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Each new generation of IC devices brings about a corresponding decrease in linewidths and minimum feature sizes. The technological trends and innovations in IC fabrication processes directly influence the market for masks and mask making equipment. This report examines and projects the technologies involved, their likely developments, why and when their introduction or demise will take place, what problems and choices are facing users, and where the opportunities and pitfalls are.

This report addresses the strategic issues impacting the mask making, inspection, and repair sectors of the semiconductor industry in the U.S. and the world. The mask market is segmented by geographic region. The mask equipment markets are analyzed and projected and market shares presented.

Table Of Contents

Mask Making, Inspection, and Repair: Market Analysis and Strategic Issues
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1

1.1 The Need For This Report 1-1

Chapter 2 Executive Summary 2-1

2.1 Summary of Major Issues 2-1
2.2 Summary of Market Opportunities 2-3

Chapter 3 Technology Issues 3-1

3.1 Mask Making 3-1
3.1.1 Mask Blanks 3-1
3.1.2 Completed Masks 3-5
3.2 Mask Making Equipment 3-19
3.2.1 Electron Beam Systems 3-19
3.2.2 Laser Pattern Generators 3-25
3.3 Mask Inspection 3-31
3.3.1 Mask Defects 3-37
o Transmission Variations 3-37
o Transparent Defects 3-37
o Nuisance Defects 3-38
o CD Variations 3-38
o Reflectivity Variations 3-39
3.4 Mask Repair 3-41
3.4.1 Laser Repair 3-44
3.4.2 Focused Ion Beam Repair 3-45
3.4.3 Other Repair Methods 3-49

Chapter 4 User - Vendor Strategies 4-1

4.1 Establishing User Needs 4-1
4.1.1 Mask Making - Merchant or Captive 4-1
4.1.2 Submicron Mask Making 4-4
Equipment - Laser vs E-Beam
4.1.3 Mask Inspection Equipment 4-6
4.1.4 Mask Repair - Laser vs FIB 4-7
4.1.5 Phase-Shift Masks 4-10
4.1.6 Optical Proximity Correction 4-21
4.1.7 NGL Technology Challenges 4-24
4.1.7.1 X-Ray Masks 4-31
4.1.7.2 EPL Masks 4-39
4.1.7.3 EUVL Masks 4-40
4.2 Competitive Vendor Opportunities 4-41

Chapter 5 Market Forecast 5-1

5.1 Driving Forces 5-1
5.1.1 Introduction 5-1
5.1.2 Trends in IC Processing Technology 5-5
5.1.3 Mask and Reticle Requirements 5-9
5.1.4 Fast Turnaround Devices 5-9
5.1.5 Impact of Direct Write E-Beam and X-Ray 5-17
5.2 Market Forecast Assumptions 5-18
5.3 Mask Making, Inspection, and Repair 5-19
5.3.1 Completed Mask Market 5-19
5.3.2 Reticle/Mask Manufacturing Equipment 5-33


LIST OF FIGURES

3.1 Light Transmittance of Glasses 3-2
3.2 Photomask Fabrication Flow 3-8
3.3 Optical Photomask Fabrication Flow 3-9
3.4 SCAPLEL Photomask Fabrication Flow 3-10
3.5 MaskRigger Software in a Mask Fabrication Process 3-22
3.6 Schematic of a Laser Pattern Generator 3-26
3.7 Mulith Reference Distribution Aerial Image Formation 3-30
3.8 Die-to-Die and Die-to-Database Inspection 3-32
3.9 Defect Inspection Practices 3-33
3.10 Percentage of Yield Losses 3-40
3.11 Yield for Masks 3-42
3.12 Yield for Binary Masks 3-43
3.13 Schematic of a Focused Ion Beam System 3-46
3.14 Illustration of Clear and Opaque Mask Repair 3-48
4.1 Write Time Versus Device Complexity 4-5
4.2 Subwavelength Gap 4-12
4.3 Lithography Requiements 4-14
4.4 Phase-Shifting Masks 4-15
4.5 iN Phase Mask Design 4-18
4.6 Illustration of OPC 4-22
4.7 Main NGL Mask Formats 4-26
4.8 Mask Costs Versus Feature Size 4-36
5.1 Increasing Mask Complexity 5-10
5.2 Production Costs for Maskmaking 5-11
5.3 Capital Expenditures and Revenues 5-12
5.4 Photomask Functionality 5-13
5.5 Worldwide Merchant Mask Making Market Shares 5-25
5.6 North American Merchant Mask Making Market Shares 5-26
5.7 European Merchant Mask Making Market Shares 5-27
5.8 Pacific Rim Merchant Mask Making Market Shares 5-28
5.9 Japan Merchant Mask Making Market Shares 5-19
5.10 Mask Inspection Market Shares 5-38
5.11 Mask Metrology Market Shares 5-40
5.12 Mask Repair Market Shares 5-42
5-13 Photomask Repair Methods 5-43


LIST OF TABLES

4.1 FIB and Laser Repair Comparison 4-8
4.2 NGL Mask Formats 4-27
4.3 Cost of Reticle/X-Ray Mask 4-35
4.4 Phase Shift Mask and X-Ray Mask Manufacturing 4-38
5.1 Roadmap of Mask Inspection 5-7
5.2 IC Lithographic Requirements 5-8
5.3 Increasing Mask Complexity 5-10
5.4 Worldwide Mask Making Market by Feature Size 5-23
5.5 Captive Mask Shops 5-31
5.6 Worldwide Mask Making Equipment Market Forecast 5-35
5.7 Mask Inspection Market Forecast 5-37
5.8 Mask Metrology Market Forecast 5-39


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