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALING AND DISTRIBUTION
ARM OF ALLIANCE BOOTS 26
ALLIANCE HEALTHCARE PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALING AND DISTRIBUTION IN
EUROPE 28
ALLIANCE HEALTHCARE - ALPHEGA, KRING AND VIVESCO RETAIL MARKETING
CONCEPTS 29
ALLOGA PRE-WHOLESALING AND CONTRACT LOGISTICS IN EUROPE 29
ALLIANCE BOOTS MINORITY OWNED COMPANIES AND STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS 29
ALLIANCE HEALTHCARE ITALIA 30
ALLIANCE HEALTHCARE Portugal 30
GUANGZHOU PHARMACEUTICALS CORPORATION - CHINA 30
UNIFARMA DISTRIBUZIONE S.R.I. - ITALY 30
HYDRA PHARM AND OKTAL 30
ALLIANCE BOOTS DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL BRAND OF GENERIC
PHARMACEUTICALS - ALMUS 31
WALGREEN'S ALLIANCE BOOTS - NEW STRATEGIES FOR THE FUTURE 31
WALGREENS ALLIANCE BOOTS AMERISOURCEBERGEN 33
PHOENIX 34
PHOENIX BUSINESS IN EUROPE 34
PHOENIX GROUP PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALING AND RETAILING GROWTH
HISTORY 34
PHOENIX A BUSINESS GROWN THROUGH MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS 36
CERP LORRAINE 37
PHOENIX WHOLESALE PHARMACEUTICAL BUSINESSES IN EUROPE 37
PHOENIX PRE-WHOLESALING IN EUROPE 37
PHOENIX IN PHARMACY RETAILING IN EUROPE 38
MIDAS 40
NUMARK 40
BENU APOTHEEK (ESCURA APOTHEEK) IN THE NETHERLANDS 40
PHOENIX HAS RENAMED ITS ESCURA CHAIN BENU IN THE NETHERLANDS. THIS IS A CHAIN MADE UP OF WHOLLY OWNED
STORES AND INDEPENDENT COOPERATION PARTNERS THAT CAN JOIN AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF COMMITMENT. . 40
SPEM (VALORE SALUTE) IN ITALY 41
PHOENIX GROUP FUTURE OUTLOOK IN EUROPEAN PHARMACEUTICAL DISTRIBUTION
41
SANASTERA 42
SUMMARY OF SANASTERA (SANACORP - CERP ROUEN MERGER) 42
ASTERA PROFILE 43
SANACORP PROFILE 43
CONCLUSIONS SANANTERA (CERP ROUEN AND SANACORP MERGER) 44
MEDIQ N.V. (PREVIOUSLY NAMED OPG GROEP N.V NETHERLANDS) 45
SUMMARY OF MEDIQ BUSINESS IN EUROPE 45
MEDIQ N.V. GLOBAL SOURCES OF BUSINESS 46
MEDIQ DIRECT 46
MEDIQ INSTITUTIONAL 46
MEDIQ PHARMACY - RETAIL AND WHOLESALE PHARMACY OPERATIONS IN THE
NETHERLANDS AND POLAND 46
MEDIQ PHARMACY MIXED FORMAT MULTI-CHANNEL STRATEGY IN THE
NETHERLANDS 47
MEDIQ PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALE DIVISIONS 47
MEDIC STRATEGIES FOR THE FUTURE 48
STRENGTHENING LEADING PHARMACY FORMULA 48
EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT. 48
Chapter 3 Graphs and Figures
Graph 1: Walgreens and Alliance Boots Global Revenues 2011 to 2013 32
Figure 1: Shareholding, Corporate Structure and Operating Companies -
Sanastera 42
Chapter 3 Tables
Table 1: Celesio Consolidated Sales and Profits (€000) 2011 5
Table 2: Celesio Group Turnover by Country and Main Activity - (€ Millions)
2012 6
Table 3: Celesio European Retail Pharmacy Estate Development 2003 to 2012
7
Table 4: Celesio - European Retail Pharmacy Turnover 2012 compared to 2010 -
Revenue Analysis €millions 8
Table 5: Celesio European Average Pharmacy Turnover by Country - 2012
compared to 2010 €millions 8
Table 6: Celesio's Market Share by European Pharmaceutical Wholesale Market
2013 14
Table 7: Alliance Boots Summary of Sales and Trading Profit - 31st March 2013
compared to 31st March 2012 19
Table 8: Alliance Boots % Growth Sales and Trading Profit - 31st March 2013
compared to 31st March 2012 19
Table 9: Alliance Boots Retail Pharmacy Sales by Country - 31st March 2013 20
Table 10: Alliance Boots European Retail Pharmacy Estate 2012/13 compared to
2006 21
Table 11: Boots Health and Beauty Retail Business in the United Kingdom 31st
March 2013 23
Table 12: Alliance Boots Average Turnover per Pharmacy by Country GB£
Millions - 31st March 2013 compared to 31st March 2012 24
Table 13: Alliance Healthcare Revenue by Country 27
Table 14: Alliance Healthcare Estimated Positional Market Ranking -
Intermediary Pharmaceutical Market by European Country 2013 28
Table 15: Phoenix Summary of Profit and Loss 2011 to 2013 35
Table 16: Phoenix Pharmaceutical Wholesaling Market Shares - Europe - % €
Share 2013 37
Table 17: Phoenix Retail Pharmacies by Country - Europe 2013 39
Table 18: Phoenix Cooperation Partner and Concept Groupings of Participating
Pharmacies 201340
Table 19: Mediq N.V. Sales and Operating Results 2010 €millions 45
Table 20: Mediq N.V. Business Units and Sales Share 2012 46
CHAPTER 4
Growth of New Channels for Consumer Healthcare in Europe
THE CHANGING ROLE OF THE INTERNET IN RETAIL PHARMACIES IN EUROPE - 2014
REPORT 1
THE GROWTH OF INTERNET PHARMACY IN EUROPE 3
INTERNET PHARMACY DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE - THE GERMAN EXPERIENCE 4
DEVELOPMENT OF ‘PUREPLAY' INTERNET DRIVEN MAIL ORDER PHARMACIES IN GERMANY 4
NEW MODELS IN INTERNET DRIVEN PHARMACY SHOPPING 5
THE DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-CHANNEL SHOPPING IN THE UNITED KINGDOM 7
ONLINE ORDERING FOR NON-PHARMACY PICK-UP-POINTS IN GERMANY 8
DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-CHANNEL SHOPPING IN PHARMACIES THE NETHERLANDS 8
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNET PHARMACIES IN SWITZERLAND 9
DEVELOPMENT OF E-COMMERCE IN PHARMACIES IN OTHER EUROPEAN STATES 10
MAIL-ORDER AND INTERNET PHARMACIES IN France 10
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNET PHARMACIES IN ITALY 10
INTERNET PHARMACIES IN POLAND 11
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNET PHARMACIES IN SWEDEN 11
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNET PHARMACIES IN DENMARK 11
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNET PHARMACIES NORWAY 12
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNET PHARMACIES IN FINLAND 13
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNET PHARMACIES IN AUSTRIA 13
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNET PHARMACIES IN BELGIUM 13
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNET PHARMACIES IN SPAIN 14
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNET PHARMACIES IN BULGARIA, CZECH REPUBLIC,
HUNGARY, SLOVAKIA AND SLOVENIA 15
INTERNET PHARMACIES IN BULGARIA 15
INTERNET PHARMACIES IN CZECH REPUBLIC 15
INTERNET PHARMACIES HUNGARY 16
INTERNET PHARMACIES SLOVAKIA 16
INTERNET PHARMACIES SLOVENIA 17
THE FUTURE FOR MAIL ORDER AND INTERNET MARKETING OF NON-PRESCRIPTION
MEDICINES AND OTC SELF-MEDICATION IN EUROPE 17
Chapter 4 Tables
Table 1: Internet Users in 22 European Countries Compared to Legal Status of
Internet Pharmacies 2013 2
CHAPTER 5
OTC Distribution in Belgium
THE NON-PRESCRIPTION AND OTC SELF-MEDICATION MARKET IN BELGIUM 2013…. 1
SHARE OF THE BELGIAN SELF-MEDICATION MARKET BY CATEGORY 2013 1
CHANGING STRUCTURE OF THE BELGIAN SELF-MEDICATION MARKET 2
PROFESSIONAL OR SEMI-ETHICAL PHARMACEUTICAL BRANDS 3
CONSUMER OTC SELF-MEDICATION BRANDS IN BELGIUM 3
CLASSIFICATION OF MEDICINES IN BELGIUM 4
MARKETING AUTHORIZATION FOR NON-PRESCRIPTION MEDICINES IN BELGIUM…… 4
REIMBURSEMENT OF NON-PRESCRIPTION MEDICINES IN BELGIUM 5
STATUTORY CONTROL OF PRICES ON OTC MEDICINES IN BELGIUM - NEW COST
CONTROL MEASURES 2011 5
BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT FOR NON-PRESCRIPTION MEDICINES IN BELGIUM 6
REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT FOR PHARMACEUTICAL DISTRIBUTION IN BELGIUM 7
STRUCTURE OF DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS FOR SELF-MEDICATION IN BELGIUM . 8
TRENDS IN THE RETAIL PHARMACY NUMBERS IN BELGIUM 8
RETAIL PHARMACY GROUPINGS IN BELGIUM 9
PHARMACY CO-OPERATIVES IN BELGIUM 10
RETAIL PHARMACY CO-OPERATIVES' STRATEGIES IN BELGIUM 11
CELESIO - LLOYDS RETAIL PHARMACY CHAIN IN BELGIUM 12
INDEPENDENT PHARMACIES IN BELGIUM 12
ANALYSIS OF PHARMACY TURNOVER AND ECONOMICS IN BELGIUM 12
TRADE MARGINS AND VAT MANUFACTURER TO RETAIL PHARMACY PRICE FOR
PRESCRIPTION AND OTC MEDICINES IN BELGIUM 13
INTERNET PHARMACIES IN BELGIUM 13
RESTRUCTURING OF PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALER SECTOR IN BELGIUM 15
FEBELCO 15
PHARMA BELGIUM 16
BELMEDIS WELCOOP 16
ASTERA 16
BELGIAN PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALERS' MARKET SHARE 17
THE FUTURE FOR OTC MEDICINE DISTRIBUTION IN BELGIUM 17
Chapter 5 Graphs and Figures
Figure 1: Outline Structure of OTC Pharmaceutical Distribution in Belgium 8
Graph 1: Belgium Total Self-medication Market 2009 - 2013 1
Graph 2: Pharmacy Development Belgium 1997 - 2012 9
Graph 3: Belgium Sales Forecast Non-prescription Medicines to 201718
Chapter 5 Tables
Table 1: Belgium - Self-Medication Market Category Share and Growth2009-
2013(est.) 2
Table 2: Leading OTC Self-medication Brands in Belgium 3
Table 3: Europe's Top 4 OTC Self-medication Markets -Average Per Inhabitant
€Purchases 2013 6
Table 4: Ownership of Pharmacies - Belgium 2013 9
Table 5: Leading Cooperative Retail Pharmacy Groups - Belgium by Number of
Pharmacies 2006 to 2013 11
Table 6: Belgian Pharmaceutical Wholesalers' Market Shares 2008 -2013 17
CHAPTER 6
OTC Distribution in France
THE SELF-MEDICATION MARKET IN France 2013 1
REIMBURSABLE MEDICINES NOT REQUIRING A PRESCRIPTION IN France 1
SHARE OF THE FRENCH NON-PRESCRIPTION MEDICINES AND SELF-MEDICATION
MARKET BY THERAPEUTIC CATEGORY 20013 3
CLASSIFICATIONS OF MEDICINE IN THE FRENCH PRESCRIPTION AND NONPRESCRIPTION
OTC SELF-MEDICATION MARKETS 4
PRESCRIPTION ONLY MEDICINES IN France 4
NON-PRESCRIPTION BOUND MEDICINES IN France 4
LEGAL DEFINITION OF NON-PRESCRIPTION MEDICINES IN France 5
GUIDELINES FOR APPLICANTS FOR A MARKETING AUTHORIZATION 6
MARKETING AUTHORIZATION FOR NON-PRESCRIPTION COMBINATION PRODUCTS.. 7
RENEWALS OF A MARKETING AUTHORIZATION FOR NON-PRESCRIPTION PRODUCTS7
ADVERTISING REGULATIONS FOR NON-PRESCRIPTION AND OTC MEDICINES IN
France 8
USE OF TRADEMARKS FOR MEDICINAL PRODUCTS IN France 9
FRENCH PHARMACEUTICAL DISTRIBUTION - PRICE CONTROL AND REIMBURSEMENT
SYSTEMS 9
GENERIC SUBSTITUTION TARGETS FOR PRESCRIPTION MEDICINES IMPOSED ON
FRENCH PHARMACIES 10
PHARMACY OWNERSHIP REGULATIONS IN France 11
PHARMACY ESTABLISHMENT AUTHORIZATION IN France 11
THE PHARMACEUTICAL SUPPLY CHAIN IN France 11
THE RETAIL PHARMACY CHANNEL IN France 12
PHARMACY - COOPERATION CHAINS AND BUYING GROUPS IN France . 13
LE COLLECTIF NATIONAL DES GROUPEMENTS DE PHARMACIENS D'OFFICINE - CNGPO
14
TYPES OF PHARMACY GROUPINGS IN France 14
PHARMACY COOPERATIVES IN France 14
COOPERATION PARTNER PHARMACY GROUPS LINKED TO WHOLESALERS IN France 15
THE REASONS FOR PHARMACY GROUPINGS IN France 15
SOURCES OF BUSINESS TURNOVER AND ECONOMICS OF FRENCH PHARMACIES .. 17
POTENTIAL FOR INTERNET PHARMACIES IN France 17
PRICES AND MARGINS OF NON-PRESCRIPTION AND OTC MEDICINES IN France . 18
PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALERS IN France 18
CELESIO France 19
ALLIANCE HEALTHCARE (ALLIANCE BOOTS) France 19
SANASTERA /CERP (COOPÉRATIVE D'EXPLOITATION ET DE RÉPARTITION) 20
PHOENIX France 20
NON-PHARMACY DISTRIBUTION IN France OF CONSUMER HEALTHCARE PRODUCTS
IN France 20
CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARDS SELF-MEDICATION IN France 21
France - THE FUTURE FOR OTC DISTRIBUTION IN France TO 2017 22
Chapter 6 Graphs and Figures
Graph 1: France Total Non-prescription Medicines and Self-medication Market
2009- 2013 1
Graph 2: Non-prescription Medicines in France % Share of Sales by Brand Type
2013 2
Graph 3: France Pharmacy Average % Value Share of Turnover by Category 2013
17
Graph 4: Forecasts for the French Non-prescription Market to 2017 €millions
at Consumer Prices 22
Figure 1: Outline Structure of OTC Pharmaceutical Distribution in France 11
Chapter 6 Tables
Table 1: France - on Non-prescription Pharmaceutical and Self-Medication
Markets - Growth indices 2003 - 2013 est. (2003 = 100) 3
Table 2: France - Self-Medication Market Category Share 2013 3
Table 3: Growth in the Number of Pharmacies in France 2008 - 2013 12
Table 4: Number of Retail Pharmacies by Metropolitan Region in France
October 2013 12
Table 5: Leading Voluntary Groupings and Virtual Chains of Pharmacies in
France 2013 15
Table 6: France - Price Build-up Reimbursed Pharmaceutical Products 2013 18
Table 7: France - Pharmaceutical Wholesalers' Share of Intermediary Pharmacy
Market 2013 19
Table 8: Self-medication - % of French Consumers Suffering Common Ailments
and Treating with an OTC Medicine 21
CHAPTER 7
OTC Distribution in Germany
THE NON-PRESCRIPTION SELF-MEDICATION MARKET IN GERMANY 2013 1
SHARE OF THE GERMAN OTC SELF-MEDICATION MARKET BY CATEGORY 2013 .. 2
THE STRUCTURE OF THE GERMAN NON-PRESCRIPTION BOUND MEDICINES AND OTC
SELF-MEDICATION MARKET 3
THE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT FOR OTC SELF-MEDICATION CONSUMER
MEDICINES IN GERMANY 5
OTC SELF-MEDICATION DEFINITION IN GERMANY 5
HERBALS MEDICINAL PRODUCTS 5
HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINAL PRODUCTS 6
VITAMINS AND MINERALS 6
MARKETING AUTHORIZATIONS FOR NON-PRESCRIPTION MEDICINES IN GERMANY .. 6
HEALTHCARE REFORMS IMPACTING ON THE NON-PRESCRIPTION OTC SELFMEDICATION
MEDICINES SECTOR IN GERMANY 7
THE ACT ON THE RESTRUCTURING OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET (AMNOG ) 8
THE CHANGING REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF
PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS IN GERMANY 8
PRICES AND MARGINS OF NON-PRESCRIPTION PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS IN
GERMANY 9
NEW WHOLESALER REMUNERATION ACT ON THE RESTRUCTURING OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET (AMNOG )…. 9
DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS FOR NON-PRESCRIPTION AND OTC SELF-MEDICATION
MEDICINES IN GERMANY 9
THE CHANGING STRUCTURE OF THE PHARMACY SUPPLY CHAIN IN GERMANY 11
PHARMACY TURNOVER ANALYSIS GERMANY 14
TRENDS IN GERMAN PHARMACIES SOURCES OF INCOME 2005 - 2012 . 16
CONSUMER USAGE AND LOYALTY INFLUENCES FOR PHARMACIES IN GERMANY….. 17
DEVELOPMENT OF RETAIL PHARMACY COOPERATION CHAINS IN GERMANY . 18
INDEPENDENT BRANDED PHARMACY GROUPS OR COOPERATIVES IN GERMANY . 19
ROLE OF INDEPENDENT PHARMACY COOPERATIVES - APOTHEKEN KOOPERATION
GROUPS IN GERMANY 19
ALSO THERE ARE A NUMBER OF SMALLER INDEPENDENT PHARMACY CO-OPERATIVES ACTING AS REGIONAL BUYING
GROUPS OR AS SPECIALISTS E.G: - 20
WEAKNESSES OF VIRTUAL PHARMACY CHAINS IN GERMANY 20
RETAIL PHARMACY FRANCHISE CONCEPTS IN GERMANY 21
DOCMORRIS - END OF A RETAIL PHARMACY FRANCHISE CONCEPT IN GERMANY 21
INTERNET AND MAIL ORDER DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS FOR OTC MEDICINES IN
GERMANY 22
ORIGINS OF MAIL ORDER AND INTERNET PHARMACY IN GERMANY 23
SALES TURNOVER IN THE GERMAN MAIL ORDER PHARMACY SECTOR BY PRODUCT
GROUP 23
NON-PRESCRIPTION AND HEALTHCARE SALES THROUGH MAIL ORDER AND INTERNET PHARMACIES IN GERMANY 2013
24
NON-PRESCRIPTION AND HEALTHCARE THERAPEUTIC CATEGORIES MOST
PURCHASED THROUGH MAIL ORDER AND INTERNET PHARMACIES IN GERMANY…. 26
MAIL ORDER AND INTERNET PHARMACIES - MEDIUM SIZED BUSINESSES IN
GERMANY? 27
LEADING MAIL ORDER AND INTERNET PHARMACY BRANDS IN GERMANY 28
RESTRUCTURING OF THE INTERNET AND MAIL ORDER PHARMACY SECTOR IN
GERMANY 29
MAJOR DRUGGIST AND GROCERY CHAINS MULTI-CHANNEL HEALTHCARE
STRATEGIES THROUGH PARTNERING PUREPLAY MAIL ORDER PHARMACIES . 30
PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALERS GERMANY 30
PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALER CONSOLIDATION IN A CHANGING BUSINESS
ENVIRONMENT IN GERMANY 32
THE MAIN PHARMACEUTICAL WHOLESALERS IN GERMANY 32
PHOENIX PHARMACEUTICAL DISTRIBUTION IN GERMANY 32
GEHE (CELESIO) PHARMACEUTICAL DISTRIBUTION IN GERMANY 33
ANZAG (ALLIANCE BOOTS) PHARMACEUTICAL DISTRIBUTION IN GERMANY 33
SANACORP (SANASTERA) PHARMACEUTICAL DISTRIBUTION IN GERMANY 34
NOVEDA PHARMACEUTICAL DISTRIBUTION IN GERMANY 34
PHARMA PRIVAT PHARMACEUTICAL DISTRIBUTION IN GERMANY 35
FREE SALE OR GENERAL SALE LIST (GSL) OTC SELF-MEDICATION MEDICINES
THROUGH NON-PHARMACY CHANNELS IN GERMANY 35
DRUGSTORES IN GERMANY 35
INDEPENDENT DRUGSTORES IN GERMANY 36
MULTIPLE DRUGSTORE RETAILERS IN GERMANY 36
CONSUMER USES, ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION, SOURCES PURCHASE AND
ATTITUDES TO OTC SELF-MEDICATION IN GERMANY 36
THE FUTURE FOR OTC DISTRIBUTION IN GERMANY 39
Chapter 7 Graphs and Figures
Graph 1: Germany Total Non-prescription and Self-medication Market 2009 -
2013est. €millions at Consumer Prices 1
Graph 2: Share of the German Consumer healthcare Market by Channel 11
Graph 3: Growth of Pharmacies in Germany 1995 to 2012 13
Graph 4: Average Pharmacy Turnover in Germany 1997 to 2012 15
Graph 5: German Retail Pharmacies - Euro Turnover Analysis 2013 15
Graph 6: Sales of Non-prescription Healthcare and through Internet and Mail
Order Pharmacies in Germany 2007 - 2013 est. 25
Graph 7: % Split of Sales of Non-prescription Medicines and through Mail Order
Pharmacies in Germany by main Category 26
Graph 8: % Total Turnover Purchased from Mail Order Pharmacies for Nonprescription
Medicines plus Personal Care and Patient Care 27
Graph 9: Brand Owner % Share of Internet and Market Mail Order Pharmacies
in Germany 2013 29
Graph 10: Profile Germans who Shop for Non-prescription Medicines by Age
and Channel 2013 38
Graph 11: Forecasts for Non-prescription Medicines in Germany to 2017 €
millions at Consumer Prices 39
Figure 1: Outline Structure of Non-prescription Pharmaceutical Distribution
through Retail Pharmacies in Germany 12
Chapter 7 Tables
Table 1: Germany - Impact of Act on the Modernization of Statutory Health
Insurance (GMG) on Non-prescription Pharmaceutical and Self-Medication
Markets - Growth indices 2003 - 2013est. (2003 = 100) 2
Table 2: Germany - Self-Medication Market Share by Category 2013 2
Table 3: Analysis of Retail Pharmacy Numbers and Branch Ownership in
Germany by Region 2012 compared to 2010 14
Table 4: Analysis of Pharmacy Turnover in Germany by Category 2012 compared
to 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 16
Table 5: Frequency of Consumer Visits to Pharmacies in Germany 2011
compared to 2010 and 2009 17
Table 6: Reasons for Consumers' Chose to Shop in Pharmacies in Germany
Table 7: Retail Pharmacy Cooperation Groupings or Virtual Chains in Germany
2013 18
Table 8: Internet and Mail Order Pharmacy Share of Sales by Category 2012 24
Table 9: Analysis - Consolidation of German Pharmaceutical Wholesalers 1981 -
2013 31
Table 10: German Pharmaceutical Wholesalers' % Market Shares in 1995 - 2013
32
Table 11: % Population Suffering Conditions Compared to % Treating with OTC Self-medication Remedies in Germany 36
Table 12: Most and Least Trusted Sources of Information for Consumers Seeking
Advice in Germany 37, etc...

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