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Next-Generation Power Semiconductors: Markets, Materials, Technologies

  • February 2017
  • -
  • Information Network
  • -
  • 227 pages

The rapid growth of the power semiconductor market in recent years has been driven by the proliferation of computer and consumer electronics, such as desktop computers, notebooks, netbooks, smartphones, flat panel displays and portable media players that require sophisticated power management to improve power efficiency and extend battery life. The rapid growth of the power semiconductor market in recent years has been driven by the proliferation of computer and consumer electronics, such as desktop computers, notebooks, netbooks, smartphones, flat panel displays and portable media players that require sophisticated power management to improve power efficiency and extend battery life. The worldwide markets are analyzed and projected.

The commercial battle for next-generation power semiconductors is evolving. IGBTs, SiC and other technologies are geared for the niche-oriented markets at 1,700 volts and higher. But what is the best technology for the larger 600- and 1,200-volt markets? both super-junction MOSFETs and IGBTs are ramping up on 300mm wafers, making them less expensive than GaN and SiC. In comparison, SiC MOSFETs are ramping up on 100mm wafers, while GaN-on-silicon is running on 150mm substrates.

This report analyzes and forecasts the traditional power semiconductor market as well as next generation devices. Market shares of vendors by type are presented

Table Of Contents

Next-Generation Power Semiconductors: Markets, Materials, Technologies
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1

1.1 Manufacturing Processes Are Differentiation Factors 1-3
1.2 Vertical Structure Devices Differ From Usual MOS
Planar Structure 1-8
1.3 Super Junction Processes 1-12

Chapter 2 Applications of Power Semiconductors 2-1

2.1 Power Semiconductors in Renewable Energy 2-3
2.1.1 Solar 2-3
2.1.2 Wind 2-12
2.2 Power Semiconductors in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles 2-18
2.2.1 Automotive Megatrends 2-18
2.2.2 Wide Bandgap Devices for HEVs/EVs 2-30
2.3 Power Semiconductors in LED Lighting 2-38
2.4 Power Semiconductors in Industrial Motor Drives 2-52
2.5 Power Semiconductors in Smart Home Market 2-59
2.6 GaN and SiC Market Forecast For End Applications 2-65

Chapter 3 Market Analysis 3-1

3.1 Position of Power Semiconductors in Semiconductor Market 3-9
3.2 Growth Potential of IGBTs and Power MOSFETs 3-11
3.3 End Application Markets 3-22
3.4 Wide Bandgap Power Semiconductor Market 3-28

Chapter 4 Next-Generation Power Semiconductors 4-1

4.1 Expectations for Overcoming Silicon's Limitations 4-1
4.2 Expectations Of SiC and GaN as Next-Generation Substrates 4-3
4.3 Benefits of Wide Band Gap Semiconductors 4-3
4.4 SiC versus GaN 4-5
4.4.1 Material Properties 4-6
4.4.2 Material Quality 4-8
4.4.3 SiC Lateral Devices: 4-10
4.4.4 SiC Vertical Devices 4-10
4.4.5 GaN Lateral Devices 4-12
4.5 Fabrication of SiC devices 4-22
4.5.1 Bulk and Epitaxial Growth of SiC 4-22
4.5.1.1 Bulk Growth 4-22
4.5.1.2 Epitaxial Growth 4-23
4.5.1.3 Defects 4-23
4.5.2 Surface Preparation 4-24
4.5.3 Etching 4-26
4.5.4 Lithography 4-26
4.5.5 Ion Implantation 4-27
4.5.6 Surface Passivation 4-28
4.5.7 Metallization 4-30
4.6 Fabrication of GaN devices 4-32
4.6.1 GaN Challenges 4-36
4.6.1.1 Costs 4-36
4.6.1.2 Reliability 4-39
4.6.1.3 Component Packaging and Thermal Reliability 4-40
4.6.1.4 Control 4-40
4.6.1.5 Device Modeling 4-41
4.7 Packaging 4-41

Chapter 5 Company Profiles 5-1

5.1 Power Semiconductor Companies 5-1
5.1.1 Infineon 5-1
5.1.2 Mitsubishi 5-3
5.1.3 Toshiba 5-5
5.1.4 STMicroelectronics 5-7
5.1.5 Vishay 5-8
5.1.6 International Rectifier 5-11
5.1.7 Fairchild 5-13
5.1.8 Fuji Electric 5-16
5.1.9 Renesas 5-17
5.1.10 Semikron 5-19
5.1.11 NXP Semiconductors 5-20
5.2 SiC Wafer-Related Companies 5-22
5.3 GaN Wafer-Related Companies 5-22
5.4 Profiles of Companies with Next-Generation Activities 5-23
5.4.1 Mitsubishi Electric 5-23
5.4.2 Fuji Electric Holdings 5-24
5.4.3 Toshiba 5-25
5.4.4 Rohm 5-26
5.4.5 Sanken Electric 5-28
5.4.6 Shindengen Electric 5-29
5.4.7 Infineon 5-31
5.4.8 Microsemi 5-32
5.4.9 Cree 5-33
5.4.10 GeneSiC Semiconductor 5-34
5.4.11 Semisouth Laboratories 5-35
5.4.12 United Silicon Carbide 5-36
5.4.13 MicroGaN 5-37
5.4.14 Powerex 5-38
5.4.15 Fairchild 5-38
5.4.16 International Rectifier 5-39
5.4.17 Nitronix 5-39


LIST OF FIGURES

1.1 Evolution Of IGBT Chip Structure 1-4
1.2 Effects Of Miniaturization Of IGBT Chip 1-6
1.3 SiC Trench-Type MOSFET And Resistance Reduction
As Compared With DMOSFET 1-7
1.4 Planar And Vertical (Trench) MOSFET 1-9
1.5 Schematic Of A FinFET 1-11
1.6 Schematic Of A MOSFET And Super Junction MOSFET 1-13
1.7 Process Flow For Super Junction MOSFET 1-14
2.1 Forecast Of Solar Power 2-4
2.2 Full Bridge IGBT Topology 2-5
2.3 PV Inverter Market Distribution 2-8
2.4 Block Diagram Of Microcontroller-Based Inverter 2-11
2.5 Worldwide Wind Turbine Shipments 2-14
2.6 Top Wind Power Capacity by Country 2-15
2.7 Bill Of Materials For A Typical 30-50kw Inverter 2-10
2.8 A Simple Diagram Of A HEV Traction Drive System. 2-22
2.9 A More Complex Diagram Of PEEM In A Plug-In
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) 2-23
2.10 Conducting And Switching Loses For Inverter 2-25
2.11 Unit Pricing Trends In Power Semiconductors 2-27
2.12 System And Component Costs For Wide Bandgap
Semiconductors 2-31
2.13 Vertical And Lateral HEMY 2-33
2.14 GaN Lateral And GaN Vertical HEMTs In EVs 2-37
2.15 Market Drivers For LED Biz And Applications 2-40
2.16 SSL Vs. Classical Technologies 2-41
2.17 LED Performance Vs. Traditional Light Sources 2-42
2.18 Energy Production And Use Comparison 2-45
2.19 Typical LED Drive Circuit 2-48
2.20 Integration Of LED And LED Driver Using TSV 2-51
2.21 Simple Power MOSFET Motor Controller 2-56
2.22 Basic Operating Principle Of Inverter 2-62
2.23 System Block Diagram Of An Air Conditioner 2-64

3.1 Mitsubishi's IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor)
Generations 3-3
3.2 Infineon's MOSFET Generations 3-4
3.3 Intel's FinFET Design 3-5
3.4 Fuji's MOSFET versus Super Junction MOSFET 3-6
3.5 NEC's GaN-on-Si Power Transistor 3-7
3.6 Fujitsu's GaN-on-SiC HEMT Transistor 3-8
3.7 Power Semiconductor Market Forecast 3-10
3.8 Power Transistor Market Shares 3-12
3.9 Power Diode Market Shares 3-13
3.10 Worldwide IGBT Market Share 3-14
3.11 Market Shares For Super Junction MOSFET 3-20
3.12 SJ MOSFETs as an Interim Solution 3-21
3.13 Power Transistor Market Share By Application 3-23
3.14 Power Discrete Market For Renewable Energy 3-24
3.15 Power Discrete Market Hybrid For and Electric
Vehicles 3-25
3.16 Power Discrete Market For General LED Lighting 3-26
3.17 Power Discrete Market For Industrial Motor Control 3-27
3.18 Forecast of Widebandgap Semiconductor Market 3-29
4.1 Silicon-Based Devices Reaching Maturity 4-2
4.2 Enhancement Mode GaN On Si Transistor 4-14
4.3 AlGaN/GaN HEMT, GaN MOSFET, MOS-HEMT 4-18
4.4 GaN HEMT Material Structure On Si Substrate 4-34
4.5 Power Package Integration Roadmap 4-43


LIST OF TABLES

2.1 Product Families And The Principal End Uses Of
Power Products 2-2
2.2 Advantages And Disadvantages Of GaN Lateral HEMTs 2-36
2.3 Light Source Comparison 2-45
2.4 Forecast Of GaN And SiC Power Devices By End Applications 2-73
3.1 Market Shares For Japanese Companies 2001-2012 3-17
4.1 Physical Properties Of Select Semiconductor Materials 4-4
4.2 Wide Bandgap Material Properties 4-7
4.3 Lattice Constant And CTE Of Semiconductor Starting Material 4-11
4.4 GaN FET Vs Si MOSFET Characteristics 4-16
4.5 Standard Chemical Solution For Surface Preparation Of
SiC Substrates 4-25
4.6 Interface Trap Densities For 4H-SiC Under Different
Process Conditions. 4-29


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