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  3. > Next Generation Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Wireless: Developing Market Opportunities for P2P Direct Applications and Services

Overview:

Standardization is on the horizon for LTE to operate in a peer-to-peer mode known as LTE Direct (LTE-D) that involves discovery and a mode of operation involving the so-called "ambient awareness". This is expected to be a novelty at first but quickly evolve into a new ecosystem that is at once complementary and competitive to the current cellular ecosystem.

There are a number of additional technologies that may also be deployed that all provide the ability for devices to "discover" one another, although over different distances ranging from centimeters (Near Field Communications), meters (Bluetooth), 10s of meters (Wi-Fi), and some that vary (beacon technologies).

This research addresses the technology, companies, solutions, and market opportunities involving discovery, presence/detection, peer-to-peer communications, and related applications. The report evaluates the ecosystem, anticipated impacts, and future of Person-to-Person, Device-to-Device, communications.

The report will address the following key topics:

Technology Evaluation: Evaluation of the different approaches to P2P, supporting technologies, and alternatives including LTE Direct
Business Drivers: Assessment of the business drivers for P2P from carrier perspective and others in the ecosystem.
Competitive Issues: Competitive issues within the cellular service provider and supplier ecosystem with emphasis on the impact of P2P on existing operations and market outlook.
The Value Chain of P2P: An analysis of the value chain of P2P, direct communications, and associated communications, applications, content, and commerce.
Operator, Application Provider and Vendor Strategies: An analysis of how operators, application providers and vendors should position themselves to capitalize on P2P.
Market Analysis and Forecasts: Forecasts for P2P market outlook
All purchases of Mind Commerce reports includes time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.

Report Benefits:

Forecast for LTE Direct revenue lift
Identify drivers for P2P communications
Identify key supporting technologies for LTE Direct
Identify P2P applications for WiFi Direct and LTE Direct
Learn about the changes to the wireless ecosystem due to P2P
Identify new business models resulting from the introduction of P2P
Learn about efficient location and why it is most important to carriers
Understand why and what apps carriers should integrate with LTE Direct
Understand why and how IMS will finally become useful, even critical to carriers

Key Findings:

P2P represents both a threat and a huge opportunity for network operator. The realization of one or the other will depend on what steps they take and how they capitalize on their position in the ecosystem
P2P will be an unlikely benefit to carrier sunk costs on next generation infrastructure including IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) and early LTE value-added services such as RCS.
P2P will benefit the bottom line of carriers as the anticipated incremental revenue grows to an amount that is well beyond the cannibalization of network based calling and data access.
P2P will take many forms and utilize many convergent and blended technologies. However, LTE Direct (LTE-D) stands out as the greatest beneficiary of both consumer and enterprise usage and spending within the ecosystem.
P2P will cause a revenue lift for communications and applications due to LTE-D in advertising and social areas.
Unique to LTE-D is the significant efficiency of discovery and location determination, which shall spawn new applications, classes of applications, and completely new business models.

Target Audience:

P2P Companies
Investment Firms
Application Developers
Mobile Network Carriers
Semiconductor Vendors
Wireless Device Vendors
Service Bureau Companies
Wireless Infrastructure Vendors
Telecom Managed Service Providers

Table Of Contents

Next Generation Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Wireless: Developing Market Opportunities for P2P Direct Applications and Services
1 Introduction 10
1.1 Executive Summary 10
1.2 Topics Covered 10
1.3 Key Findings 12
1.4 Target Audience 13
2 Introduction 15
2.1 Technology Convergence 15
2.1.1 Peer-to-Peer (P2P) 15
2.1.2 Device-to-Device (D2D) and Machine-to-Machine (M2M) 17
2.1.3 From WAN to PAN 19
2.1.4 Ad-Hoc Systems 21
2.1.5 Internet of Things (IoT) 23
2.1.6 Wearable Technology 25
2.1.7 Convergence of Many Things 26
2.1.7.1 P2P and Wearable Technology 27
2.1.7.2 P2P and Internet of Things (IoT) 27
2.2 Direct Communications 28
2.2.1 WiFi Direct 32
2.2.2 LTE Direct 32
2.3 Discovery 34
2.3.1 Discovery of People 36
2.3.2 Discovery of Machines 37
2.3.3 Discovery of Applications 38
2.4 Ambient Awareness 38
2.4.1 What is it? 39
2.4.2 How does it Work? 40
2.5 Use Case Types 40
2.5.1 End-user Pull 41
2.5.2 Ambient Awareness and Network/Object Push 41
2.6 Use Case Scenarios 41
2.6.1 Public Communications 42
2.6.1.1 Person to Person (P2P) 42
2.6.1.2 Person to Machine Private 42
2.6.1.3 Machine to Person Private 42
2.6.1.4 Machine to Machine Private 43
2.6.2 Public Communications 43
2.6.2.1 Person to Machine Public 44
2.6.2.2 Machine to Person Public 44
2.6.2.3 Machine to Machine Public 44
3 WiFi Direct 45
3.1 WiFi Direct Technology 45
3.2 Key WiFi Direct Players 49
3.2.1 Semiconductor Manufacturers 50
3.2.1.1 Broadcom Corporation 50
3.2.1.2 Qualcomm Atheros 52
3.2.1.3 Intel Corporation 54
3.2.2 Peripheral Manufacturers 56
3.2.2.1 Hewlett Packard Company 56
3.2.3 Consumer Electronics Manufacturers 59
3.2.3.1 JVC Kenwood Holdings 61
3.2.3.2 LG Electronics 62
3.2.4 Smartphone Manufacturers 63
3.2.4.1 Fujitsu Ltd. 64
3.2.4.2 HTC Corporation 65
3.2.4.3 Motorola Mobility 67
3.2.4.4 Samsung Electronics Ltd. 69
3.3 Product Categories 71
3.3.1 Reference Design and Modules 71
3.3.2 Networking 71
3.3.3 Consumer Electronics 72
3.3.4 Computing Peripherals 74
3.3.5 Handsets 75
3.3.6 Automotive and Transportation 75
3.3.7 Health and Fitness 76
3.3.8 Smart Energy 76
3.3.9 Others 77
3.4 WiFi Direct Applications 77
3.4.1 File Sharing and Synchronizing 78
3.4.2 User Connecting to Personal Device 84
3.4.3 Personal Device Pushing Information to User 87
3.4.4 Requesting Information from a Public Kiosk 93
3.4.5 Public Machine Communicating with Private User 98
3.5 Future Applications: Automobile Industry 104
3.5.1 Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) Communications 104
3.5.2 Vehicle Safety: Collision Warning and More 105
3.5.3 Intelligent Transportation 106
3.5.4 Additional Safety and Convenience Solutions 107
4 LTE Direct (LTE-D) 109
4.1 LTE Direct Technology 109
4.1.1 The Inventor: Qualcomm 109
4.1.2 The Database: The Wireless Registry 112
4.2 Market Drivers for LTE Direct 114
4.2.1 Technology Leading Market: Cart before the Horse? 115
4.2.2 Carriers Need Value-added Services (VAS) 116
4.3 Key LTE Direct Players 118
4.4 LTE Direct Applications 118
4.4.1 Advertising 121
4.4.2 Social Networking 121
4.4.3 Commerce 123
4.4.4 Public Safety 129
4.5 Future Technology Integration 132
4.5.1 Intelligent Agents 132
4.5.2 Augmented Reality 132
4.6 Future Applications 133
5 P2P Ecosystem Analysis 134
5.1 Technology Providers 134
5.1.1 Qualcomm 134
5.1.2 Data as a Services (DaaS) Providers 135
5.2 Wireless Service Providers 136
5.2.1 Mobile Network Operators 136
5.2.2 Other Wireless Service Providers 137
5.3 Application Developers 139
5.4 Social Networks 140
6 P2P Impact on Operational Support Systems (OSS) 142
6.1 Administration of Preferences 142
6.2 Discovery 142
6.2.1 Who can Discover? 143
6.2.2 What can Discover? 143
6.3 Communications 143
6.3.1 Autonomous Communications 144
6.3.2 Offered Communications 144
6.4 Managed Application Access and Usage 144
7 P2P Billing Support Systems (BSS) 146
7.1 New Billing Models for P2P Applications 146
7.1.1 Subscribed 146
7.1.2 On-demand 147
7.1.3 Advertising 147
7.2 Changes Required in BSS for P2P 148
8 P2P Business Models 149
8.1 Mobile Network Operators 149
8.1.1 Role of Carrier in P2P 149
8.1.2 New Challenges and Impact of P2P 149
8.1.3 Future Opportunities 150
8.2 Social Networks 150
8.2.1 Traditional Role 150
8.2.2 New Role in P2P 151
8.2.3 Future Opportunities 151
8.3 Technology Providers 151
8.3.1 Existing Business Conflicts and Opportunities 152
8.3.2 Future of P2P, Direct, Ambient Awareness, and Discovery 152
8.4 Application Developers 152
8.4.1 Awareness and Discovery 153
8.4.2 Penetration and Usage 153
8.5 Advertisers 153
8.5.1 Hyper-local and Hyper-focused 153
8.5.2 Actionable and Performance-based 154
8.5.3 Leveraging Next Generation Solutions 155
9 Market Forecasts 156
9.1 P2P Communications 158
9.2 P2P Applications 158
10 Summary and Recommendations 160
10.1 Semiconductor Vendors 160
10.2 Carriers 160
10.2.1 Why Carriers should Fear P2P 162
10.2.1.1 New Business Models and Carrier Relevancy 162
10.2.1.2 Potential Loss of Control 163
10.2.2 Why Carriers should Embrace P2P 163
10.2.2.1 Beating OTT Players to the Punch 163
10.2.2.2 Leverage IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) 164
10.2.2.3 Leverage the First LTE VAS: Rich Communications 166
10.3 Developers 170
10.4 Location Companies 170
11 Appendix 171
11.1 P2P Standards and Technologies 171
11.1.1 Bluetooth 171
11.1.2 Zigbee 171
11.1.3 Ultra Wide Band 172
11.1.4 Dedicated Short-range Communications (DSRC) 172
11.1.5 Beacon Technologies 173
11.1.6 IEEE 802 174
11.1.7 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) 175
11.1.8 Infrared (IRDA) 182
11.1.9 Long Term Evolution (LTE) 185
11.2 Supporting Technologies 192
11.2.1 Location Technologies 192
11.2.1.1 Location Architectures and Capabilities 193
11.2.1.2 What is Efficient Location and Why is it Important? 210
11.2.2 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) 215
11.2.2.1 Understanding IMS 216
11.2.2.2 Why IMS: The Critical Importance of Control and Apps 222
11.2.3 Database, DB Services, Cloud, and APIs 223
11.2.3.1 Data and Database Infrastructure 223
11.2.3.2 Data as a Service (DaaS) 225
11.2.3.3 Application Programming Interfaces (API) 225
11.2.4 Additional IoT Related Technologies 227
11.2.4.1 Embedded Systems 227
11.2.4.2 Ubiquitous Computing 229
11.2.4.3 Connected Devices 230
11.2.4.4 Internet Protocol Version Six (IPv6) 232
11.2.4.5 Sensors and Detection Technologies 234

List of Figures

Figure 1: P2P and Proximity Services 16
Figure 2: M2M and Proximity Communications 19
Figure 3: The RF Technology Coverage Spectrum 21
Figure 4: Ad Hoc Networks and Proximity Services 22
Figure 5: WAN Networks 28
Figure 6: LAN Networks 29
Figure 7: Personal Area Networks (PAN) 30
Figure 8: Near Field Communication (NFC) Applications 31
Figure 9: LTE Direct Discovery Process 35
Figure 10: WiFi Direct and Consumer Electronics 60
Figure 11: WiFi Direct in Many Devices 77
Figure 12: WiFi Direct and File Sharing 79
Figure 13: WiFi Direct and Synchronizing 79
Figure 14: WiFi Direct User Connecting to Personal Device 84
Figure 15: WiFi Direct Personal Device Info Push 88
Figure 16: WiFi Direct Request Info from Public Kiosk 93
Figure 17: WiFi Direct Public Machine and Private User 99
Figure 18: P2P and Collision Prevention 106
Figure 19: LTE Direct Functionatliy 109
Figure 20: Discovery with LTE Direct 111
Figure 21: Value-added Services (VAS) 117
Figure 23: Qualcomm Differentiated Apps/Services by Capability 119
Figure 23: Commerce Continuum 123
Figure 24: Commerce Engagement 126
Figure 25: Commerce Cycle Jumps 126
Figure 26: Broadcasting Needs as "Expressions" 127
Figure 27: Identifying available Services and Offerings 128
Figure 28: Engagement based on Relevance and Preferences 128
Figure 29: P2P Communication Ensues 129
Figure 30: LTE Direct Location and Public Safety 130
Figure 31: Common Resource to Determine Relevancy across Apps 134
Figure 32: LTE-D Location and Context-aware Systems 154
Figure 33: New Apps vs. Proven Apps 162
Figure 34: Services Blending 165
Figure 35: Corporate/Enterprise Dashboard 168
Figure 35: Enterprise Dashboard: Employee Locator App 169
Figure 37: Control Plane Architecture 195
Figure 38: Service Plane Architecture 196
Figure 39: Control Plane vs. Service Plane 198
Figure 40: A-GPS System 200
Figure 41: A-GPS Operation in Control Plane 201
Figure 42: AFLT System 202
Figure 43: U-TDOA System 203
Figure 44: AOA System 204
Figure 45: U-TDOA System 205
Figure 46: Cell ID and Enhanced Cell ID System 207
Figure 47: Location Ecosystem 208
Figure 48: Mobile Cellular Networks and Location 210
Figure 49: Mobile Cellular Networks and Location Area 211
Figure 50: WiFi Networks and Location 212
Figure 51: Location Resolution vs. Type of Service 214
Figure 52: Network Control in Internet vs. IMS 216
Figure 53: IMS Network Element to Plane Mapping 217
Figure 54: IMS Model Network 219
Figure 55: IMS Challenge - Service Control 221
Figure 56: Data Infrastructure 224
Figure 57: Data, Cloud, and APIs 227
Figure 58: Growth of Connected Devices 231

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