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Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control in VLSI Manufacturing

  • March 2017
  • -
  • Information Network
  • -
  • 299 pages

The increase in complexity of semiconductors and the resulting increase in the complexity and cost of the semiconductor manufacturing process has been a driver of demand for metrology and inspection systems.

This report offers a complete analysis of the Process Control market, segmented as: Lithography Metrology; Wafer Inspection/Defect Review; Thin Film Metrology; and Other Process Control Systems. Each of these sectors is further segmented. Market shares of competitors for all segment is presented.

Table Of Contents

Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control in VLSI Manufacturing
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1

Chapter 2 Executive Summary 2-1

Chapter 3 Metrology/Inspection Technologies 3-1

3.1 Introduction 3-1
3.2 Imaging Techniques 3-5
3.2.1 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) 3-6
3.2.2 Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) 3-7
3.3 Scanning Probe Microscopes 3-10
3.3.1 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 3-10
3.3.2 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) 3-16
3.3.3 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) 3-18
3.3.4 AFM Types 3-20
3.3.4.1 Contact AFM 3-22
3.3.4.2 Dynamic Force Mode AFM Techniques 3-25
3.3.5 Scanning Surface Potential Microscopy (SSPM) 3-28
3.4 Optical Techniques 3-30
3.4.1 Scatterometry 3-31
3.4.1.1 Ellipsometry 3-33
3.4.1.2 Reflectometry 3-40
3.4.1.3 Scatterometry Developments 3-42
3.4.2 Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) 3-44
3.4.3 Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX) 3-47
3.4.4 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) 3-48
3.4.4.1 Surface Imaging Using SIMS 3-50
3.4.4.2 SIMS Depth Profiling 3-50
3.4.5 Auger Electron Spectroscopy 3-52
3.4.6 Focused Ion Beam (FIB) 3-57
3.4.7 X-Ray Reflectometry (XRR) 3-61
3.4.8 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) 3-63
3.4.9 Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) 3-65
3.4.10 Optical Acoustics Metrology 3-67
3.4.11 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) 3-69
3.4.12 Thermally-Induced Voltage Alteration (TIVA) 3-70
3.5 Film Thickness And Roughness 3-71
3.5.1 Surface Inspection Technology 3-71
3.5.2 Dimensional Technology 3-74
3.5.3 Stylus Profilometer 3-76

Chapter 4 Defect Review/Wafer Inspection 4-1

4.1 Introduction 4-1
4.2 Defect Review 4-2
4.2.1 SEM Defect Review 4-3
4.2.2 Optical Defect Review 4-7
4.2.3 Other Defect Review 4-8
4.3 Patterned Wafer Inspection 4-9
4.3.1 E-Beam Patterned Wafer Inspection 4-10
4.3.2 Optical Patterned Wafer Inspection 4-12
4.4 Unpatterned Wafer Inspection 4-18
4.5 Macro-Defect Inspection 4-21

Chapter 5 Thin Film Metrology

5.1 Introduction 5-1
5.1.1 Front End Applications 5-1
5.1.2 Back End Applications 5-2
5.2 Metal Thin-Film Metrology 5-3
5.3 Non-Metal Thin-Film Metrology 5-10
5.4 Substrate/Other Thin Film Metrology 5-25

Chapter 6 Lithography Metrology 6-1

6.1 Overlay 6-1
6.2 CD 6-6
6.3 Mask (Reticle) Metrology/Inspection 6-20

Chapter 7 Market Forecast 7-1

7.1 Introduction 7-1
7.2 Market Forecast Assumptions 7-3
7.3 Market Forecast 7-4
7.3.1 Total Process Control Market Forecast 7-4
7.3.2 Lithography Metrology Market Forecast 7-10
7.3.2.1 Overlay Market Forecast 7-13
7.3.2.2 CD Measurement Market Forecast 7-16
7.3.2.3 Mask Inspection Market Forecast 7-19
7.3.2.4 Mask Metrology Market Forecast 7-22
7.3.3 Wafer Inspection / Defect Review Market 7-25
7.3.3.1 Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Forecast 7-28
o E-Beam Patterned Wafer Inspection Market
Forecast 7-31
o Optical Patterned Wafer Inspection Market
Forecast 7-34
7.3.3.2 Defect Review Market Forecast 7-37
o SEM Defect Review Market Forecast 7-40
o Optical Defect Review Market Forecast 7-43
o Other Defect Review Market Forecast 7-46
7.3.3.3 Unpatterned Wafer Inspection Market Forecast 7-49
7.3.3.4 Macro Defect Detection Market Forecast 7-52
7.3.4 Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast 7-55
7.3.4.1 Non-Metal Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast 7-58
o Non-Metal Standalone Thin Film Metrology
Market Forecast 7-62
o Non-Metal Integrated Thin Film Metrology
Market Forecast 7-64
7.3.4.2 Substrate / Other Thin Film Metrology Market
Forecast 7-67
7.3.5 Other Process Control Systems Market Forecast 7-70

Chapter 8 Integrated/In-Situ Metrology/Inspection Trends 8-1

8.1 Introduction 8-1
8.2 In-Situ Metrology 8-1
8.3 Integrated Metrology 8-6
8.3.1 Benefits 8-11
8.3.2 Limitations 8-13

Chapter 9 Key Drivers 9-1

9.1 300mm/450mm Wafers 9-1
9.2 Copper Metrology 9-3
9.3 Low-K Dielectrics 9-6
9.4 Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) 9-9
9.5 Ion Implant 9-19


LIST OF TABLES

3.1 Comparison Of Derivative AFM Techniques 3-19
5.1 Comparison Of White-Light With Multiple-Angle Laser
Ellipsometry 5-16
7.1 Total Process Control Market Forecast 7-5
7.2 Lithography Metrology Market Forecast 7-11
7.3 Overlay Market Forecast 7-14
7.4 CD Measurement Market Forecast 7-17
7.5 Mask Inspection Market Forecast 7-20
7.6 Mask Metrology Market Forecast 7-23
7.7 Wafer Inspection / Defect Review Market Forecast 7-26
7.8 Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Forecast 7-29
7.9 E-Beam Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Forecast 7-32
7.10 Optical Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Forecast 7-35
7.11 Defect Review Market Forecast 7-38
7.12 SEM Defect Review Market Forecast 7-41
7.13 Optical Defect Review Market Forecast 7-44
7.14 Other Defect Review Market Forecast 7-47
7.15 Unpatterned Wafer Inspection Market Forecast 7-50
7.16 Macro Defect Detection Market Forecast 7-53
7.17 Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast 7-56
7.18 Non-Metal Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast 7-59
7.19 Non-Metal Standalone Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast 7-62
7.20 Non-Metal Integrated Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast 7-65
7.21 Substrate / Other Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast 7-68
7.22 Other Process Control Systems Market Forecast 7-71
9.1 Dielectric Film Challenges 9-8


LIST OF FIGURES

3.1 Schematic Of Scanning Electron Microscope 3-8
3.2 Schematic Of Transmission Electron Microscope 3-11
3.3 Schematic Of Atomic Force Microscopy 3-12
3.4 Schematic Of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy 3-17
3.5 Interaction Between Two Atoms In AFM 3-21
3.6 Schematic Of Lateral Force Microscopy 3-24
3.7 Schematic Of Dynamic Force Mode AFM 3-26
3.8 Schematic Of Scanning Surface Potential Microscopy 3-29
3.9 Principle Of Scatterometry 3-32
3.10 Schematic Of Ellipsometer 3-34
3.11 Principles Of CD Scatterometry 3-43
3.12 Conventional TXRF Analysis Geometry 3-45
3.13 Schematic Of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry 3-49
3.14 Principle Of Auger Electron Emission 3-53
3.15 Schematic Of Auger Electron Spectroscopy 3-54
3.16 Schematic Of Focused Ion Beam Technology 3-58
3.17 Schematic Of X-Ray Reflectometry 3-62
3.18 Schematic Of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy 3-64
3.19 Schematic Of Rutherford Backscattering 3-66
3.20 Schematic Of Optical Acoustics Metrology 3-68
3.21 Spatial Wavelength Of Nanotopography 3-72
3.22 Schematic Of Non-Contact Capacitive Gauging 3-75
3.23 Schematic Of Stylus Profilometer 3-77
5.1 Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Diagram 5-17
6.1 ITRS Overlay Technology Roadmap 6-3
6.2 Illustration Of 3D Structure 6-9
6.3 ITRS Metrology Roadmap 6-15
6.4 Schematic Of OCD Optics 6-19
7.1 Total Process Control Market Forecast 7-6
7.2 Total Process Control Market By Geographic Region 7-8
7.3 Total Process Control Market Vs. Overall Equipment
Market 7-9
7.4 Lithography Metrology Market Shares 7-12
7.5 Overlay Market Shares 7-15
7.6 CD Measurement Market Shares 7-18
7.7 Mask Inspection Market Shares 7-21
7.8 Mask Metrology Market Shares 7-24
7.9 Wafer Inspection / Defect Review Market Shares 7-27
7.10 Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Shares 7-30
7.11 E-Beam Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Shares 7-33
7.12 Optical Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Shares 7-36
7.13 Defect Review Market Shares 7-39
7.14 SEM Defect Review Market Shares 7-42
7.15 Optical Defect Review Market Shares 7-45
7.16 Other Defect Review Market Shares 7-48
7.17 Unpatterned Wafer Inspection Market Shares 7-51
7.18 Macro Defect Detection Market Shares 7-54
7.19 Thin Film Metrology Market Shares 7-57
7.20 Non-Metal Thin Film Metrology Market Shares 7-60
7.21 Non-Metal Standalone Thin Film Metrology
Market Shares 7-63
7.22 Non-Metal Integrated Thin Film Metrology Market Shares 7-66
7.23 Substrate / Other Thin Film Metrology Market Shares 7-69
7.24 Other Process Control Systems Market Shares 7-72
7.25 Other Process Software Market Shares 7-73
8.1 Integrated Control In A Fab 8-7
9.1 Polish Endpoint Control 9-17

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