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Recycling of Platinum Group Metals – A Global Technology, Industry and Market Analysis

  • March 2014
  • -
  • Innovative Research and Products (iRAP), Inc.
  • -
  • 196 pages

The platinum group metals (PGMs), platinum, palladium and rhodium, have significant catalytic properties. Additionally, platinum metals possess natural beauty which makes them a valuable jewelry item in many parts of the world. Future demand for PGMs is expected to be heavily influenced by the automobile industry, while jewelry demand for platinum is expected to see significant growth among the key economies of Asia, such as China. Demand for platinum metals in industrial applications is also expected to rise along with the growing global economy.

Rising PGM prices which have occurred in recent decades have led to an increase in the recycling of these metals, which are used in automobile catalytic converters and electronic components. The recycling of PGMs usually starts with scrap refiners that collect scrap material such as waste catalytic converters and electronic parts that contain PGMs to extract the valuable metals. Other refiners usually buy the recovered PGM material to further upgrade the quality of the recycled material.

The demand for recycled platinum metals is expected to continue to increase in the coming years as new technologies which rely on the catalytic properties of PGMs, such as fuel cells, become more widely used the world over.


STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

This report has been prepared to focus on the many new developments that have been taking place in the PGM refining industry. Many of the market application sectors are mature, while others are growing at a good pace. Secondly, there are new applications for PGMs on the horizon, such as new electronic devices and fuel cell technology. These have created the need to make a proper analysis of market and business issues, trends in PGM recycling, and U.S. markets as well as foreign competition.

This report has been prepared to:

- Provide an overview of the various platinum refinery industries and markets, their recycling processes and applications;

- Identify the technical and business issues related to the commercial recovery of platinum metals;

- Understand the market idiosyncrasies among the various platinum metals;

- Analyze the global economic and technological trend impacting the demand for recycled platinum metals;

- Determine the current size and future growth of the U.S. markets for platinum metal refining;

- Identify and profile all U.S. refiners and suppliers of recycled platinum; and

- Identify the foreign refiners of PGMs.


CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY

This study covers the technical and industry overviews, materials, current and emerging production methods, business and industry issues, current and emerging applications, and an extensive market analysis. Current size and future growth of the U.S. markets are estimated for 2013 and 2018.

SCOPE AND FORMAT

This report reviews the platinum metals refining industry, the types of platinum materials, their applications, and current and anticipated demand for specific metals. For each material segment, the report provides an analysis of material and product types in that category, processing technologies, properties, applications, the U.S. markets and foreign competition.

The qualitative and quantitative judgments embodied in this report are a valuable contribution to the current knowledge of platinum metals, their production processes, applications and markets. Moreover, this study has been conducted at a vital stage when new applications hold the potential to revolutionize the application areas.
This is a consequence of the expanding utilization of electronic components – computers, fuel cells etc. – that often require the catalytic properties of platinum group metals. This current study identifies all such applications.

TO WHOM THE STUDY CATERS

This report is directed to companies that are interested in developments in this field, such as:

- Companies involved in the recovery, processing and supplying of precious metals,

- Refiners and suppliers of platinum metals,

- Manufacturers and suppliers of systems and subsystems which incorporate platinum metals,

- Manufacturers and suppliers of materials used in the refining of precious metals,

- Importers and suppliers of precious metals,

- Users of platinum group metals, and

- Precious metal recovery companies interested in diversification.

REPORT SUMMARY

The platinum group metals (PGMs) recycling industry has sustained growth in the last decade and is likely to continue this growth into the next decade because of the increasing value of PGMs and an expansion of technologies which depend on their physical properties. Economic growth in China, India Brazil and elsewhere has fostered a global increase in the use of automobiles, electronic devices and jewelry, all of which use recycled platinum metals. Additionally, within the industry, there has been growing innovation over the past decade in the technologies of PGM recycling.

The global market is expected to undergo about 8.2% growth. Worldwide growth has the potential to expand from $6 billion in 2013 to about $9 billion by 2018.

Other Major findings of this report:

- The Asian region offers the greatest opportunities for growth, a trend that is expected to continue through 2018. Asia is expected to exhibit growth that exceeds some of the world’s most vibrant markets in the Americas and Europe by expanding at a rate of approximately 9.2% annually.

- The Americas recycled platinum metals market, led by the U.S., is expected to grow at a good rate in the coming years, while at the same time being one of the world’s key sources of recycled platinum metals. Between the years of 2013 to 2018, demand in the Americas will increase by a rate of some 7.5%.

- This study also reveals that Europe will likely experience positive growth, estimated at 7.7%. The magnitude of the demand for these recycled precious metals in Europe in the year 2018 is expected to be significantly greater than the current European community market size.

- Total demand in the emerging market regions of Middle East and Africa, added up to roughly $267.6 million in the Middle East and about $207.3 million in Africa during the year 2013, Additionally, we expect that during the coming five years, these emerging markets will see a strong surge in the demand for recycled platinum metals.

Table Of Contents

Recycling of Platinum Group Metals - A Global Technology, Industry and Market Analysis
INTRODUCTION 1
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY 2
FORMAT AND SCOPE 2
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 3
WHO SHOULD SUBSCRIBE? 3
AUTHOR'S CREDENTIALS 4
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP
METALS RECYCLING BY REGION THROUGH 2018 6
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP
METALS RECYCLING BY REGION THROUGH 2018 6
INDUSTRY AND TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 7
PLATINUM METALS: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 7
MAJOR APPLICATIONS OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS 7
JEWELRY 8
AUTOMOBILES 8
TABLE 1 KEY APPLICATIONS OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS 9
THE PLATINUM GROUP METALS MARKET 9
TABLE 2 PLATINUM GROUP METALS PRODUCTION BY THE WORLD'S MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES 9
TABLE 3 MARKET PRICES OF PLATINUM METALS IN 2012 AND
PART OF 2013 11
PGM PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 11
TABLE 4 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS 11
TABLE 5 ADDITIONAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS 12
PGM MINERALOGY 12
NATURAL ALLOYS OF PLATINUM METALS 13
GLOBAL PLATINUM GROUP METALS PRODUCTION 14
UNITED STATES 14
SOUTH AFRICA 15
RUSSIA 15
CANADA 15
THE METALS RECYCLING INDUSTRY 16
QUALITY OF METAL RECYCLING 17
COMMON METAL RECYCLING PROCESSES 17
LOADING AND UNLOADING 18
BREAKING AND SEPARATING 18
CUTTING 18
MELTING AND BAKING IN FURNACES AND OVENS 19
APPLYING CHEMICAL PROCESSES TO RECYCLE METALS 19
RECYCLING OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS 19
TABLE 6 PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLE RATES 19
RECYCLING OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS(CONTINUED) 21

INDUSTRY TRENDS IMPACTING THE DEMAND FOR PLATINIUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING 21
INCREASING FOCUS ON AUTOMOBILE POLLUTION CONTROL 21
TABLE 7 PROJECTED NUMBER OF AUTOMOBILES OPERATED BY REGION 22
GROWING USE OF PGMS IN ELECTRICAL DEVICE 22
TABLE 8 WORLD MLCC PRODUCTION TRENDS 23
TABLE 9 PRODUCTION GROWTH TRENDS IN ELECTRICAL
DEVICES BY REGION 23
INCREASING USE OF FUEL CELLS 23
TABLE 10 GLOBAL FUEL CELL SHIPMENT TRENDS 24
INDUSTRIAL GROWTH IN CHINA AND INDIA 25
TABLE 11 GROWTH TRENDS FOR THE WORLD'S DYNAMIC
ECONOMIES 25
FUTURE MARKET CHALLENGES 26
WORLD PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING MARKET 27
PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING BY REGION 27
EUROPEAN REGION PGMS RECYCLING 27
TABLE 12 WESTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 28
EUROPEAN REGION PGMS RECYCLING (CONTINUED) 30
TABLE 13 EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 30
ASIAN AND OCEANIAN MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING 31
TABLE 14 ASIAN MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS
RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 31
ASIAN AND OCEANIAN MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING (CONTINUED) 33
TABLE 15 OCEANIAN MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 33
TABLE 16 SOUTHEAST ASIAN MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 33
THE AMERICAS MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS
RECYCLING 34
TABLE 17 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 35
TABLE 18 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR
PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY
THROUGH 2018 36
AFRICAN MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING 37
TABLE 19 NORTH AFRICAN MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP
METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 37
TABLE 20 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 38
AFRICAN MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING (CONTINUED) 40
MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING 40
TABLE 21 MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP
METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 40
MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING (CONTINUED) 42
GLOBAL MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING BY
TYPE OF METAL 42
WORLDWIDE USE OF PGMS IN RECYCLING BY TYPE OF METAL 42
TABLE 22 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING BY METAL TYPE THROUGH 2018 42
WORLDWIDE DOLLAR VOLUME OF PGMS RECYCLING BY TYPE 43
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING BY METAL TYPE THROUGH 2018 44
GLOBAL MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING BY APPLICATION SOURCES 45
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING BY KEY APPLICATION SOURCES 2018 45
GLOBAL MARKET FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING BY APPLICATION SOURCES (CONTINUED) 47
PLATINUM METALS RECYCLING 47
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM METALS BY REGION THROUGH 2018 47
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PLATINUM METALS AUTOMOBILE CATALYST RECYCLING THROUGH 2018 48
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PLATINUM METALS ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS RECYCLING THROUGH 2018 49
TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PLATINIUM METALS JEWELRY RECYCLING THROUGH 2018 50
RECYCLED PLATINUM METALS MARKET BY REGION OF THE WORLD 51
EUROPEAN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM METAL 51
TABLE 29 WESTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR RECYCLING
PLATINUM METAL BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 52
EUROPEAN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM METAL 53
EUROPEAN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM METAL 54
TABLE 30 EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR RECYCLING
PLATINUM METALS BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 54
ASIAN AND OCEANIAN MARKETS FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM
METALS…56
TABLE 31 ASIAN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM METALS BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 56
TABLE 32 OCEANIAN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM METALS
BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 57
TABLE 33 SOUTHEAST ASIAN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM METALS BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 58
THE AMERICAS MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM METALS 59
TABLE 34 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM METALS BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 59

TABLE 35 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR
RECYCLING PLATINUM METALS BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 60
AFRICAN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM METALS 61
TABLE 36 NORTH AFRICAN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM METALS BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 61
TABLE 37 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM METALS BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 62
AFRICAN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM
METALS (CONTINUED) 64
MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM METALS 64
TABLE 38 MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM METALS BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 64
MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM
METALS (CONTINUED) ….66
MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PLATINUM
METALS (CONTINUED) ….67

PALLADIUM METALS RECYCLING 67
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METAL RECYCLING BY REGION THROUGH 2018 67
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR RECYCLING PALLADIUM METALS RECYCLING FROM AUTOMOBILE CATALYST THROUGH 2018 68
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METALS RECYCLING FROM ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS THROUGH 2018 69
TABLE 42 GLOBAL MARKET FOR RECYCLING PALLADIUM METALS FROM JEWELRY THROUGH 2018 70
RECYCLED PALLADIUM METALS MARKET BY REGION OF THE WORLD 71
EUROPEAN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PALLADIUM METALS 71
TABLE 43 WESTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METAL RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 72
EUROPEAN MARKET FOR RECYCLING PALLADIUM
METALS (CONTINUED)…..74
TABLE 44 EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METAL RECYCLING BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2018 74
ASIAN MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METALS RECYCLING 75
TABLE 45 ASIAN DEMAND FOR PALLADIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 76

TABLE 46 OCEANIAN DEMAND FOR PALLADIUM METALS
RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 77
TABLE 47 SOUTHEAST ASIAN MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 78
THE AMERICAS MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METALS RECYCLING 79
TABLE 48 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 79
TABLE 49 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR
PALLADIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 80
AFRICAN MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METALS RECYCLING 81
TABLE 50 NORTH AFRICAN MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 81
TABLE 51 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 82
AFRICAN MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METALS
RECYCLING (CONTINUED) …..84
MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METALS RECYCLING 84
TABLE 52 MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 84
MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METALS
RECYCLING (CONTINUED)…..86
MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR PALLADIUM METALS
RECYCLING (CONTINUED)…..87
RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING 87
TABLE 53 GLOBAL MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING BY REGION THROUGH 2018 87
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MARKET FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOBILE
CATALYST RHODIUM METALS THROUGH 2018 87
EUROPEAN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING 88
TABLE 55 WESTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 89
EUROPEAN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS
RECYCLING (CONTINUED) 91
TABLE 56 EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 91
ASIAN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING 92
TABLE 57 ASIAN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 92
TABLE 58 OCEANIAN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING
BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 93
TABLE 59 SOUTHEAST ASIAN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 94
THE AMERICAS MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING 95
TABLE 60 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 95
TABLE 61 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 96
AFRICAN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING 97
TABLE 62 NORTH AFRICAN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 97
TABLE 63 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 98
AFRICAN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS
RECYCLING (CONTINUED)…100
MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING 100
TABLE 64 MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2018 100
MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING (CONTINUED) 102
MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR RHODIUM METALS RECYCLING (CONTINUED) 103

RUTHENIUM METALS RECYCLING 103
TABLE 65 GLOBAL MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM METALS RECYCLING
BY REGION THROUGH 2018 103
EUROPEAN MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM METALS RECYCLING 103
TABLE 66 WESTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM
METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 104
METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 (CONTNUED) 106
TABLE 67 EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM
METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2018 106
ASIAN MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM METALS RECYCLING 107

TABLE 68 ASIAN MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM METAL RECYCLING
BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2018 107
TABLE 69 OCEANIAN MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM METALS
RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 108
TABLE 70 SOUTHEAST ASIAN MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 109
THE AMERICAS MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM METALS RECYCLING 110
TABLE 71NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2018 110
TABLE 72 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY, THROUGH 2018 111
AFRICAN MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM METALS RECYCLING 112
TABLE 73 NORTHERN AFRICAN MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM
METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 113
TABLE 74 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM
METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 114
MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM METALS
RECYCLING 115
TABLE 75 MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 116
MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR RUTHENIUM METALS
RECYCLING (CONTINUED)….118
IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING 118
TABLE 76 GLOBAL MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 118
EUROPEAN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING 119
TABLE 77 WESTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 119
EUROPEAN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING
(CONTINUED)…..121
EUROPEAN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING
(CONTINUED)…..122
TABLE 78 EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 122
ASIAN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING 123
TABLE 79 ASIAN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 123
TABLE 80 OCEANIAN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING
BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 124
TABLE 81 SOUTHEAST ASIAN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 125
THE AMERICAS MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING 126
TABLE 82 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 126
TABLE 83 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 127
AFRICAN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING 128
TABLE 84 NORTH AFRICAN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 128
TABLE 85 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 129
MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METALS RECYCLING 130
TABLE 86 MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET FOR IRIDIUM METAL RECYCLING BY COUNTRY THROUGH 2018 131
WORLD PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 133
TABLE 87 LEADING PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLERS 133
TABLE 88 DISTRIBUTION OF PGM RECYCLING COMPANIES
BY REGION 134
WORLD PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE (CONTINUED)..136
WORLD PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE (CONTINUED)..137
WORLD PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE (CONTINUED)..138

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 138
NEW DEVELOPMENTS 138
PLATINUM GROUP METALS BULK ANALYSIS IN AUTOMOBILE CATALYST RECYCLING MATERIAL BY LASER-INDUCED
BREAKDOWN SPECTROSCOPY 138
PRECIOUS METALS PROCESS CATALYSTS - MATERIAL FLOWS
AND RECYCLING 138
LASER-INDUCED BREAKDOWN SPECTROSCOPY APPLICATION TO CONTROL OF THE PROCESS OF PRECIOUS METAL RECOVERY AND RECYCLING 139
RECOVERY OF HIGH PURITY PRECIOUS METALS FROM PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS 139
REMOVAL OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS FROM THE USED AUTO CATALYTIC CONVERTER 140
A NOVEL ELECTROBIOTECHNOLOGY FOR THE RECOVERY OF PRECIOUS METALS FROM SPENT AUTOMOTIVE CATALYSTS 140
MICROWAVE-ASSISTED PLATINUM RECYCLING 141
RECOVERY OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS FROM RECYCLED AUTOMOTIVE CATALYTIC CONVERTERS BY
CARBO-CHLORINATION 141
PLATINUM GROUP METALS RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 142
U.S. PATENT TRENDS 142
TABLE 89 U.S. PATENT GENERATION TRENDS BY YEAR, 2002-2012 143
TABLE 90 U.S. PATENTS BY ASSIGNEE, 2002-2012 144
TABLE 91 U.S. PATENTS BY TECHNOLOGY, 2002-2012 144
SAMPLE OF U.S. PATENT ABSTRACTS 145
METHODS FOR RECOVERING METALS FROM AUTOMOBILE SCRAP AND ELECTRONIC WASTE 145
METHOD FOR RECOVERING PLATINUM FROM PLATINUM-CONTAINING COATINGS ON GAS TURBINE ENGINE
COMPONENTS 145
PROCESS FOR RECOVERING PLATINUM GROUP METALS,
RHENIUM AND GOLD 146
PRECIOUS METAL RECOVERY FROM ORGANICS-PRECIOUS METAL COMPOSITIONS WITH SUPERCRITICAL WATER REACTANT 146
RECOVER AND RECYCLE RHODIUM FROM SPENT PARTIAL
OXIDATION CATALYSTS 146
PROCESS FOR RECOVERY OF PRECIOUS METALS 147
PROCESS FOR RECYCLING FUEL CELL COMPONENTS CONTAINING PRECIOUS METALS 147
METHODS FOR CLEANING PROCESS KITS AND CHAMBERS,
AND FOR RUTHENIUM RECOVERY 148
RECOVERY OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS 148
METHOD FOR RECOVERING CATALYTIC METALS 149
METHOD FOR RECOVERING CATALYTIC METALS USING A POROUS METAL FILTER 149
METHOD OF RECYCLING USEFUL METAL 149
U.S. REGISTERED PATENTS 150
TABLE 92 SAMPLE OF U.S. PLATINIUM GROUP METAL RECYCLING PATENTS, 2002-2012 150
TABLE 92 SAMPLE OF U.S. PLATINIUM GROUP METAL
RECYCLING PATENTS, 2002-2012 (CONTINUED).152
TABLE 92 SAMPLE OF U.S. PLATINIUM GROUP METAL
RECYCLING PATENTS, 2002-2012 (CONTINUED).153
TABLE 92 SAMPLE OF U.S. PLATINIUM GROUP METAL
RECYCLING PATENTS, 2002-2012 (CONTINUED).154
COMPANY PROFILES 154
123 PRECIOUS METAL REFINING, LLC 154
A-1 SPECIALIZED SERVICES and SUPPLIES, INC. 154
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WISCONSIN PRECIOUS METALS REFINING SERVICES 196
ZIMPLATS 196

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