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  3. > Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and Replacement Markets: Insight for End Users and Material and Equipment Suppliers

ITO is widely used as the material for transparent electrodes in a diverse range of electronic devices. Demand in the ITO target industry increases by a certain ratio according to the size of display substrates and the amount of inputs. Therefore, unless the price of indium fluctuates significantly, it is generally believed that there will be no significant issues in the industry except for the development of alternative materials. In some of these applications, however, new transparent electrode materials are beginning to replace ITO.

This report presents a market and technical forecast for ITO and replacements for LCD panels, plasma display panels (PDP), touch panels, e-paper, solar cells and organic electroluminescent (EL) panels.

Table Of Contents

Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and Replacement Markets: Insight for End Users and Material and Equipment Suppliers
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1

Chapter 2 ITO and Its Replacements - Preparation and
Characterization 2-1

2.1 Introduction 2-1
2.2 Supply and Demand of Indium 2-4
2.2.1 Indium Production 2-11
2.2.2 Indium Price Evolution 2-14
2.3 Transparent Conducting Oxides 2-16
2.3.1 Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) 2-19
2.3.2 Coated ITO 2-20
2.3.3 Zinc Oxide 2-20
2.3.4 Indium Zinc Oxide (IZO) 2-25
2.3.5 Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) 2-26
2.3.6 Tin Oxide 2-28
2.4 Transparent Conductive Polymers 2-29
2.4.1 Overview 2-29
2.4.2 Applications 2-31
2.4.3 Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) 2-33
2.4.4 Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) PEDOT:
Poly(styrene sulfonate) PSS 2-33
2.4.5 Poly(4,4-dioctylcyclopentadithiophene) 2-34
2.5 Carbon Nanotubes and Nanomaterials 2-35
2.5.1 Advantages 2-38
2.5.2 Preparation of CNT thin films 2-39
2.5.3 Comparing CNTs to TCOs 2-41
2.6 Wire 2-42
2.6.1 Ag Wire 2-44
2.6.2 AG Wire Ink 2-44
2.7 Toxicity Issues 2-45

Chapter 3 Deposition Methods And Equipment 3-1

3.1 Introduction 3-1
3.2 PVD 3-15
3.3 Laser ablation 3-16
3.4 Electric-arc Discharge 2-17
3.5 CVD 3-18
3.6 MOCVD 3-22
3.7 Spray Pyrolysis 3-23
3.8 Pulsed Laser Deposition 3-24
3.9 Reactive PVD 3-26
3.10 Inkjet 3-26

Chapter 4 Applications 4-1

4.1 Introduction 4-1
4.2 Flexible Displays 4-1
4.2.1 ITO-Coated Plastic 4-2
4.2.2 Flexible Alternatives to Plastic 4-4
4.2.3 E-Paper and ITO Alternatives 4-5
4.3 Flat-Panel Displays 4-9
4.3.1 LCD Displays 4-9
4.3.2 Plasma Displays 4-11
4.3.3 OLED Displays 4-13
4.4 Lighting 4-16
4.4.1 OLED Lighting and ITO 4-16
4.4.2 EL Lighting 4-19
4.5 Photovoltaics 4-20
4.5.1 Thin-Film Silicon PV 4-24
4.5.2 Crystalline PV 4-28
4.5.3 Organic PV 4-29
4.6 Touch-Screen Displays 4-30
4.6.1 ITO and Resistive Touch Screens 4-30
4.6.2 ITO and Capacitive Touch Screens 4-33

Chapter 5 Market Forecast 5-1

5.1 Introduction 5-1
5.2 Driving Forces 5-2
5.3 Forecasts by Application 5-3
5.3.1 Flexible Displays 5-9
5.3.2 Flat-Panel Displays 5-12
5.3.3 Lighting 5-14
5.3.4 Photovoltaics 5-17
5.3.5 Touch-Screen Displays 5-19

Appendix


TABLES

2.1 Indium: World Refinery Production, Reserves and Reserve Base 2-13
2.2 Properties of Conductive Oxides 2-27
2.3 Properties of Conductive Polymers 2-30
2.4 Properties of Silver Electrode Materials 2-44
3.1 Results of Various TCO Deposition Methods 3-2
5.1 Forecast of ITO Targets And Substitutes 5-6
5.2 Forecast of Transparent Electrodes For Flexible Displays 5-10
5.3 Forecast of Transparent Electrodes For Flat Panel Displays 5-13
5.4 Forecast of Transparent Electrodes For Lighting 5-16
5.5 Forecast of Transparent Electrodes For Photovoltaics 5-18
5.6 Forecast of Transparent Electrodes For Touch- Screen Displays 5-20
A.1 Forecast of Transparent Electrodes By Area and Weight A-1
A.2 Forecast of Transparent Electrodes By Revenue A-3


FIGURES

2.1 Price of Indium 2-15
2.2 Properties of ITO/AZO Structure 2-25
2.3 Panel Structure of Electronic Paper 2-32
2.4 Schematic of Dip Coating 2-40
2.5 Schematic of Slot Die Coating 2-40
2.6 Schematic of Gravure Coating 2-41
3.1 Schematic of Laser Ablation 3-17
3.2 Schematic of Electric Arc Discharge 3-17
3.3 Schematic of CVD 3-19
3.4 Schematic of MOCVD 3-22
3.5 Schematic of Spray Pyrolysis 3-23
3.6 Schematic of Pulsed Laser Deposition 3-25
3.7 Schematic of Reactive PVD 3-26
4.1 Schematic of Elecrysta Film 4-3
4.2 Panel Structure of Electronic Paper 4-5
4.3 Chemical Structures of Pedot/PSS 4-7
4.4 Flexible E-Paper 4-8
4.5 ITO Pixel In TFT Panel 4-9
4.6 ITO Electrode on TFT Panel 4-10
4.7 ITO Electrode on Plasma Display 4-12
4.8 Schematic of OLED Display 4-14
4.9 Schematic of OLED Lighting 4-17
4.10 Schematic of OLED Lighting 4-18
4.11 Schematic of EL Lighting 4-19
4.12 Comparison of TCO Features For PV 4-21
4.13 Comparison of AZO And Ito Features For PV 4-22
4.14 Comparison of TCO On CIGS 4-24
4.15 Schematic of Amorphous Silicon PV 4-25
4.16 Schematic of Crystalline PV 4-28
4.17 Organic PV With Silver Wires 4-29
4.18 ITO on Resistive Touch Screen 4-31
4.19 ITO on Capacitive Touch Screen 4-33
5.1 ITO Target Market Forecast 5-4
5.2 ITO Target Shares By Geographic Region 5-7
5.3 ITO as Percentage of Transparent Conductor Market 5-8

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