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The goal of this report is to update LMR-related reports published by Practel in 2010-2011. The report is written for a wide audience of technical, managerial and sales staff of companies involved in the design, manufacturing and utilization of Land Mobile Radio; with the emphasis on Public Safety Communications (PSC) applications.

Particular, this report includes:

1. The updated analysis of the phased development of P25 radio. The current status of the technology, markets and standards and survey of vendors are presented. Though the standardization process started almost twenty years ago, commercialization is still slow; and the market development is unsatisfactory. This situation is addressed by all parties involved in the PSC development in the U.S.

2. The updated analysis of the phased development of TETRA radio. This technology found more geographically spread market segments than P25 (and we are at the beginning of TETRA penetration into the U.S. territory). Its Release II offers a combination of voice and data transmission that brings sufficient benefits to the users; but the growth of markets still does not satisfy the TETRA community.

3. The updated analysis of narrow-banding LMR radios, including NXDN and MOTOTRBO. The NXDN radio development is a result of joint efforts of two companies, Icom and Kenwood and it is based on the FDMA technology. The companies developed two lines of products, IDAS (Icom) and NEXEDGE (Kenwood); these radios were implemented with many advanced technological features, including 6.25 kHz channels. At the same time, Motorola introduced its MOTOTRBO line of digital LMRs, which also utilized newer technologies and is based on the TDMA technology.

4. The analysis of the 4.9 GHz radio technology for broadband PSC. The FCC allocated the 4940-4990 MHz spectrum for broadband PSC. The technology can utilize the existing Wi-Fi ICs, and it supports long-reach communications with speeds 50 Mb/s and up. It utilizes a) OFDM, b) Multi-radio platforms, and c) Self-healing and self-organized mesh topology. One of the major 4.9 GHz radio applications for PSC is temporary fast-deployable networks.

5. The update on the role of LTE technologies in the development of Public Safety Communications. 4G LTE is increasingly recognized as the right wireless technology to evolve and standardize public safety communications. In January 2011, the Federal Communications Commission in the United States selected LTE as the data standard for a nationwide public safety network. LTE's ability to enable nationwide interoperability was a key factor in the FCC decision. The First Responder Network Authority board voted unanimously (2013) to start a process that could enable seven public-safety jurisdictions to resume LTE network deployments they were forced to halt in the spring of 2012.

6. Altogether, the following major trends in the development of PSC were identified:

a) Advancing P25 and TETRA technologies, including various interoperability methods;
b) Further developing of SDR - based platforms and broadband PSC;
c) Gradual introduction of the LTE technology;
d) In the analyzed time period, standardized narrowband LMR technologies (P25, TETRA, NXDN and other) will support the growing markets;
e) 4G technologies (such as LTE) are introducing PSC features gradually; and expect to present serious competition (to P25 and TETRA) in the 2018-2020 time frame. It is very possible that at that time the transition of these "traditional" networks to the 4G infrastructure will be in progress.
Practel will continue the analysis of LMR technologies and markets trends: dynamics of developments require a periodic update of reports.

Table Of Contents

Land Mobile Radio and Public Safety Communications - Standards, Applications, Markets and Technologies
1.0 Introduction

1.1 Current Situation
1.2 Requirements to Public Safety Radio
1.3 Scope and Goals
1.4 Research Methodology
1.5 Target Audience
2.0 PSC Spectrum

2.1 U.S.
2.1.1 FCC
2.1.2 800 MHz Band
2.1.3 700 MHz Band
2.2 EU
3.0 Project P25

3.1 Standardization Process and Technologies
3.1.1 General: P25 Standard
3.1.2 Process
3.1.3 Beginning
3.1.4 Project 25/TIA 102: Scope Efforts Phased Approach Phases Phase I Phase II
3.1.5 Status
3.1.6 CAP
4.0 P25 Development-Phase I

4.1 General Mission and Objectives
4.1.2 Compliance
4.1.3 Benefits and Issues
4.2 Technical Highlights- Interfaces
4.2.1 Common Air Interface
4.2.2 Fixed Station Interface
4.2.3 Console Sub-system Interface (CSSI)
4.2.4 RF Sub-system
4.2.5 Inter-system Interface (ISSI) ISSI Technology
4.2.6 Telephone Interconnect Interface
4.2.7 Network Management Interface
4.2.8 Host and Network Data Interfaces
4.2.9 Summary: Interfaces
4.3 Security
4.4 Coding
4.5 Frequency Bands
4.5.1 Spectrum: Problems
4.5.2 700 MHz Band
4.6 P25 Voice Messaging
4.7 Major Improvements
4.8 Services
4.9 Network Scenario
4.10 Summary
5.0 P25 Phase II

5.1 Transition
5.2 Scope
5.2.1 Air Interface - Phase II
5.2.2 Attributes
5.2.3 Data Services Standards
5.2.4 Enhancements
5.3 Time
6.0 P25 Radio Market Analysis

6.1 General
6.2 Geography
6.3 Market Drivers
6.4 Market Forecast
6.4.1 Developments
6.4.2 Model Assumptions
6.4.3 Addressable Market Estimate
7.0 P25 Industry

Cassidian Communications
Daniels (acquired by Coden in 2012)
Digital Voice System
EF Johnson (Acquired by FP-EF Holding in 2010)
Motorola Solutions
Northern Airborne
Objective Interface Systems
Pyramid Communications
Raytheon JPS
Technisonic Industries
Tait Electronics
Vertex Standard
Wireless Pacific

8.1 General
8.1.1 Major Milestones
8.2 TETRA: Scope-Release I
8.2.1 General
8.2.2 Spectrum Regulations
8.2.3 TETRA and GSM
8.2.4 Main Features General Technical Details Services
8.2.5 Benefits
8.2.6 Networking
8.2.7 Release I Details General Interfaces Infrastructure Spectrum Allocation Mobiles
8.3 P25 and TETRA
8.3.1 General
8.3.2 Characteristics
8.3.3 Modifications
8.3.4 TETRA in North America FCC Position
8.4 Security
8.5 Summary
8.6 TETRA Release II
8.6.1 Drivers Rational
8.6.2 Applications
8.6.3 Trunked Mode Operation (TMO) Range Extension
8.6.4 Adaptive Multiple Rate (AMR) Voice Codec
8.6.5 Mixed Excitation Liner Predictive, Enhanced (MELPe) Voice Codec
8.6.6 Data Services Development TAPS TEDS
8.6.7 Comparison
8.6.8 Standardization Status
8.7 Market Analysis
8.7.1 General
8.7.2 Certification
8.7.3 Geography
8.7.4 Market Drivers-Industries-Applications
8.7.5 Market Forecast Model Assumptions Market Estimate
8.7.6 Vendors
3T Communications (acquired by Sepura in 2012)
DAMM Cellular
Motorola (Motorola Solutions)
Pegasus Network
Selex ES
Team Simoco

9.1 FCC Requirements
9.2 NXDN Forum
9.2.1 Specifications
9.2.2 Overview
9.3 Origin and Technologies
9.3.1 NEXEDGE and IDAS
9.3.2 Initiatives
9.4 Major Differences
9.5 Spectrum
9.6 NXDN and dPMR
9.7 Updates
9.8.1 The Company
9.8.2 NEXEDGE Major Features
9.8.3 Technology Air Interface Operation Modes Digital Conventional Mode Digital Trunked Mode Digital Trunked Wide Area IP Networks
9.8.4 Benefits
9.8.5 Licensing
9.8.6 Products
9.9 IDAS
9.9.1 Background
9.9.2 Technology General Major Features Major Benefits Products
9.9.3 Future Enhancements
9.10 Industry
CML Microcircuits
Digital Voice Systems, Inc
Twisted Pair
9.11 NXDN Market Perspective and Applications
9.11.1 Applications General RR Applications Plans
9.11.2 Market
9.12 MotoTRBO
9.12.1 General
9.12.2 Major Features Abilities Progress
9.12.3 Basis-TDMA Potentials
9.12.4 Sales
9.12.5 Products
9.12.6 MOTOTRBO Services
9.12.7 Availability
9.12.8 Applications
10.0 Public Safety - 4.9 GHz Radio for Broadband

10.1 General
10.2 Spectrum Allocation
10.3 4.9 GHz Public Safety Radio Applications
10.4 FCC Process
10.5 International
10.6 Eligibility
10.7 Conditions
10.8 Frequencies Allocations
10.8.1 Public Safety Bands
10.9 Users
10.10 Benefits of the 4.9 GHz Band
10.11 4.9 GHz Radio Standards and Related Technologies
10.11.1 Details
10.11.2 Mesh Networks Specifics IEEE 802.11s Approval
10.11.3 OFDM
10.11.4 Multi-radio Platforms
10.11.5 WiMax
10.12 4.9 GHz Radio Market
10.12.1 General
10.12.2 Forecast
10.13 4.9 GHz Radio Industry
Belair (acquired by Ericsson in 2012)
Carlson Wireless
Fluidmesh Networks
Hautespot Networks
Motorola Solutions
Proxim Wireless
SkyPilot - Trilliant
Trango Systems
Tropos (acquired by ABB in 2012)
11.0 PSC and LTE

11.1 FirstNet
11.2 Progress
11.2.1 U.S.
11.2.2 Europe
11.3 Major Benefits
11.4 Industry and Service Providers
Motorola Solutions
Verizon Wireless
11.5 Timeline
11.6 Standardization
12.0 Conclusions

Attachment I: P25 Service Availability Matrix
Attachment II: P25 Standards
Attachment III: Countries with P25-Compliant Radio
Attachment IV: FCC Ruling- 4.9 MHz Radio
Attachment V: TETRA Networks
Attachment VI: TETRA Standards

List of Charts

Figure 1: FCC PSC Spectrum Allocation
Figure 2: 800 MHz Reconfiguration Plan
Figure 3: 700 MHz Band
Figure 4: APCO Project 25 Interface Committee
Figure 5: Generic-P25 System Structure
Figure 6: P25 System - Major Interfaces
Figure 7: ISSI-P25 System-to-System
Figure 8: ISSI-Roaming
Figure 9: State and Local PSC Spectrum
Figure 10: Revised Frequency Plan
Figure 11: Revised Spectrum (Upper 700 MHz sub-band)
Figure 12: 700 MHz Auction
Figure 13: Example-Network Scenario
Figure 14: Phase II Modulation
Figure 15: Family
Figure 16: CAI Details
Figure 17: Capacity
Figure 18: Vocoders
Figure 19: TAM: PSC P25 Equipment Sales (U.S. and Canada, $B)
Figure 20: P25 Radio Major Applications
Figure 21: TETRA Association Structure
Figure 22: TETRA Release I
Figure 23: TETRA Interworking Illustration
Figure 24: TETRA Interoperability Interfaces
Figure 25: Network Scenarios
Figure 26: TETRA Release I Interfaces
Figure 27: TETRA: Spectrum Allocation
Figure 28: Phased Approach - TETRA and P25
Figure 29: TETRA RII Application Developments
Figure 30: Directions
Figure 31: TAPS
Figure 32: TEDS RF Channel Characteristics
Figure 33: Spectral Efficiency
Figure 34: Rates and Range
Figure 35: TETRA TEDS Characteristics
Figure 36: Illustration of TETRA Market Geography (2012)
Figure 37: TETRA Segmentation by Industries (2012)
Figure 38: TAM: TETRA Equipment Global Sales ($B)
Figure 39: TAM: TETRA BS and Associated Equipment Global Sales ($B)
Figure 40: TAM: TETRA BS and Associated Equipment Global Sales (Unit 000)
Figure 41: Vendors Segmentation
Figure 42: FCC Timeline
Figure 43: Adopted Frequency Band Plan (UHF)
Figure 44: Adopted Frequency Band Plan (VHF)
Figure 45: TAM: U.S. NXDN Equipment Sales ($B)
Figure 46: Mesh Network Diagram
Figure 47: TAM: U.S. Mobile and Hand-held 4.9 GHz Radio Sales ($B)
Figure 48: 4.9 GHz Network Infrastructure Dynamics
Figure 49: D-Band Illustration
Figure 50: Converged Network
Table 1: P25 Advantages and Issues
Table 2: CAI Characteristics
Table 3: PSR Bands
Table 4: P25 Services
Table 5: Phase II Documentation
Table 6: Structure of Purchasing
Table 7: TETRA Established
Table 8: TETRA Release I-Major Characteristics
Table 9: TETRA Needs122
Table 10: Applications (Release II)
Table 11: Evolution of TETRA Applications
Table 12: IDAS Products
Table 13: Emergency Services
Table 14: Requirements
Table 15: Power Limits
Table 16: Frequencies Allocations: 4.9 GHz Band

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