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  4. > Lithography, Deposition, and Etch Market Analysis for Flip Chip/WLP Manufacturing

Flip chips are appearing in a plethora of high-volume consumer products such as mobile phones, digital cameras, MP3 players, and computer peripherals. Wafer-level packaging (WLP), the fabrication of the package directly on the wafer, is experiencing exceptional growth and stands out as one of the bright growth areas in electronics today. WLP offers lower cost, a smaller package, higher performance and added functionality compared to older methods. In the world of high-speed/high-performance IC and package design, flip chips are appearing in a plethora of high-volume consumer products such as mobile phones, digital cameras, MP3 players, and computing.

This report examines the market for flip chip ICs, and the lithography and wet etch tools used in their manufacture.

Table Of Contents

Lithography, Deposition, and Etch Market Analysis for Flip Chip/WLP Manufacturing
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1

Chapter 2 Executive Summary 2-1

Chapter 3 Flip Chip/WLP Issues and Trends 3-1

3.1 Introduction 3-1
3.2 Wafer Bumping 3-6
3.2.1 Solder Bumps 3-7
3.2.1.1 Metallurgy 3-7
3.2.1.2 Deposition Of UBM 3-11
3.2.1.3 Sputter Etching 3-12
3.2.1.4 Photolithography 3-13
3.2.1.5 Solder Deposition 3-14
3.2.1.6 Resist Strip 3-15
3.2.1.7 UBM Wet Etch 3-16
3.2.1.8 Reflow 3-16
3.2.1.9 Flux Issues 3-18
3.2.2 Gold Bumps 3-19
3.2.2.1 Bump Processing 3-19
3.2.2.2 Bonding 3-21
3.2.2.3 Coplanarity 3-25
3.2.2.4 Conductivity 3-26
3.2.2.5 Thermal Properties 3-26
3.2.2.6 Size 3-27
3.2.2.7 Reliability 3-27
3.2.2.8 Cost Issues 3-28
3.2.3 Copper Pillar Bumps 3-31
3.2.4 Copper Stud Bumping 3-35
3.2.5 C4NP 3-40
3.3 Wafer Level Packaging 3-46
3.4 Pad Redistribution 3-53
3.5 Wafer Bumping Costs 3-57
3.5.1 Wafer Redistribution And Wafer Bumping Costs 3-58
3.5.2 WLCSP Hidden Costs 3-59
3.5.3 WLCSP Cost Per Good Die 3-60
3.5.4 Wafer-Level Underfill Costs 3-61

Chapter 4 Lithography Issues And Trends 4-1

4.1 Issues 4-1
4.1.1 Technical Performance 4-2
4.1.2 Capital Investment 4-2
4.1.3 Cost Of Consumables 4-2
4.1.4 Throughput 4-2
4.1.5 Ease Of Use 4-3
4.1.6 Flexibility 4-3
4.1.7 Equipment Support 4-3
4.1.8 Resolution 4-3
4.1.9 Solder Bumping Capabilities 4-4
4.1.10 Gold Bumping Capabilities 4-5
4.2 Exposure Systems 4-6
4.2.1 Introduction 4-6
4.2.1.1 Reduction Steppers 4.6
4.2.1.2 Full-Field Projection 4-8
4.2.1.3 Mask Aligners 4-13
4.2.1.4 1X Steppers 4-13
4.3 Competitive Technologies 4-16
4.3.1 Inkjet Printing 4-16
4.3.2 Stencil/Screen Printing 4-18
4.3.3 Electroless Metal Deposition 4-22

Chapter 5 UBM Etch Issues And Trends 5-1

5.1 Introduction 5-1
5.2 Technology Issues And Trends 5-2
5.2.1 Process Flow 5-2
5.2.2 Etch Process 5-4
5.2.3 Etch Chemistry 5-8
5.3 Batch Versus Single-Wafer Etching 5-16

Chapter 6 Metallization Issues and Trends 6-1

6.1 Introduction 6-1
6.2 Sputtering Metallization 6-3
6.2.1 Gold Bump 6-3
6.2.2 Solder Bumping 6-4
6.2.2.1 T i / Cu and TiW / Cu 6-5
6.2.2.2 Al / NiV / Cu 6-5
6.2.2.3 T i / N i (V) and TiW / Ni ( V ) 6-6
6.2.2.4 Cr / Cr-Cu / Cu 6-6

Chapter 7 Market Analysis 7-1

7.1 Market Drivers For Flip Chip And WLP 7-1
7.1.1 WLP For Small Die 7-2
7.1.2 WLP For Medium Die 7-2
7.1.3 WLP For Large Die 7-3
7.2 Market Opportunities 7-5
7.3 Challenges 7-9
7.4 Flip Chip Market 7-12
7.4.1 Market Dynamics 7-12
7.4.2 Market Forecast 7-20
7.5 Lithography Market 7-26
7.5.1 Aligners Vs. Steppers 7-26
7.5.2 Market Analysis 7-27
7.6 Wet Etch Market 7-32
7.7 Deposition Market 7-37


TABLES

3.1 Common UBM Stacks For Solder And Gold Bumping 3-8
3.2 Solder Bumping Guidelines 2-10
3.3 Gold Bumping Guidelines 3-24
3.4 Copper Bumping Guidelines 3-34
3.5 Comparison Of Solder Bumping Processes 3-43
4.1 Key Challenges For WLP Lithography 4-12
4.2 Lithography Tools By Vendor 4-15
5.1 UBM Film Etchants 5-10
5.2 Advantages Of Spin Processing 5-19
6.1 Common UBM Stacks For Gold And Solder Bumping 6-2
7.1 WLP Demand by Device (Units) 7-24
7.2 WLP Demand by Device (Wafers) 7-25
7.3 Comparison Of Mask Aligners Versus Steppers 7-28
7.4 Worldwide Lithography Forecast 7-29
7.5 Worldwide Forecast For UBM Etch Tools 7-34
7.6 Worldwide Forecast For UBM Etchants 7-36
7.7 Worldwide Forecast For Deposition Tools 7-38


FIGURES

3.1 C4 Chip Connections 3-3
3.2 Wafer Bump Technology Roadmap 3-4
3.3 Comparison Of Copper Pillar, Flip Chip, And WLP 3-5
3.4 Solder Bumping Process 3-9
3.5 Three Process Flows For Solder Bumping 3-17
3.6 Gold Bumping Process 3-23
3.7 Cost Per Gold Bumped Wafer 3-29
3.8 Copper Stud Bump 3-36
3.9 Breakdown Of Stud Bumping Costs 3-39
3.10 C4NP Process Description 3-41
3.11 Pillar-WLPCSP Process 3-51
3.12 Pad Redistribution Process 3-54
4.1 Laser-Projection Imaging 4-10
4.2 Solder Jet Technology 4-17
4.3 Principle Of Screen Printing 4-20
4.4 Principle Of Inkjet Printing 4-21
4.5 Electroless Under Bump Metallization 4-23
5.1 Electroplated Solder Bumping Process 5-3
7.1 WLP Applications By Die Size 7-4
7.2 WLP Applications 7-6
7.3 Flip Chip Market - 2012 7-21
7.4 Flip Chip Market - 2017 7-22
7.5 Historic Lithography Market Shares 7-30
7.6 Lithography Market Shares 7-31
7.7 Wet Etch Market Shares 7-35

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