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Gasifier Balance of Plant (BOP) Components: Global Markets

  • September 2014
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 475 pages

This BCC Research report characterizes and quantifies the world markets for gasifier balance of plant (BOP) components in terms of unit shipments, regions, and market dollar value. CAGR projections are given for the period 2013 to 2018.

Use this report to:
- Characterize and quantify the world markets for gasifier balance of plant (BOP) components in terms of unit shipments, regions, and market dollar value.
- Gain an insight into the market drivers that are raising or inhibiting demand for gasifiers market structure, including segments and subsegments.
- Examine gasifier BOP components and their markets throughout well-delineated regions of the world.
- Analyze Gasification and gasifier balance of plant component technologies.

Highlights
- BCC Research estimates the global market for gasification balance of plant (BOP) components totalled $55.1 billion in 2013. The market should reach $73.2 billion in 2014
and $96.1 billion in 2019, registering a compound annual growth (CAGR) of 11.8% over the next five years.
- Gasification as a segment will grow from $18.7 billion in 2014 to nearly $25.9 billion by 2019 at a 14.7% CAGR for the period 2014-2019.
- Whole-system components (air separation unit and heat recovery steam generation) is the largest segment of the global market for medical device technologies and it has reached $29.6 billion in 2014 and is expected to reach $33.8 billion by 2019, increasing at a CAGR of 9.9% from 2014 through 2019.

INTRODUCTION
The rise of gasifiers as core processors of carbonaceous matter in many useful products is enabled by a variety of “balance of plant” equipment (BOP). These components are used to move, size, measure, and deliver feedstock into gasifiers; provide heat and raw oxygen and nitrogen to shape the molecules that the gasifier produces; and keep the gases from exploding before their work is done. Other BOP components cool the product gases; clean them and capture the contaminants; extract heat and reuse it; and carry away the remnant unchangeable material that even the superheat within a gasifier cannot change.

The world market for BOP components for gasifiers has grown to be tens of billions of dollars per year. BOP components are thus forming a new major industrial sector.
What has somehow been missed by mass media and the watchers of the World Wide Web is a commitment that the Chinese have made to take themselves out of the
climate equation. They have no easily accessible indigenous fuels in the ground except billions of tons of coal. With this resource, they must supply energy and raw industrial
chemicals to their factory economy, keep the lights on and the food cold, power their share of the Internet, run their commuter trains, and make a good portion of
everything that the world uses.

To extricate themselves from the hazards of such massive use of coal, China is in a frenzied process of deploying a giant fleet of new power and chemical coal-converting
gasifiers on a scale that would not otherwise be seen except in the event of a big war. China is going to capture all of the emissions; extract what can be useful, such as
elemental sulfur; and pump the rest of it miles into the ground in the thousands of holes it has prepared. A good portion of the gasification system that China uses to perform these miracles of saving themselves from themselves and the rest of us and the world’s atmosphere as well will originate in the U.S. and Europe. There has been a sharing of technology development and experience going on for the past half decade, all leading to the current critical cusp in the history of our livable climate.

China has learned to build some fairly powerful gasifiers, but nothing on the scale of the behemoths being produced by industrial giants such as GE, Shell, Siemens, ThyssenKrupp, and others. Therefore, the heavy lifting to change the energy and chemicals infrastructure will be done with imported equipment. Each installation will be
a billion-dollar enterprise. Hundreds will be—in fact, are being—built. Further, every installation includes BOP components whose market value is worth at least as much as
the 24-story-tall matter-manipulation machines.

Perhaps equally as important, these same gasification equipment complexes are now being deployed elsewhere. Governments and private industries are using them to
make gasoline from corn stalks, to power villages with garbage, to siron ore, to destroy chemical weapons, to manufacture medicines from coal, and to heat and power
university campuses. Saudi Arabia is installing a small cadre of large gasifiers to convert a mountainous stockpile of what are called residuals—the stuff that refineries
cannot use from a barrel of crude—and to thus power a refinery and a nearby city, all with reduced emissions. This report from BCC Research takes a quantitative look at all of the support equipment, specifically those BOP components, that are needed so that the gasifier can do what it is intended to do without harming the environment. The analytical approach taken in these pages is to examine the total markets and trends for BOP components that serve either the whole gasification system or one of the three stages of the process: pre-gasification, gasification, and post-gasification.

What became evident rather quickly in the development of this report is that each stage of the gasification process requires BOP components that, taken together at that
stage, are part of a multibillion-dollar-a-year industry. All of the system components, which are air separators and heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), can cost as
much as the gasifier itself To put the market analysis in context, the world markets for the BOP components are quantified for each major gasification application segment as follows:
- Coal to energy (CTE).
- Coal to liquid (CTL).
- Petroleum coke (petcoke)/residuals.
- Direct reduction of iron (DRI).
- Biomass to energy (BTE).
- Biomass to liquid (BTL).
- Waste to energy (WTE).

The market analyses lead to quantitative forecasts of market evolution through 2018, expressed in terms of the number of units that will be sold and the market values of
those units. Where appropriate, qualitative arguments are presented to enhance the understanding of the underlying political, environmental, economic, and technical
frameworks in which the markets for gasifiers and their associated BOP components will be used (or not be used). The report includes descriptions of the functions and purposes of a half dozen to a dozen individual BOP component types for each gasification stage. Equipment whose markets are quantified include conveyors and hoppers, gas compressors, air separation units (ASUs) and HRSGs, different types of gas filters, plasma torches, lockhoppers, truck tippers, buffer bins, acid gas removal systems, CO2 capture systems, gas quenches, and others.

What was most surprising, probably because of the imposing nature of gasifiers themselves, is that the world market for BOP components was already more than $40
billion annually in 2013. That figure will double by 2018. The projections for BOP components are derived from updated figures that were provided in BCC Research report EGY106A Global Markets for Gasifiers. The gasifier market and project development ecosystem are extremely dynamic. Extensive revisions were performed during development of this report in order to account for the substantial number of gasification projects that were canceled in Europe and the U.S. in the past year and the greater number of new projects that were discovered to be in development. All the markets for gasifiers in each of their application segments are increasing by double-digit percentages annually. The bottom line is that gasifiers have become a mainstream product, and their BOP components are already a multibillion-dollar-a-year
diversified global industry on a sustainable growth path.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
This report was written to characterize and quantify the world markets for gasifier balance of plant (BOP) components in terms of unit shipments, regions, and market dollar value. Gasifier technologies have been evolving for well over a century, but only recently have emerged as being economically and technologically viable, and in many ways preferable to other energy-conversion devices. They are often short-list choices for the production of syngas and chemical feedstocks on an industrial scale and energy sources for a variety of smaller regional, municipal, village, and commercial or residential sectors. A growing number of opportunities also exist where gasifiers are a
de facto choice for syngas production, even from natural gas.

The contributions each type of BOP component brings to the gasification process are examined, including alternative equipment that is selected based on the function and
feedstock of the gasification system with which it is used. This report is constructed to quantify the markets for BOP components in terms of the gasification stage in which
they are used, whether they are whole-systems devices providing services at each stage of gasification, or are part of a pre-, during-, or post-gasification process. Any market analysis report involves detecting and revealing trends. This report is specifically focused on examining the slope of the market value of each component type considered, and in aggregate portrays the market trajectory through units that will be sold and the dollar market value of those shipments. The values were determined for individual component types, as was the aggregate value of the gasification stage BOP components as a whole; these were rolled up into five global regional groupings, and, lastly, as a world total market dollar value for BOP components by gasification stage.

This report summarizes the market drivers that are raising or inhibiting demand for gasifiers, including the rush to build an entire clean energy baseload infrastructure in
China. Although that is the dominant gasification market on the planet, it is shown that it is not the only geographically distinct market for utility-, industrial-, and
commercial-scale gasifiers.

Table Of Contents

Gasifier Balance of Plant (BOP) Components: Global Markets
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 4
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 4
SCOPE OF THE REPORT 5
METHODOLOGY 6
INTENDED AUDIENCE 7
INFORMATION SOURCES 8
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 9
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 9
BCC RESEARCH ONLINE SERVICES 10
DISCLAIMER 10
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 12
SUMMARY FORECAST OF MARKETS FOR GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT
COMPONENTS 12
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR GASIFICATION BALANCE OF PLANT
COMPONENTS BY GASIFICATION STAGE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 13
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR GASIFICATION BALANCE OF PLANT
COMPONENTS BY GASIFICATION STAGE, 2013-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 13
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 16
PRODUCT FLEXIBILITY VIA BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) COMPONENT SUITES 16
FIGURE 1 SIMPLIFIED GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) FUNCTIONAL FLOW
DIAGRAM 17
PRE-GASIFICATION BOP FUNCTIONS 17
GASIFICATION BOP FUNCTIONS 17
POST-GASIFICATION BOP FUNCTIONS 17
WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENT FUNCTIONS 18
CHAPTER 4 GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT TECHNOLOGIES 20
GASIFIER SYSTEM BALANCE OF PLANT COMPONENTS 20
TABLE 1 GASIFICATION BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) CATEGORIES BY GASIFICATION
STAGE 21
TABLE 2 GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) COMPONENTS BY GASIFICATION
STAGE AND MARKET SEGMENT 21
BOP COMPONENTS DEFINED BY GASIFICATION STAGE 23
Whole-System BOP Components 23
Pre-Gasification-Stage BOP Components 23
Gasification-Stage BOP Components 25
Post-Gasification-Stage BOP Components 26
CHAPTER 5 GASIFICATION AND GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT COMPONENT
TECHNOLOGIES 30
GASIFIER TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATION SEGMENTS 30
GASIFICATION COMES IN MANY SIZES 31
COAL TO ENERGY (CTE): UTILITY-SCALE GASIFICATION 31
GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) COMPONENTS 32



WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS 33
Air Separation Unit (ASU) 33
Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) 34
PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS 34
Conveyance BOP Components 34
Feedstock Shaping BOP Components 35
Hoppers 35
GASIFICATION STAGE BOP COMPONENTS 35
POST-GASIFICATION STAGE BOP COMPONENTS 36
COAL GASIFICATION BOP COMPONENTS 37
FIGURE 2 COAL AND PETCOKE/RESIDUALS BOP COMPONENTS FLOW CHART 38
TABLE 3 SOLID FOSSIL FUEL GASIFICATION BOP COMPONENTS BY GASIFICATION
STAGE (UNITS/$ MILLIONS) 39
Coal to Liquid (CTL) Compared to Coal to Energy (CTE) Balance of
Plant (BOP) Equipment 40
Petcoke/ Residuals Gasifier BOP Components Background 40
Direct Reduction Iron (DRI) Gasifier BOP Components Background 41
BIOMASS TO ENERGY (BTE), BIOMASS TO LIQUID (BTL), AND WASTE TO
ENERGY (WTE) GASIFIER BOP COMPONENT SUITES 42
FIGURE 3 BTE, BTL AND WTE GASIFICATION BOP COMPONENTS PROCESS FLOW
CHART* 43
BTE Gasifier BOP Components 43
TABLE 4 BTE, BTL AND WTE GASIFICATION BOP COMPONENTS BY GASIFICATION
STAGE (UNITS/$ MILLIONS) 44
Whole System BTE, BTL and WTE BOP Components 45
The Pellet Industry Enables Central Station Biomass to Energy (BTE)
Gasification 45
BTE and WTE Pre-Gasification Stage BOP Components 46
BTE and WTE Gasification-Stage BOP Components 46
BTE and WTE Post-Gasification-Stage BOP Components 46
Biomass to Liquid (BTL) BOP Components 47
Waste to Energy BOP Components 48
CHAPTER 6 WORLD GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) COMPONENTS MARKET
STRUCTURE 50
TABLE 5 CAPACITY RANGES FOR GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION SEGMENT (MW-TH) 50
LARGE-SCALE GASIFIER BOP COMPONENTS MARKET STRUCTURE 51
QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BOP MARKETS FOR LARGE GASIFIER BOP
SYSTEMS 52
MEDIUM-SCALE GASIFIERS 53
SMALL-SCALE GASIFIERS 54
CHAPTER 7 GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENTS IMPACTING
GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT COMPONENT MARKETS 57
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS INFLUENCING MARKETS FOR GASIFIER
BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) COMPONENTS 57
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR SOLID
FOSSIL FUEL GASIFICATION BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) COMPONENTS 58
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR COAL TO
LIQUID (CTL) GASIFIERS 58



LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR
PETCOKE/RESIDUALS GASIFIERS 59
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR DIRECT
REDUCTION IRON (DRI) GASIFIERS 59
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR BIOMASS
TO ENERGY (BTE) GASIFIERS 60
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR BTL
GASIFIERS 61
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR WTE
GASIFIERS 61
CHAPTER 8 GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) COMPONENT MARKET FORECASTS 64
QUANTITATIVE BASES FOR GASIFIER BOP FORECASTS 65
TABLE 6 GASIFICATION BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) COMPONENT FUNCTIONS BY
GASIFICATION STAGE 66
MARKET VALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR SOLID FOSSIL FUEL GASIFIER
BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) COMPONENTS 66
TABLE 7 MARKET VALUATIONS FOR 250-MW SOLID FOSSIL FUEL GASIFICATION
WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS, NOMINAL AND ASIA PRICE ($ MILLIONS) 68
TABLE 8 MARKET VALUATIONS FOR 250-MW SOLID FOSSIL FUEL
PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS, NOMINAL AND ASIA PRICE ($
MILLIONS)
68
TABLE 9 MARKET VALUATIONS FOR 250-MW SOLID FOSSIL FUEL
GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS, NOMINAL AND ASIA PRICE ($ MILLIONS) 69
TABLE 10 MARKET VALUATIONS FOR 250-MW SOLID FOSSIL FUEL
POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS, NOMINAL AND ASIA PRICE ($
MILLIONS)
69
MARKET VALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR BTE, BTL AND MSW GASIFIER
BOP COMPONENTS 70
FIGURE 4 BIOMASS AND MSW GASIFICATION BOP COMPONENTS FLOW CHART:
COMMON AND CAPACITY-SPECIFIC BOP COMPONENT ARRAYS* 70
TABLE 11 MARKET VALUATIONS FOR BIOMASS AND SOLID WASTE GASIFICATION
WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS, NOMINAL AND ASIA PRICE ($ MILLIONS) 72
TABLE 12 MARKET VALUATIONS FOR BIOMASS AND SOLID WASTE
PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS, NOMINAL AND ASIA PRICE ($
MILLIONS)
73
TABLE 13 MARKET VALUATIONS FOR BIOMASS AND SOLID WASTE
GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS, NOMINAL AND ASIA PRICE ($ MILLIONS) 73
TABLE 14 MARKET VALUATIONS FOR BIOMASS AND WASTE TO ENERGY
POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS, NOMINAL AND ASIA PRICE ($
MILLIONS)
74
GLOBAL GASIFIER BOP COMPONENT MARKET FORECAST 75
TABLE 15 SIZE RANGES FOR GASIFIERS IN THE MARKET FORECASTS (MW-TH) 76
DISCUSSION OF FORECASTS FOR NEW GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT-IMPLICATIONS FOR BOP COMPONENT MARKETS 77
THE UNIVERSAL DECARBONIZATION MANDATE 77
FORCES DRIVING GASIFICATION MARKET SEGMENTS 78
CTE Gasifier Market Drivers 78
CTL Gasifier Market Drivers 79
Petcoke/Refinery Residuals Gasifier Market Drivers 79
DRI Gasifier Market Drivers 80
BTE Gasifier Market Drivers 80



BTL Gasifier Market Drivers 81
WTE Gasifier Market Drivers 82
GLOBAL FORECAST FOR THE NEW GASIFIER MARKETS BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT 82
TABLE 16 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION SEGMENT,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 84
CHAPTER 9 FORECASTS FOR WORLD MARKETS FOR GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT
COMPONENTS 86
GLOBAL MARKET FORECASTS FOR VALUE OF GASIFICATION BOP COMPONENTS 86
GLOBAL MARKET FORECASTS FOR GASIFICATION BOP COMPONENTS BY
GASIFIER APPLICATION SEGMENT 86
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR GASIFIER BOP COMPONENTS BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 87
TABLE 18 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR GASIFIER BOP COMPONENTS BY
GASIFICATION STAGE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 88
CTE GASIFIER BOP COMPONENT MARKET FORECASTS—NEW UNITS AND
MARKET VALUE 88
Global Forecast for CTE Whole-System BOP Components 89
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CTE WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 89
TABLE 20 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR CTE WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 89
Global Forecast for CTE Pre-Gasification-Stage BOP Components 90
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CTE PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 91
TABLE 22 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR CTE PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 91
Global Forecast for CTE Gasification-Stage BOP Components 92
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CTE GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 92
TABLE 24 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR CTE GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 93
Global Forecast for CTE Post-Gasification-Stage BOP Components 93
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CTE POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 93
TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR CTE POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 94
CTL GASIFIER BOP COMPONENT MARKET FORECASTS-NEW UNITS AND
MARKET VALUE 95
Global Forecast for CTL Whole-System BOP Components 96
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CTL WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 96
TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR CTL WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 96
Global Forecast for CTL Pre-Gasification-Stage BOP Components 96
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CTL) PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 97
TABLE 30 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR CTL PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 97



Global Forecast for CTL Gasification-Stage Balance of Plant (BOP)
Components 97
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CTL GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 98
TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR CTL GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 98
Global Forecast for CTL Post-Gasification-Stage BOP Components 99
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CTL POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 99
TABLE 34 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR CTL POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 100
PETCOKE/RESIDUALS GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) COMPONENT
MARKET FORECASTS-NEW UNITS AND MARKET VALUE 100
Global Forecast for Petcoke/Residuals Whole-System BOP
Components 101
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 101
TABLE 36 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS WHOLE-SYSTEM
BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 101
Global Forecast for Petcoke/Residuals Pre-Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 102
TABLE 37 `GLOBAL MARKET FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE
BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 102
TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS
PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 103
Global Forecast for Petcoke/Residuals Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 103
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 103
TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS GASIFICATION-STAGE
BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 104
Global Forecast for Petcoke/Residuals Post-Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 104
TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE
BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 104
TABLE 42 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS
POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 105
DIRECT REDUCTION OF IRON (DRI) GASIFIER BOP COMPONENT MARKET
FORECASTS-NEW UNITS AND MARKET VALUE 105
Global Forecast for DRI Whole-System BOP Components 106
TABLE 43 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DRI WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 106
TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR DRI WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 107
Global Forecast for DRI Pre-Gasification-Stage BOP Components 107
TABLE 45 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DRI PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 107
TABLE 46 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR DRI PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 108
Global Forecast for DRI Gasification-Stage BOP Components 108
TABLE 47 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DRI GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 108



TABLE 48 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR DRI GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 109
Global Forecast for DRI Post-Gasification-Stage BOP Components 109
TABLE 49 GLOBAL MARKET FOR DRI POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 109
TABLE 50 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR DRI POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 110
BIOMASS TO ENERGY (BTE) GASIFIER BOP COMPONENT MARKET
FORECASTS-NEW UNITS AND MARKET VALUE 110
World Forecast for BTE Whole-System Balance of Plant (BOP)
Components 111
TABLE 51 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BTE GASIFIER WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 111
TABLE 52 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR BTE GASIFIER WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 112
Global Forecast for BTE Pre-Gasification-Stage BOP Components 112
TABLE 53 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BTE PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 113
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR BTE PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 114
Global Forecast for BTE Gasification-Stage BOP Components 114
TABLE 55 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BTE GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 115
TABLE 56 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR BTE GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 115
Global Forecast for BTE Post-Gasification-Stage Balance of Plant (BOP)
Components 115
TABLE 57 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BTE POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 116
TABLE 58 GLOBAL MARKET VALUES FOR BTE POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 117
BIOMASS TO LIQUID (BTL) GASIFIER BOP COMPONENT MARKET
FORECASTS-NEW UNITS AND MARKET VALUE 117
Global Forecast for BTL Whole-System BOP Components 118
TABLE 59 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BTL WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 118
TABLE 60 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR BTL WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 118
Global Forecast for BTL Pre-Gasification-Stage BOP Components 119
TABLE 61 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BTL PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 119
TABLE 62 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR BTL PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 120
Global Forecast for BTL Gasification-Stage BOP Components 120
TABLE 63 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BTL GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 121
TABLE 64 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR BTL GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 121
Global Forecast for BTL Post-Gasification-Stage BOP Components 121
TABLE 65 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BTL POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 122



TABLE 66 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR BTL POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 122
WASTE TO ENERGY (WTE) GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP)
COMPONENT MARKET FORECASTS-NEW UNITS AND MARKET VALUE 123
Global Forecast for WTE Whole-System BOP Components 123
TABLE 67 GLOBAL MARKET FOR WTE GASIFIER WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 124
TABLE 68 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR WTE WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 124
Global Forecast for WTE Pre-Gasification-Stage BOP Components 124
TABLE 69 GLOBAL MARKET FOR WTE PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 125
TABLE 70 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR WTE PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 126
Global Forecast for WTE Gasification-Stage BOP Components 126
TABLE 71 GLOBAL MARKET FOR WTE GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 127
TABLE 72 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR WTE GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 127
Global Forecast for WTE Post-Gasification-Stage BOP Components 127
TABLE 73 GLOBAL MARKET FOR WTE POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 128
TABLE 74 GLOBAL MARKET VALUE FOR WTE POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 128
CHAPTER 10 REGIONAL GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT MARKETS AND FORECASTS 130
CHAPTER 11 NORTH AMERICAN GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT COMPONENT
MARKETS 132
LEGAL AND REGULATORY ISSUES IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKETS IN THE U.S. 133
GASIFICATION-RELATED GOVERNMENT POLICIES IN THE U.S. 133
TABLE 75 BIOMASS TO ENERGY (BTE) INCENTIVES OF INDIVIDUAL STATES 135
FORECAST FOR NORTH AMERICAN GASIFIER MARKETS 136
TABLE 76 ANNUAL NEW GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS IN NORTH AMERICA BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 137
COAL TO ENERGY (CTE) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA 137
COAL TO LIQUID (CTL) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA-NEW UNITS 138
PETCOKE /RESIDUALS GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA— NEW
UNITS 138
DIRECT REDUCTION OF IRON (DRI) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH
AMERICA—NEW UNITS 139
BIOMASS TO ENERGY (BTE) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA—NEW
UNITS 139
BIOMASS TO LIQUID (BTL) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA 140
FIGURE 5 MAP OF LOCATIONS OF FOREST PRODUCT FACILITIES IN THE U.S. 140
WASTE TO ENERGY (WTE) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA 141
GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) COMPONENT MARKET FORECASTS FOR
NORTH AMERICA 142
SUMMARY OF NORTH AMERICAN BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) COMPONENT
MARKET FORECAST BY GASIFIER APPLICATION SEGMENT 142
TABLE 77 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR GASIFIER BOP COMPONENTS BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 143
North American Gasification Balance of Plant (BOP) Market Forecast
by Gasification Stage 143
TABLE 78 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR BOP COMPONENTS BY
GASIFICATION STAGE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 144
MARKET FORECASTS FOR COAL TO ENERGY (CTE) GASIFIER BOP
COMPONENTS IN NORTH AMERICA 144
Forecasts for North American Coal to Energy (CTE) Whole-System
BOP Components 144
TABLE 79 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR CTE WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 144
TABLE 80 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR CTE WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 145
Forecasts for North American CTE Pre-Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 145
TABLE 81 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR CTE PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 145
TABLE 82 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR CTE PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE
BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 146
Forecasts for North American CTE Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 146
TABLE 83 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR CTE GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 147
TABLE 84 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR CTE GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 147
Forecasts for North American CTE Post-Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 147
TABLE 85 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR CTE POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 148
TABLE 86 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR CTE POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE
BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 148
Summary Forecast for North American CTE BOP Components by
Gasification Stage 149
TABLE 87 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR CTE BOP COMPONENTS BY
GASIFICATION STAGE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 149
MARKET FORECASTS FOR COAL TO LIQUID (CTL) GASIFIER BOP
COMPONENT MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA 150
Forecasts for North American CTL Gasification Whole-System BOP
Components 150
TABLE 88 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR CTL WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS,
THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 150
TABLE 89 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR CTL WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 151
Forecasts for North American CTL Pre-Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 151
TABLE 90 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR CTL PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 151
TABLE 91 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR CTL PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE
BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 152
Forecasts for North American CTL Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 152
TABLE 92 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR CTL GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 153
TABLE 93 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR CTL GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 153
Forecasts for North American CTL Post-Gasification-Stage BOP
Components in North America 153
TABLE 94 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR CTL POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 154
TABLE 95 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR CTL POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE
BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 155
Summary Forecast for North American CTL BOP Components by
Gasification Stage 155
TABLE 96 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR CTL BOP COMPONENTS BY
GASIFICATION STAGE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 156
MARKET FORECASTS FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS GASIFIER BOP
COMPONENT MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA 156
Forecasts for North American Petcoke/Residual Whole-System BOP
Components 156
TABLE 97 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS WHOLE-SYSTEM
BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 157
TABLE 98 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS
WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 157
Forecasts for Petcoke/Residuals Pre-Gasification-Stage BOP
Components in North America 157
TABLE 99 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS
PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW
UNITS)
158
TABLE 100 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS
PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 158
Forecasts for North American Petcoke/Residuals Gasification-Stage
BOP Components in North America 158
TABLE 101 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS
GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 159
TABLE 102 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS
GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 159
Forecasts for North American Petcoke/Residuals
Post-Gasification-Stage BOP Components 160
TABLE 103 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS
POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW
UNITS)
160
TABLE 104 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS
POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 161
Summary Forecast for North American Petcoke/Residuals BOP
Components by Gasification Stage 161
TABLE 105 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUALS BOP
COMPONENTS BY GASIFICATION STAGE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 162
MARKET FORECASTS FOR DIRECT REDUCTION OF IRON (DRI) GASIFIER
BOP COMPONENTS IN NORTH AMERICA 162
MARKET FORECASTS FOR BIOMASS TO ENERGY (BTE) GASIFIER BOP
COMPONENTS IN NORTH AMERICA 162
Proportioning Pressurized Versus Unpressurized for Forecasting the
North American BTE Gasification BOP Components Market 162
Forecasts for North American BTE Whole-System BOP Components 163
TABLE 106 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR BTE WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 164
TABLE 107 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR BTE WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 164
Forecasts for North American BTE Pre-Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 164
TABLE 108 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR BTE PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 165
TABLE 109 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR BTE PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE
BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 166
Forecasts for North American BTE Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 166
TABLE 110 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR BTE GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 167
TABLE 111 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR BTE GASIFICATION-STAGE
BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 167
Forecasts for North American BTE Post-Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 168
TABLE 112 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR BTE POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 168
TABLE 113 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR BTE POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE
BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 169
Summary Forecast for North American BTE BOP Components by
Gasification Stage 169
TABLE 114 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR BTE BOP COMPONENTS BY
GASIFICATION STAGE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 170
MARKET FORECASTS FOR BIOMASS TO LIQUID (BTL) GASIFIER BOP
COMPONENTS IN NORTH AMERICA 170
Forecasts for North American BTL Whole-System BOP Components 171
TABLE 115 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR BTL WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 172
TABLE 116 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR BTL WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 172
Forecasts for North American BTL Pre-Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 173
TABLE 117 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR BTL PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 173
TABLE 118 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR BTL PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE
BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 174
Forecasts for North American BTL Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 174
TABLE 119 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR BTL GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 174
TABLE 120 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR BTL GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 175
Forecasts for North American BTL Post-Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 175
TABLE 121 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR BTL POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 176
TABLE 122 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR BTL POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE
BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 176
Summary Forecast for North American BTL BOP Components by
Gasification Stage 177
TABLE 123 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR BTL BOP COMPONENTS BY
GASIFICATION STAGE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 177
MARKET FORECASTS FOR WASTE TO ENERGY (WTE) GASIFIER BOP
COMPONENT MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA 178
Forecasts for North American WTE Whole-System BOP Components 178
TABLE 124 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR WTE WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 179
TABLE 125 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR WTE WHOLE-SYSTEM BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 179
Forecasts for North American WTE Pre-Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 179
TABLE 126 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR WTE PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 180
TABLE 127 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR WTE) PRE-GASIFICATION-STAGE
BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 180
Forecasts for North American WTE Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 181
TABLE 128 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR WTE GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 181
TABLE 129 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR WTE GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 182
Forecasts for North American WTE Post-Gasification-Stage BOP
Components 182
TABLE 130 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR WTE POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP
COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 182
TABLE 131 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR WTE
POST-GASIFICATION-STAGE BOP COMPONENTS, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 183
Summary Forecast for North American WTE BOP Components by
Gasification Stage 184
TABLE 132 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET VALUE FOR WTE BOP COMPONENTS BY
GASIFICATION STAGE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 184
CHAPTER 12 ASEAN/PACIFIC RIM GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT COMPONENT
MARKETS 186
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS IMPACTING ASEAN/PACIFIC RIM GASIFIER
MARKETS 187
FINANCIAL FACTORS IMPACTING ASEAN/PACIFIC RIM GASIFIER BALANCE OF
PLANT (BOP) MARKETS 188
GEOGRAPHIC EXTENT OF GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) MARKET
OPPORTUNITIES IN ASEAN/PACIFIC RIM NATIONS 189
LEGAL AND REGULATORY ISSUES IMPACTING GASIFIER BALANCE OF PLANT
(BOP) MARKETS IN THE ASEAN/PACIFIC RIM REGION 190
LEGAL AND REGULATORY ISSUES IMPACTING PACIFIC RIM GASIFIER
BALANCE OF PLANT (BOP) MARKETS 190
Legal and Regulatory Issues Impacting China Gasifier BOP Markets 190
Biofuel-Related Regulations in China 191
National Plan on Renewable Energy Development 191
National Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Policies and Regulations
in China 192
Financial Incentives for Gasifiers in China 193
Opportunities in Chinese Gasifier Market Segments 193
Coal to Energy (CTE) Gasifier Opportunities in China 193
Coal to Liquid (CTL) Gasifier Opportunities in China 194
Petcoke/Residuals Gasifier Opportunities in China 194
Direct Reduction of Iron (DRI) Gasifier Opportunities in China 195
Biomass to Energy (BTE) Gasifier Opportunities in China 196
Biomass to Liquid (BTL) Gasifier Opportunities in China 196
Waste to Energy (WTE) Gasifier Opportunities in China 197
Legal and Regulatory Issues Impacting Japan Gasifier BOP Markets 198
Biomass to Energy (BTE)-Specific Regulation 199

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