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This BCC Research study takes a unique and broad approach in summarizing markets for individual battery and fuel cell types and components, and profiling the markets for the materials used in these markets from 2014 to 2019. An extensive set of company profiles providing competitive intelligence for existing battery and fuel cell material providers is also provided.

Use this report to:
- Receive an overview of advanced battery and fuel cell technologies in terms of market value, number of units shipped and types of materials used.
- Receive information on industry structure and competitive aspects.
- Receive information on factors that drive the growth of the industry.
- Receive information on the industry environment and its trade practices.

Highlights
- The global advanced battery and fuel cell material value reached nearly $19 billion in 2013. This market is expected to grow to $19.6 billion in 2014 and $27.9 billion in 2019 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.3% for the five-year period, 2014 to 2019.
- Lead material as a segment is expected to reach $15.8 billion in 2014. It is further projected to grow to $22.5 billion in 2019, with a CAGR of 7.3% for the five-year period, 2014 to 2019.
- Lithium material as a segment is expected to reach $601 million in 2014. It is further projected to grow to $968 million in 2019, with a CAGR of 10% for the five-year period, 2014 to 2019.

Introduction & Scope
INTRODUCTION
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Advanced batteries and fuel cells are used throughout the world to provide power to portable products, portable and stationary power supplies, uninterruptible power
systems, military equipment and even vehicles. They represent widely used mature markets and emerging (but potentially gigantic) new markets. They have in common a
new generation of materials that are mined (like lithium, nickel and natural graphite), compounded (like platinum black and lead alloys and oxides) or even fabricated (like
fullerenes, lithium polymers, electrolytic manganese dioxide, artificial graphite, permionic membranes, and ceramic separators and electrodes).

A battery has five components: two active elements (a cathode and an anode), a separator, an electrolyte medium for carrying ions between the reactants through the
separator, and a container. One reactant or electrode has a net negative charge and is called the anode. The anode material is usually a metallic alloy. In lithium-ion cells the
anode consists of an ionic lithium compound, and the other reactant electrode, with a positive charge, is called the cathode. The cathode usually is a metallic compound. The
electrolyte is usually similar to the cathode to promote ion transfer. Finally, the battery is contained in a case that provides dimensional stability and a positive and negative
electrode or battery cap for discharging (or recharging) the cell. A number of separate electrochemical cells are combined within the same case to create a battery.

Like batteries, fuel cells produce electrical energy through an electrochemical process. Fuel cells also typically have a pair of electrodes and electrolyte, as well as structural
supports. Unlike batteries, fuel cells are “conversion” devices that change some kind of chemical fuel into electricity. Fuel cells can’t directly store electrical energy, but they
have a great deal of flexibility in fuels. Therefore, fuel generation and storage components must be employed, each with their own unique material requirements. Fuel cells also typically require an electrocatalytic material to promote energy conversion. Like batteries, fuel cells can be combined into stacks with an effectively unlimited size.

In both cases, there are hundreds of combinations of possible electrode, electrolyte, separator and electrocatalytic materials, and material selection plays an important
(and often the most important) role in battery and fuel cell design. With this in mind, this BCC Research report examines the global market for advanced battery and fuel cell materials. Each advanced battery and fuel cell material is profiled and analyzed. The report provides an overview of specific advanced battery and fuel cell technologies in terms of market value, number of units shipped and types of materials used. Advanced battery and fuel cell consumption is discussed in terms of how they are used to create various components. An extensive set of advanced battery and fuel cell material supplier profiles is provided, along with a summary of contact information for the battery and fuel cell companies that use these materials.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
The battery and fuel cell industries have largely weathered the global recession and are poised to begin unprecedented expansion based on increased demand, opportunities to commercialize new technologies, and new applications and markets. Ultimately, the fortunes of batteries and fuel cells are tied to the materials used to create them. Battery and fuel cell demand have revitalized a number of raw material markets, and many material suppliers are counting on new battery and fuel cell markets to drive growth.

This study takes a unique and broad approach to these opportunities by summarizing markets for individual battery and fuel cell types and components and then profiling
the markets for the materials used in these markets. An extensive set of company profiles provides competitive intelligence for existing battery and fuel cell material
providers and also describes sources for these battery and fuel cell makers.

SCOPE AND FORMAT
This report starts with a summary of the global advanced battery and fuel cell market and continues with a more detailed analysis of materials used: first organized by
elements or elemental groups involved and then organized by application (active elements/electrodes, separators, electrolytes, electrocatalysts, etc.). Sources and
competitive aspects (including competing applications and competing advanced materials) are analyzed. Important recent developments are provided. Extensive
company profiles are included.

Note that in this context, this report covers the following battery types:
- All lithium.
- All nickel hydroxide and all large nickel-cadmium.
- All silver.
- All lead batteries except auto “starting/lighting/ignition” (SLI).
- Large nickel-cadmium.
- All exotic (metal/air, redox, large zinc, etc.).
- Developmental battery possibilities are also discussed.

The following battery types aren’t covered:
- Dry cells and cylindrical primary.
- Cylindrical/removable nickel-cadmium.
- Automotive “SLI” lead.
- Button cells and microbatteries.
All fuel cells are included.

Next, the following specific battery and fuel cell materials are profiled and background, sources and suppliers, and developments and constraints are provided. As appropriate, markets for specific battery and fuel cell materials within these major classifications are detailed.
- Aluminum compounds.
- Antimony compounds.
- Arsenic and bismuth.
- Barium and strontium compounds.
- Boron compounds.
- Cadmium.
- Calcium compounds.
- Carbon and graphite and fullerenes.
- Chromium, molybdenum and tungsten.
- Cobalt compounds.
- Halogens.
- Indium and gallium.
- Lead.
- Lithium compounds.
- Manganese dioxide.
- Nickel and iron.
- Organic compounds and polymerics.
- Platinum group metals.
- Rare earths.
- Selenium and tellurium.
- Silicon oxide.
- Silver.
- Sodium and potassium.
- Sulfur and phosphorus compounds.
- Tin.
- Titanium and zirconium.
- Vanadium and tantalum.
- Zinc.
Next, the markets for each of the following battery and fuel cell component groups are discussed:
- Battery electrodes.
- Battery electrolytes.
- Battery separators.
- Fuel processing and storage.
- Fuel cell electrodes and electrocatalysts.
- Fuel cell electrolytes.

As appropriate, markets for specific battery and fuel cell technologies within these major classifications are detailed. Historic, current and predicted markets in terms of units and value are summarized to define the materials market. In this context, the following battery and fuel cell applications are analyzed:
- Motive power.
- Portable products.
- Stationary.
- Developmental applications.

METHODOLOGY
This report is based on a literature review, patent examination and discussions with commercial and government sources. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mineral commodity data is evaluated and included when appropriate. Historic (2009 and 2013) and predicted (2014 and 2019) global shipments and values are provided for materials, for applications/battery or fuel cell types, and by four global reasons. Totals are rounded to the nearest million dollars. Volume is typically expressed in million units, tons or in some cases units appropriate to the particular kind of material. When appropriate, information from previously published sources is identified to allow a more detailed examination by clients.

Most market summaries are based on a consensus scenario for wholesale (producer) prices that assumes no unanticipated technical advances and no unexpected legislation. When appropriate, pessimistic, consensus and optimistic market scenarios characterize several developmental markets like electric vehicles, combined heat and power units, and utility-scale backup power storage.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report provides a unique analysis of the global advanced battery and fuel cell materials market, and will be of interest to manufacturers of batteries and fuel cells, as
well as battery and fuel cell powered stationary products, vehicles and power stations. This report will also be valuable to those involved in battery and fuel cell development
and marketing, as well as those offering competing power sources. Of course existing and potential battery and fuel cell material providers, including miners, processors,
refiners, chemical synthesizers and recyclers, will find that this report applies directly to their operations. BCC Research wishes to thank those companies, government
agencies and university researchers who contributed information for this report.

INFORMATION SOURCES
Both primary and secondary sources were used in preparing this report. The report’s author also prepared the studies listed below. Although many segments of the industry
are well documented, much of this information is based on informed estimates or predictions, not hard facts. The distinction between these estimates and hard facts can
be vital, and wherever possible, sources are identified.

Table Of Contents

Advanced Materials for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Technologies and Global Markets
Chapter- 1: INTRODUCTION - Complimentary 5
Chapter- 2: SUMMARY 3
Chapter- 3: OVERVIEW 10
Chapter- 4: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ASPECTS 42
Chapter- 5: LARGE BATTERY AND FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES 86
Chapter- 6: MARKET OVERVIEW 13
Chapter- 7: BATTERY AND FUEL CELL MATERIALS 211
Chapter- 8: BATTERY AND FUEL CELL COMPONENTS 27
Chapter- 9: COMPANY PROFILES 148
Chapter- 10: APPENDIX A: ADVANCED BATTERY COMPANIES 12
Chapter- 11: APPENDIX B: FUEL CELL COMPANIES 8
List of Tables
List of Figures

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