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CMP Technology: Competition, Products, Markets

  • November 2016
  • -
  • Information Network
  • -
  • 224 pages

Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is a very important process in semiconductor manufacturing. The combination of mechanical abrasion and chemical etching enable polishing and flattening of wafers before the photolithography stage. This helps in avoiding the depth of field issues during illumination.

This technology-marketing report examines and projects the technologies involved in the planarization of semiconductor layers. The emphasis is on Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP). This report discusses the technology trends, products, applications, and suppliers of materials and equipment. A market forecast for CMP equipment and materials and market shares of vendors is presented

Table Of Contents

CMP Technology: Competition, Products, Markets
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1

Chapter 2 Executive Summary 2-1

2.1 Introduction 2-1
2.2 Market Opportunities 2-9

Chapter 3 Planarization Methods 3-1

3.1 Need for Planarity 3-1
3.1.1 Lithography 3-4
3.1.2 Deposition 3-6
3.1.3 Etching 3-10
3.2 Applications 3-13
3.2.1 Dielectrics 3-13
3.2.2 Metals 3-15
3.3 Planarization Techniques 3-17
3.3.1 Local Planarization 3-17
3.3.1.1 Deposition-Etchback 3-17
3.3.1.2 ECR 3-19
3.3.1.3 Oxide Reflow 3-19
3.3.1.4 Spin-on-Glass 3-20
3.3.1.5 TEOS-Ozone 3-20
3.3.1.6 Laser 3-21
3.3.2 Global Planarization 3-22
3.3.2.1 Spin-On Polymer 3-22
3.3.2.2 Polyimide Coating 3-24
3.3.2.3 Isotropic Etch 3-24
3.3.2.4 Spin Etch Planarization 3-25
3.3.2.5 Electropolishing 3-26
3.4 CMP 3-28
3.4.1 Background 3-33
3.4.2 Research Efforts 3-34
3.4.3 Advantages and Disadvantages 3-35
3.4.4 Process Parameters 3-37
3.4.4.1 STI Planarization 3-39
3.4.4.2 Copper CMP 3-43
3.4.4.3 Low-K Integration 3-57
3.4.4.4 Defect Density 3-69
3.4.4.5 Metrology 3-71
3.4.5 Device Processing Parameters 3-85
3.4.5.1 Memory Devices 3-85
3.4.5.2 Logic Devices 3-86

Chapter 4 CMP Consumables 4-1

4.1 Slurries 4-1
4.1.1 Types 4-1
4.1.2 pH Effects 4-7
4.1.3 Oxidizers 4-10
4.1.4 Particle Morphology Effects 4-11
4.1.5 Chemical Distribution Management 4-13
4.1.6 Slurry Supplier Profiles 4-18
4.1.7 Abrasive Suppliers 4-32
4.2 Post-CMP Clean 4-36
4.3 Polishing Pads 4-42
4.3.1 Types 4-42
4.3.2 Performance 4-43
4.3.3 Slurryless Pads 4-49

Chapter 5 CMP Equipment 5-1

5.1 Single-Head Approach 5-1
5.1.1 Advantages 5-1
5.1.2 Disadvantages 5-3
5.2 Multi-Head Approach 5-4
5.2.1 Advantages 5-4
5.2.2 Disadvantages 5-5
5.3 Equipment Profiles 5-6
5.3.1 Applied Materials 5-7
5.3.2 Ebara 5-8
5.3.3 Strasbaugh 5-9
5.3.4 Novellus 5-9
5.3.5 Nikon 5-10
5.3.6 Doosan Mecatec 5-11
5.3.7 Other Entrants 5-11
5.4 Clustered Tools 5-12
5.5 Competitive Non-CMP Tools 5-15

Chapter 6 User Issues 6-1

6.1 Cost of Ownership 6-1
6.2 User Requirements 6-7
6.3 Benchmarking a Vendor 6-10
6.3.1 Pricing 6-10
6.3.2 Vendor Commitment and Attitudes 6-12
6.3.3 Vendor Capabilities 6-13
6.3.4 System Capabilities 6-15
6.4 User-Supplier Synergy 6-16
6.4.1 Feedback During Equipment Evaluation 6-16
6.4.2 Feedback During Device Production 6-17
6.5 Reliability 6-18
6.6 Equipment Maintainability 6-19

Chapter 7 Market Forecast 7-1

7.1 Introduction 7-1
7.2 Market Forecast Assumptions 7-4
7.3 Equipment Market 7-5
7.3.1 Introduction 7-5
7.3.2 CMP Polisher Market 7-6
7.4 Consumable Market 7-11
7.4.1 Slurry 7-11
7.4.2 Pads 7-21


LIST OF FIGURES

1.1 Process Integration for CMP 1-2
3.1 Planarization Lengths of Various Methods 3-18
3.2 Normalized Removal Rates 3-29
3.3 Reduced Complexity With Copper 3-45
3.4 Copper Loss From CMP 3-50
3.5 CMP Copper Process Technologies 3-52
3.6 CMP Performance Improvements 3-54
3.7 Polish Endpoint Control 3-83
4.1 Effect of Nitrate Ions on the Cu Removal Rate 4-8
4.2 Removal Rate of Ta 4-9
4.3 Bulk Chemical Distribution System 4-15
4.4 Through The Brush Chemical Delivery 4-68
4.5 Megasonics Post-CMP Clean 4-40
4.6 Micrograph Of 3M Slurryless Pad 4-51
6.1 Effect of Tool MTBF on CMP Cost 6-5
6.2 Removal Rate Vs Throughput and CMP Cost 6-6
7.1 Worldwide CMP Polisher Market 7-8
7.2 Worldwide CMP Slurry Market Forecast 7-13
7.3 CMP Slurry Market by Application 7-15
7.4 ILD Slurry Market Share 7-16
7.5 STI Slurry Market Share 7-17
7.6 Copper Barrier Slurry Market Share 7-18
7.7 Copper Step 1 Slurry Market Share 7-19
7.8 Worldwide CMP Pad Market Forecast 7-23
7.9 CMP PAD Market Shares 7-24


LIST OF TABLES

3.1 Levels of Integration of Dynamic Rams 3-2
3.2 Interconnect Levels of Logic Device 3-3
3.3 Typical Process Specifications 3-12
3.4 Organic Polymers for IMD Applications 3-23
3.5 CMP Process Variables 3-31
3.6 Optimized CMP and Post-CMP Clean Parameters 3-39
3.7 Interconnect Materials by Segment 3-48
4.1 CMP Slurry Suppliers 4-19
4.2 Abrasive Suppliers and Products 4-35
4.2 Oxide CMP Pad Properties and Performance 4-44
6.1 Polisher Equipment Targets 6-8
6.2 Post-CMP Clean Equipment Targets 6-9
7.1 Worldwide CMP Polisher Market Forecast 7-7
7.2 Worldwide CMP Polisher Market Shares 7-10
7.3 Worldwide CMP Slurry Market Forecast 7-12
7.4 Worldwide Slurry Market Shares 7-14
7.5 Worldwide CMP Pad Market Forecast 7-22

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