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  3. > Visible Light Communication (VLC)/Light Fidelity & Free Space Optics (FSO) Market by Component, Applications (Terrestrial, Mobile & Satellite for FSO & Communication, Automotive, Healthcare, Aerospace & Underwater for VLC/Li-Fi), & Geography - Analysis &

The VLC and FSO market report analyses the ecosystem for both the technologies. The market has been segmented by components which include: transmitter, receiver, modulators and demodulators, and others. By application it includes: automotive, healthcare, aerospace, underwater communication, and others. FSO technology application segment include: terrestrial application, mobile application, and satellite application. The report also provides the geographic view of both the technologies for major regions like: the Americas, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC), and Rest of the World (ROW). The report discusses about the burning issues, market dynamics and winning imperatives for VLC market.

The VLC market is expected to get more value due to its wide range of applications. The communication application is generating high revenue in the VLC technology market. Whereas, healthcare and automotive application is growing with highest CAGR as compared to other applications.

The VLC technology has higher market share in developing economy like APAC. However, Europe is estimated to grow with at a highest rate in the projected years. The key players in the market are: ByteLight (U.S.), Oldecomm- France LiFi (France), Nakagawa Laboratories (Japan), Outstanding Technology (Japan), Lightpointe Communications (U.S.), and fSONA Networks (Canada) among others.

The report also covered the detailed market segmentation, estimated overall VLC and FSO market size in 2013 and forecasted from 2014 to 2020.

Table Of Contents

Visible Light Communication (VLC)/Light Fidelity and Free Space Optics (FSO) Market by Component, Applications (Terrestrial, Mobile and Satellite for FSO and Communication, Automotive, Healthcare, Aerospace and Underwater for VLC/Li-Fi), and Geography - Analysis and
1 INTRODUCTION 21

1.1 OBJECTIVES 21
1.2 REPORT DESCRIPTION 22
1.3 MARKETS COVERED 22
1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 25
1.4.1 MARKET SIZE 27
1.4.2 KEY POINTS TAKEN FROM SECONDARY SOURCES 28
1.4.3 KEY POINTS TAKEN FROM PRIMARY SOURCES 28
1.4.4 ASSUMPTIONS MADE FOR THE REPORT 29
1.4.5 LIST OF COMPANIES COVERED DURING THE REPORT 31

2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 33

3 COVER STORY 38

4 MARKET OVERVIEW 42

4.1 INTRODUCTION 43
4.2 OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION (OWC) TECHNOLOGY 45
4.2.1 FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) MARKET 47
4.2.1.1 History and Evolution 49
4.2.1.1.1 IrDA 51
4.2.1.1.2 RONJA 52
4.2.1.1.2.1 RONJA device 54
4.2.1.2 Working Principle 55
4.2.1.3 Advantages and limitations of FSO 57
4.2.1.4 Market Dynamics 58
4.2.1.4.1 Drivers 58
4.2.1.4.1.1 Last mile Connectivity 58
4.2.1.4.1.2 No licensing required 59
4.2.1.4.2 Restraints 60
4.2.1.4.2.1 Degradation of signals due to environmental interference 60
4.2.1.4.2.2 Challenges of standardization 61
4.2.1.4.2.3 High installation cost 61
4.2.1.4.3 Opportunities 62
4.2.1.4.3.1 Affordable extension in existing fiber network 62
4.2.1.4.3.2 Alternative solution of overburdened RF connectivity for outdoor connectivity 62
4.2.1.4.3.3 Increasing number of space research programs 62
4.2.1.5 Burning Issues 63
4.2.1.5.1 Less reliable due to fading of signals during propagation 63
4.2.1.6 Winning Imperatives 64
4.2.1.6.1 Replacement of old wired and wireless technology with FSO technology for Enterprise Connectivity 64
4.2.2 VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION (VLC)/ LIGHT FIDELITY (LI-FI) MARKET 66
4.2.2.1 History and Evolution 71
4.2.2.2 Working Principle 73
4.2.2.3 Market Dynamics 75
4.2.2.3.1 Drivers 76
4.2.2.3.1.1 Faster and safer data transfer than other competing technologies 76
4.2.2.3.1.2 Government funding and Increased RandD activities 77
4.2.2.3.1.3 No capacity/ bandwidth limitation and less energy consumption 78
4.2.2.3.1.4 Greener, Cleaner and Safer Technology 79
4.2.2.3.2 Restraints 79
4.2.2.3.2.1 Lack of technology awareness 80
4.2.2.3.2.2 Competing technologies 80
4.2.2.3.2.3 Short range and requirement of direct LOS 81
4.2.2.3.3 Opportunities 82
4.2.2.3.3.1 Penetration of VLC/Li-Fi in Advanced Applications 82
4.2.2.3.3.2 Bandwidth crunch in Wi-Fi technology 83
4.2.2.3.3.3 Global acceptance by the electronic devices manufacturers 83
4.2.2.4 Burning Issues 84
4.2.2.4.1 Technology is confined to the closed space 84
4.2.2.5 Winning Imperatives 84
4.2.2.5.1 Commercialization of the technology 84
4.3 VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS 85
4.4 PORTER'S FIVE FORCES MODEL 86
4.4.1 THREAT FROM NEW ENTRANTS 88
4.4.2 THREAT FROM SUBSTITUTE 89
4.4.3 BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS 90
4.4.4 BARGAINING POWER OF BUYERS 91
4.4.5 DEGREE OF COMPETITION 92

5 FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) MARKET, BY APPLICATION 94

5.1 INTRODUCTION 95
5.2 TERRESTRIAL APPLICATION 98
5.2.1 ENTERPRISE CONNECTIVITY 101
5.2.2 HEALTHCARE 103
5.2.3 ENGINEERING AND DESIGN 105
5.2.4 SECURITY 106
5.2.5 DISASTER RECOVERY 108
5.2.6 DEFENSE 109
5.2.7 OTHER APPLICATIONS 111
5.2.7.1 Redundant link and disaster recovery 111
5.2.7.2 Storage area network 111
5.2.7.3 Last mile access 111
5.2.7.4 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) 112
5.3 MOBILE APPLICATION 113
5.3.1 MOBILE CARRIER BACKHAUL 114
5.4 SATELLITE APPLICATION 116

6 FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY 118

6.1 INTRODUCTION 119
6.2 AMERICA 122
6.3 EUROPE 124
6.4 APAC 127
6.5 ROW 129

7 VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION (VLC)/LIGHT FIDELITY (LI-FI) MARKET, BY COMPONENT 131

7.1 INTRODUCTION 132
7.2 TRANSMITTER 133
7.2.1 LED 133
7.2.1.1 History 134
7.2.1.2 Working 135
7.2.1.3 Phosphorous LEDs 137
7.2.1.4 Red Green Blue LEDs (RGB LEDs) 138
7.2.1.5 Resonant cavity LEDs (RCLEDs) 139
7.2.1.6 Organic LEDs (OLEDs) 140
7.2.1.7 Microlens LEDs 141
7.3 RECEIVER 141
7.3.1 PHOTO DIODE RECEIVERS 143
7.3.2 CCD AND CMOS SENSORS 144
7.4 MODULATORS AND DEMODULATORS 145
7.4.1 MODULATION 146
7.4.1.1 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM): 146
7.4.1.2 Pulse Position Modulation (PPM): 146
7.4.1.3 Variable Pulse Position Modulation (VPPM): 147
7.4.1.4 Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM): 147
7.4.1.5 Color Shift Keying (CSK): 147
7.4.1.6 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK): 147
7.4.1.7 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM): 147
7.4.1.8 Spatial Modulation (SM): 148
7.4.2 DEMODULATION 148
7.4.2.1 Diode detector: 148
7.4.2.2 Synchronous detector: 148
7.5 OTHERS 149
7.5.1 INTERFACES 149
7.5.2 LINK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 149
7.5.3 SOFTWARES 150

8 VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION (VLC)/LIGHT FIDELITY (LI-FI) MARKET, BY APPLICATION 151

8.1 INTRODUCTION 152
8.2 COMMUNICATION 154
8.3 AUTOMOTIVE 157
8.3.1 VEHICLE-TO-VEHICLE (V2V) COMMUNICATION 160
8.3.2 LOCATION BASED SERVICE (LBS) 162
8.3.2.1 Navigation 163
8.3.3 INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS (ITS) 165
8.3.3.1 Advanced Traffic Management System 167
8.3.3.2 Advanced Traveler Information System 168
8.3.3.3 Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communications 168
8.3.3.4 Advanced Public Transportation System 169
8.4 HEALTHCARE 171
8.4.1 ASSET TRACKING 173
8.4.2 OPERATION THEATERS 175
8.5 AEROSPACE 176
8.5.1 IN-FLIGHT NETWORK CONNECTIVITY 178
8.6 UNDERWATER COMMUNICATION 179
8.6.1 FLOW OF INFORMATION IN UNDERWATER COMMUNICATION 181
8.7 OTHERS 182
8.7.1 SMART STORES 184
8.7.2 MUSEUMS 186
8.7.3 CASINOS 187

9 VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION (VLC)/LIGHT FIDELITY (LI-FI) MARKET, BY GEOGRAPHY 189

9.1 INTRODUCTION 190
9.2 AMERICA 193
9.3 EUROPE 198
9.4 APAC 203
9.5 ROW 208

10 COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE 212

10.1 INTRODUCTION 213
10.1.1 KEY GROWTH STRATEGIES 214
10.1.2 MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS 215
10.2 COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS AND TRENDS 217
10.2.1 NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTS 218
10.2.2 AGREEMENTS, JOINT VENTURES, AND PARTNERSHIPS 220
10.2.3 AWARDS AND PATENTS 223

11 COMPANY PROFILES 224 (Overview, Products and Services, Financials, Strategy and Development)*

11.1 BYTELIGHT INC. 224
11.2 CASIO COMPUTER CO. LTD. 229
11.3 FSONA NETWORKS CORP. 235
11.4 GALLIUM LIGHTING LLC 240
11.5 IBSENTELECOM 242
11.6 LIGHTPOINTE COMMUNICATIONS INC. 245
11.7 LSA INC. 250
11.8 LVX SYSTEM 252
11.9 NAKAGAWA LABORATORIES INC. 254
11.10 OLEDCOMM - FRANCE LIFI 256
11.11 OUTSTANDING TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD. 258
11.12 PURELIFI LTD. 260
11.13 SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS LTD. 264
11.14 SUPREME ARCHITECTURE INC. 266
11.15 WIRELESS EXCELLENCE LIMITED 267
*Details on Overview, Products and Services, Financials, Strategy and Development might not be Captured in case of Unlisted Companies.

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1 GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS 29
TABLE 2 MARKET ASSUMPTIONS 30
TABLE 3 VLC/LI-FI COMPANIES COVERED IN THE REPORT 31
TABLE 4 FSO COMPANIES COVERED IN THE REPORT 32
TABLE 5 OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION MARKET SIZE BY VALUE,
2013 TO 2020 ($MILLION) 35
TABLE 6 IRDA STANDARDS 51
TABLE 7 RONJA MODELS 53
TABLE 8 FIBER OPTICS VS FSO 56
TABLE 9 ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS 57
TABLE 10 IMPACT ANALYSIS OF FSO MARKET DRIVERS 58
TABLE 11 IMPACT ANALYSIS OF FSO MARKET RESTRAINTS 60
TABLE 12 RF VERSUS FSO FOR SPACE PROGRAMS 62
TABLE 13 POWER LOSS IN FSO SYSTEM DUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL INTERFERENCE 63
TABLE 14 VLC/LI-FI VS RF TECHNOLOGY 69
TABLE 15 IMPACT ANALYSIS OF VLC/LI-FI MARKET DRIVERS 76
TABLE 16 IMPACT ANALYSIS OF VLC/LI-FI MARKET RESTRAINTS 79
TABLE 17 VLC VS WI-FI TECHNOLOGY 81
TABLE 18 FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION ($MILLION), 2013-2020 97
TABLE 19 TERRESTRIAL APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION), 2013-2020 99
TABLE 20 TERRESTRIAL APPLICATIONS MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 100
TABLE 21 ENTERPRISE CONNECTIVITY APPLICATION MARKET SIZE,
BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 102
TABLE 22 HEALTHCARE APPLICATION MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 104
TABLE 23 ENGINEERING AND DESIGN APPLICATION MARKET SIZE,
BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 105
TABLE 24 SECURITY APPLICATION MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 107
TABLE 25 DISASTER RECOVERY APPLICATION MARKET SIZE,
BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 108
TABLE 26 DEFENSE APPLICATION MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 110
TABLE 27 OTHER APPLICATION MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION),
2013-2020 112
TABLE 28 MOBILE APPLICATIONS MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 113
TABLE 29 ADVANTAGES OF FSO AS MOBILE CARRIER BACKHAUL 115
TABLE 30 TECHNOLOGIES USED BY MOBILE BACKHAUL 116
TABLE 31 SATELLITE APPLICATIONS MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 117
TABLE 32 FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 121
TABLE 33 AMERICAS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION ($MILLION), 2013-2020 122
TABLE 34 AMERICAS' TERRESTRIAL APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION), 2013-2020 123
TABLE 35 EUROPE MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION ($MILLION), 2013-2020 125
TABLE 36 EUROPE'S TERRESTRIAL APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION),
2013-2020 126
TABLE 37 APAC MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION ($MILLION), 2013-2020 127
TABLE 38 APAC'S TERRESTRIAL APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION),
2013-2020 128
TABLE 39 ROW MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION ($MILLION), 2013-2020 129
TABLE 40 ROW'S TERRESTRIAL APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION),
2013-2020 130
TABLE 41 COMPARISON OF LEDS, INCANDESCENT, AND FLUORESCENT LAMPS 136
TABLE 42 CHARACTERISTICS OF PHOSPHOROUS LED 138
TABLE 43 CHARACTERISTICS OF RGB LEDS 139
TABLE 44 CHARACTERISTICS OF RGB LEDS 140
TABLE 45 CHARACTERISTICS OF OLEDS 140
TABLE 46 COMPARISION BETWEEN CCD AND CMOS SENSORS 145
TABLE 47 VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION (VLC)/LIGHT FIDELITY (LI-FI) MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION ($MILLION), 2013-2020 153
TABLE 48 COMMUNICATION APPLICATION MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 156
TABLE 49 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION), 2013-2020 158
TABLE 50 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 159
TABLE 51 VEHICLE-TO-VEHICLE COMMUNICATION APPLICATION MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 161
TABLE 52 LOCATION BASED SERVICES APPLICATION MARKET SIZE,
BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 162
TABLE 53 COMPARISON OF POSITION DETECTION WITH VARIOUS TECHNOLOGIES 164
TABLE 54 INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM APPLICATION MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 166
TABLE 55 HEALTHCARE APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION), 2013-2020 172
TABLE 56 HEALTHCARE APPLICATION MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 173
TABLE 57 ASSET TRACKING APPLICATION MARKET SIZE,
BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 174
TABLE 58 OPERATION THEATERS APPLICATION MARKET SIZE,
BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 175
TABLE 59 AEROSPACE APPLICATION MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 177
TABLE 60 UNDERWATER COMMUNICATION APPLICATION MARKET SIZE,
BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 180
TABLE 61 OTHER APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION), 2013-2020 183
TABLE 62 OTHER APPLICATIONS MARKET SIZE,
BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 184
TABLE 63 SMART STORES APPLICATION MARKET SIZE,
BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 185
TABLE 64 MUSEUMS APPLICATION MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 186
TABLE 65 CASINOS APPLICATION MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 187
TABLE 66 VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION (VLC)/(LIGHT FIDELITY) LI-FI MARKET SIZE, BY GEOGRAPHY ($MILLION), 2013-2020 192
TABLE 67 AMERICAS MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION ($MILLION), 2013-2020 194
TABLE 68 AMERICAS' AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION), 2013-2020 195
TABLE 69 AMERICAS' HEALTHCARE APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION), 2013-2020 196
TABLE 70 AMERICAS' OTHER APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION), 2013-2020 197
TABLE 71 EUROPE MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION ($MILLION), 2013-2020 199
TABLE 72 EUROPE'S AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION),
2013-2020 200
TABLE 73 EUROPE'S HEALTHCARE APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION),
2013-2020 201
TABLE 74 EUROPE'S OTHER APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION), 2013-2020 202
TABLE 75 APAC MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION ($MILLION), 2013-2020 204
TABLE 76 APAC'S AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION),
2013-2020 205
TABLE 77 APAC'S HEALTHCARE APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION),
2013-2020 206
TABLE 78 APAC'S OTHER APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION), 2013-2020 207
TABLE 79 ROW MARKET SIZE, BY APPLICATION ($MILLION), 2013-2020 208
TABLE 80 ROW'S AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION),
2013-2020 209
TABLE 81 ROW'S HEALTHCARE APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION),
2013-2020 210
TABLE 82 ROW'S OTHER APPLICATION MARKET SIZE ($MILLION), 2013-2020 211
TABLE 83 TOP PLAYERS IN VLC/LI-FI MARKET 216
TABLE 84 TOP PLAYERS IN FSO MARKET 217
TABLE 85 NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTS, 2010 - 2014 218
TABLE 86 AGREEMENTS, JOINT VENTURES, AND PARTNERSHIPS, 2011 - 2014 220
TABLE 87 AWARDS AND PATENTS, 2013 - 2014 223

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1 SEGMENTATION OF FSO MARKET 23
FIGURE 2 SEGMENTATION OF VLC/LI-FI MARKET 24
FIGURE 3 VLC/LI-FI AND FSO MARKET RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 26
FIGURE 4 MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION 27
FIGURE 5 FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) MARKET SIZE, 2013 TO 2020 ($MILLION) 36
FIGURE 6 VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION (VLC)/LIGHT FIDELITY (LI-FI) MARKET SIZE, 2013 TO 2020 ($MILLION) 37
FIGURE 7 MARKET OVERVIEW OF VLC/LI-FI AND FSO MARKET 44
FIGURE 8 OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES CHARACTERISTICS 45
FIGURE 9 OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORK 46
FIGURE 10 MARKET SEGMENTATION OF FSO TECHNOLOGY 49
FIGURE 11 ADVANCEMENT OF FSO TECHNOLOGY 50
FIGURE 12 RONJA DEVICE OUTLOOK 54
FIGURE 13 FSO COMMUNICATION NETWORK 55
FIGURE 14 MARKET SEGMENTATION OF VLC/LI-FI TECHNOLOGY 70
FIGURE 15 VLC/LI-FI EVOLUTION 71
FIGURE 16 WORKING OF VLC/LI-FI TECHNOLOGY 74
FIGURE 17 DATA FLOW PROCESS 75
FIGURE 18 VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS OF OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION MARKET 85
FIGURE 19 PORTER'S FIVE FORCES IMPACT ANALYSIS OF OWC TECHNOLOGY, 2014-2020 87
FIGURE 20 THREAT FROM NEW ENTRANTS, CONTRIBUTING PARAMETERS IMPACT ANALYSIS, 2014-2020 88
FIGURE 21 THREAT FROM SUBSTITUTES, CONTRIBUTING PARAMETERS IMPACT ANALYSIS, 2014-2020 89
FIGURE 22 BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS, CONTRIBUTING PARAMETERS IMPACT ANALYSIS, 2014-2020 90
FIGURE 23 BARGAINING POWER OF BUYERS, CONTRIBUTING PARAMETERS IMPACT ANALYSIS, 2014-2020 91
FIGURE 24 DEGREE OF COMPETITION, CONTRIBUTING PARAMETERS IMPACT ANALYSIS, 2014-2020 92
FIGURE 25 MAJOR APPLICATION AREAS OF FSO MARKET 95
FIGURE 26 FSO MARKET SHARE, BY APPLICATION, 2014 and 2020 (IN %) 96
FIGURE 27 TERRESTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF FSO MARKET 98
FIGURE 28 FSO COMMUNICATION IN ENTERPRISE CONNECTIVITY 101
FIGURE 29 FSO NETWORK IN HEALTHCARE 103
FIGURE 30 FSO MARKET: BY GEOGRAPHY 119
FIGURE 31 FSO MARKET SIZE AND MARKET SHARE, BY GEOGRAPHY,
2014 and 2020 (IN %) 120
FIGURE 32 VLC/LI-FI MARKET: BY COMPONENT 132
FIGURE 33 EVOLUTION OF LED 134
FIGURE 34 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF A DIODE 135
FIGURE 35 TYPES OF LEDS USED FOR VLC/LI-FI COMMUNICATION PURPOSE 137
FIGURE 36 WORKING OF A RECEIVER 142
FIGURE 37 TYPES OF RECEIVERS USED FOR VLC/LI-FI COMMUNICATION PURPOSE 143
FIGURE 38 WORKING OF A PHOTODIODE RECEIVER 144
FIGURE 39 WORKING OF LINK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 150
FIGURE 40 VLC/LI-FI MARKET: BY APPLICATION 152
FIGURE 41 VLC/LI-FI MARKET SHARE, BY APPLICATION, 2016 and 2020 (IN %) 153
FIGURE 42 DESIGN AND TESTING OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION APPLICATION 155
FIGURE 43 SEGMENTATION OF AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS 157
FIGURE 44 ILLUSTRATION OF VEHICLE TO VEHICLE COMMUNICATION 160
FIGURE 45 ARCHITECTURE OF ADVANCED TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 167
FIGURE 46 FLOW OF INFORMATION IN ADVANCED PUBLIC
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM 170
FIGURE 47 HEALTHCARE APPLICATIONS OF VLC/LI-FI TECHNOLOGY 171
FIGURE 48 INFORMATION FLOW IN UNDERWATER COMMUNICATION 181
FIGURE 49 OTHER APPLICATIONS OF VLC/LI-FI TECHNOLOGY 182
FIGURE 50 VLC/LI-FI MARKET: BY GEOGRAPHY 190
FIGURE 51 VLC/LI-FI MARKET SIZE AND MARKET SHARE, BY GEOGRAPHY,
2016 and 2020 (IN %) 191
FIGURE 52 COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE OF THE VLC/LI-FI AND FSO MARKET 213
FIGURE 53 SHARE OF KEY GROWTH STRATEGIES IN VLC/LI-FI AND
FSO MARKET (2010 -2014) 214
FIGURE 54 BYTELIGHT INC.: APPLICATION SEGMENT 225
FIGURE 55 BYTELIGHT INC.: SWOT ANALYSIS 227
FIGURE 56 CASIO COMPUTER CO. LTD.: COMPANY SNAPSHOT 230
FIGURE 57 CASIO COMPUTER CO. LTD.: BUISNESS DIVISION 231
FIGURE 58 CASIO COMPUTER CO. LTD.: SWOT ANALYSIS 232
FIGURE 59 FSONA NETWORKS CORP.: TARGET CUSTOMERS 235
FIGURE 60 FSONA NETWORKS CORP.: SWOT ANALYSIS 237
FIGURE 61 GALLIUM LIGHTING LLC: PRODUCT DIVISION 240
FIGURE 62 IBSENTELECOM: SERVICES OFFERED 243
FIGURE 63 LIGHTPOINTE COMMUNICATIONS INC.: PRODUCT OFFERINGS 245
FIGURE 64 LIGHTPOINTE COMMUNICATIONS INC.: SWOT ANALYSIS 247
FIGURE 65 LSA INC.: PRODUCT DIVISION 250
FIGURE 66 LVX SYSTEM: BUISNESS DIVISION 252
FIGURE 67 NAKAGAWA LABORATORIES INC.: PRODUCTS OFFERED 254
FIGURE 68 OLEDCOMM - France LIFI: LI-FI SOLUTIONS 256
FIGURE 69 OUTSTANDING TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD.: PRODUCTS OFFERED 258
FIGURE 70 PURELIFI LTD.: PRODUCTS OFFERED 261
FIGURE 71 PURELIFI LTD.: LI-1ST COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM 262
FIGURE 72 SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS LTD.: PRODUCTS OFFERED 264
FIGURE 73 WIRELESS EXCELLENCE LIMITED: PRODUCTS OFFERED 268

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