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Analyzing the Global Oil Shale Market 2015

  • February 2015
  • -
  • Aruvian's R'search
  • -
  • 185 pages

The term oil shale generally refers to any sedimentary rock that contains solid bituminous materials (called kerogen) that are released as petroleum-like liquids when the rock is heated in the chemical process of pyrolysis. Oil shale was formed millions of years ago by deposition of silt and organic debris on lake beds and sea bottoms. Over long periods of time, heat and pressure transformed the materials into oil shale in a process similar to the process that forms oil; however, the heat and pressure were not as great. Oil shale generally contains enough oil that it will burn without any additional processing.

While oil shale is found in many places worldwide, by far the largest deposits in the world are found in the United States in the Green River Formation, which covers portions of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. Estimates of the oil resource in place within the Green River Formation range from 1.2 to 1.8 trillion barrels. Not all resources in place are recoverable; however, even a moderate estimate of 800 billion barrels of recoverable oil from oil shale in the Green River Formation is three times greater than the proven oil reserves of Saudi Arabia.

While oil shale has been used as fuel and as a source of oil in small quantities for many years, few countries currently produce oil from oil shale on a significant commercial level. Many countries do not have significant oil shale resources, but in those countries that do have significant oil shale resources, the oil shale industry has not developed because historically, the cost of oil derived from oil shale has been significantly higher than conventional pumped oil. The lack of commercial viability of oil shale-derived oil has in turn inhibited the development of better technologies that might reduce its cost.

Aruvian’s R’search presents an analysis of the global market for oil shales. Aruvian’s research report Analyzing the Global Oil Shale Market analyzes the basics of oil shales to the global oil shale industry.

The report starts by explaining the basics about oil shales, what are oil shales, the geology of oil shales, formation of oil shales, and of course, the applications of oil shales. The advantages and disadvantages of oil are also discussed in the first section, along with the projected scale of oil shale development.

Moving on, we analyze the global oil shale industry and also the major regions of the world where oil shale is found. A country-wise analysis follows this, and we have covered the leading producers of oil shales such as Estonia, the United States, Brazil, China, Canada, etc. Countries that have just started exploring their potential of oil shales are also analyzed in the report, such as Israel, Sweden, Scotland, India, etc. The Green River Formation and the Devonian Shales from the United States have been analyzed in depth in this report.

Following on from the country-wise analysis, we explore the factors driving growth in the industry such as the increase in oil prices, energy security, and economic benefits, amongst others. Challenges to the growth of the oil shale market is also discussed in details. Issues such as economics of oil shales, supply and disposition factors, have been looked into in this section.

No report will be complete without an analysis of the oil shale extraction technologies and we explore the technological side of this industry in section G, wherein we explain the processes of oil shale retorting, conventional refining, in-situ retorting, underground mining, synthetic fuel production, etc.

The environmental impact of oil shales and the economics of oil shales are further discussed in the report.

A clear differentiating and unique factor offered in Aruvian’s report is a comprehensive case study that compares the US oil shales to the tar sands of Alberta, which equips the user with a more real time scenario of the industry.

We sum up with an analysis of the leading industry players such as Ambre energy, American Shale Oil, Chevron Shale Oil Company, Eesti Energia, Oil Shale Exploration Company, and many others.

Table Of Contents

Analyzing the Global Oil Shale Market 2015
A. Executive Summary

B. Understanding Oil Shales
B.1 What is an Oil Shale?
B.2 History of Oil Shales
B.3 Understanding Oil Shale Geology
B.3.1 Classification of Oil Shales
B.3.2 Composition of Oil Shales
B.3.3 How Oil Shales Form
B.4 Grading of Oil Shales
B.5 Applications of Oil Shales
B.6 Organic Matter in Oil Shales
B.7 Thermal Maturity of an Oil Shale
B.8 Pros and Cons of Developing Oil Shales
B.9 Projected Scale of Oil Shale Development

C. Global Reserves of Oil Shales
C.1 Overview
C.2 Global Oil Shale Industry
C.3 Analysis of Major Regions
C.3.1 Africa
C.3.2 Asia
C.3.3 Europe
C.3.4 Middle East
C.3.5 North America
C.3.6 Oceania
C.3.7 South America
C.4 Country-wise Analysis of Oil Shale Reserves
C.4.1 Australia
C.4.1.1 Toolebuc Oil Shale
C.4.1.2 Eastern Queensland
C.4.2 Brazil
C.4.2.1 Paraíba Valley
C.4.2.2 Iratí Formation
C.4.3 Canada
C.4.3.1 New Brunswick Oil Shale
C.4.4 China
C.4.4.1 Fushun Oil Shale
C.4.4.2 Maoming Oil Shale
C.4.5 India
C.4.6 Estonia
C.4.6.1 Dictyonema Shale
C.4.7 Israel
C.4.8 Jordan
C.4.9 Russia
C.4.10 Scotland
C.4.11 Sweden
C.4.12 Thailand
C.4.13 Turkey
C.4.14 United States
C.4.14.1 History of Oil Shale in the US
C.4.14.2 US Oil Shale Reserves
C.4.14.3 Great Green River Formation
C.4.14.4 Devonian Shales
C.4.14.5 Research and Development Scenario
C.4.14.6 Regulatory Framework

D. Commercialization of Oil Shales

E. Growth Factors for the Industry
E.1 Rising Oil Prices
E.2 Energy Security
E.3 Economic Benefits
E.4 Employment Factors

F. Barriers to Growth
F.1 Competing for Resources
F.2 Supply and Disposition
F.3 Processing Issues
F.4 Disturbances in Land Used
F.5 Technological Issues
F.6 Air Pollution
F.7 Water Pollution
F.8 Greenhouse Gas Emissions
F.9 Economic Risk
F.10 Infrastructure Hurdles

G. Oil Shale Extraction Technologies
G.1 Introduction
G.2 Historical Background
G.3 Shale Oil Extraction Process
G.4 Oil Shale Mining
G.5 Retorting of Oil Shale
G.5.1 In-Situ Retorting
G.6 Thermally Conductive In-Situ Conversion
G.6.1 Conventional Refining
G.7 Synthetic Fuel Production
G.8 Underground Mining

H. Looking at the Environmental Impact
H.1 Introduction
H.2 Surface Mining and Retorting Process
H.3 Air Pollution
H.4 Greenhouse Gas Emissions
H.5 In-situ Processing

I. Considering the Economics of Oil Shales
I.1 Introduction
I.2 Rising Oil Prices
I.3 Investment in Oil Shales
I.4 Viability of Oil Shales based on Ratio of Energy Utilized
I.5 Viability of Oil Shales based on Ratio of Water Utilized
I.6 Production Cost
I.6.1 Capital Costs for Production of Oil
I.6.2 Plant Operating Costs
I.7 Costs of Technology
I.8 Leasing of Federal Lands
I.9 Construction Costs

J. Future Perspective: Global Oil Shales Market
J.1 Outlook
J.2 Tackling the Issue of Land Usage in the Future
J.3 Oil Shale Development and Air Quality
J.4 Lowering the Emissions of Greenhouse Gases

K. Case Study: Comparing US Oil Shale to Alberta Tar Sand

L. Leading Industry Contributors
L.1 Ambre Energy
L.2 American Shale Oil
L.3 Chattanooga Corporation
L.4 Chevron Shale Oil Company
L.5 Eesti Energia
L.6 EGL Resources, Inc.
L.7 Exxon Mobil Corporation
L.8 Fushun Mining Group
L.9 A.F.S.K. Hom Tov
L.10 Independent Energy Partners
L.11 Mountain West Energy
L.12 Oil Shale Exploration Company
L.13 Shell Oil Company
L.14 Queensland Energy Resources
L.15 Red Leaf Resources
L.16 Viru Keemia Grupp

M. Appendix
M.1 Figures and Tables

N. Glossary of Terms

List of Figures

Figure 1: Historical Production of Oil Shales
Figure 2: Hutton's Classification of Oil Shales
Figure 3: Projected Capacity and Scale of Western Oil Shale Industry (m/bbls/day)
Figure 4: Deposits of Oil Shale in Australia
Figure 5: Typical Lithologic Log and Shale-Oil Yield of the First and Second Beds of the Iratí Oil Shale at São Mateus do Sul, Brazil
Figure 6: Oil Shale Deposits in Canada
Figure 7: Geological Cross-section of the Funshun Oil Shale - North-South Stratigraphic Cross Section through the West Open Pit Coal Mine (no vertical scale)
Figure 8: Stratigraphic Section of the Funshun Oil Shale Deposit
Figure 9: Deposits of Oil Shales in Israel
Figure 10: Oil Shale Deposits in Jordan
Figure 11: Great Green River Formation - Primary Oil Shale Reserve in U.S.
Figure 12: Oil Shale Potential
Figure 13: Eastern Devonian-Mississippian Oil Shale Reserve
Figure 14: Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts
Figure 15: U.S. and Canada Crude Oil Pipelines
Figure 16: The Shell In-Situ Conversion Process
Figure 17: Major Process Steps in Thermally Conductive In-Situ Conversion
Figure 18: Value Enhancement Processing
Figure 19: Unconventional Oil Resources vs, World Conventional Resources
Figure 20: Recoverable Oil Shale (Estimated) Worldwide
Figure 21: Impact of Reduced OPEC Productive Capacity on Oil Prices, 2000-2020
Figure 22: Increased Shale Oil Production and Benefit the U.S. GDP, 2000-2020
Figure 23: Grade of Utah Oil Shale
Figure 24: Depth of Green River Formation
Figure 25: Thickness of Utah Oil Shale
Figure 26: Comparing Energy Concentrations
Figure 27: Oil Shale Conversion Technology
Figure 28: Gas Combustion Retort
Figure 29: Alberta Taciuk Processor (ATP)
Figure 30: Shell's ICP Process
Figure 31: Projected Production Potential of Shale Oil in the US, 2005-2035

List of Tables

Table 1: General Composition of Oil Shales
Table 2: Properties of Major Oil Shale Deposits
Table 3: Largest Oil Shale Deposits in the World (Over 1 bln Metric Tons)
Table 4: Resources of Oil Shale Deposits in Australia
Table 5: Average Properties of Irati Oil Shale Mined at Sao Mateus do Sul
Table 6: Oil Shale Deposits in Canada
Table 7: Resource Data for 8 Deposits of Oil Shale in Jordan
Table 8: Estimated Resources of Devonian Shales by States
Table 9: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PADD (2012-2013)
Table 10: Product Price Calculation Assumptions
Table 11: Economics of Tar Sand vs. Oil Shales

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