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  3. > Intelligent Radio and White Spaces: Technologies, Markets and Applications

Research Methodology

Considerable research was done using the Internet. Information from various Web sites was studied and analyzed. Evaluation of publicly available marketing and technical publications was conducted. Telephone conversations and interviews were held with industry analysts, technical experts and executives. In addition to these interviews and primary research, secondary sources were used to develop a more complete mosaic of the market landscape, including industry and trade publications, conferences and seminars.

The overriding objective throughout the work has been to provide valid and relevant information. This has led to a continual review and update of the information content.

Target Audience

This report is written for a wide population of researches, technical and sales staff involved in the developing of the CR technologies. It is recommended for both service providers and vendors that are working with related technologies.


This report addresses novel communications technologies based on cognitive radio (CR) used in combination with White Spaces communications. Various aspects and variations of such technologies and markets are analyzed. This report reflects advances that telecommunications industry has made recently in this area; it continues the Practel project initiated in 2010-2011.

White Spaces (WS) technologies and markets are the recent addition to the growing telecommunications segment, which contributes to efficient use of frequency spectrum. The WS communications attracts the attention of such companies as Microsoft and Google; for example, Microsoft commissioned research that suggests white-space applications may generate $3.9 billion to $7.3 billion in economic value each year.

The report concentrates on the development of White Spaces communications as one of the first technologies to utilize CR. It shows that the combination of spectrum awareness together with the selection of White Spaces frequencies windows creates a new modern multi-applications industry. The report analyzes specifics of White Spaces communications in such environments and reflects such communications benefits and issues. The White Spaces communications applications and market are just evolving; one of such applications - M2M - is detailed in the report.

The report provides a detailed up-to-date analysis of:

CR development, standardization, benefits and issues
CR industry and market
WS technologies development
WS standardization and regulatory
WS industry
Applications of CR and WS in M2M - Weightless Protocol.
The report is written for a wide audience of researches, engineers and managers that are involved in the development and utilization of cognitive radios for commercial markets.

Table Of Contents

Intelligent Radio and White Spaces: Technologies, Markets and Applications
1.0 Introduction

1.1 General
1.2 Scope
1.3 Research Methodology
1.4 Target Audience
2.0 Software Defined and Cognitive Radios

2.1 General
2.2 Purpose
2.3 General: Definition (WIF, FCC, ITU)
2.4 Versatility
2.5 Issues
2.6 Wireless Innovation Forum Position
2.7 Regulations and Organizations
2.7.1 FCC Equipment Type Process Clarifications Application Guide
2.7.2 Object Management Group - OMG
2.7.3 ETSI
2.8 Decisions
2.9 Features
2.10 Elemen
2.11 Applications
2.11.1 Commercial
2.11.2 SDR and Military SCA
2.12 SDR/CR: Applications Benefits
2.13 Impact
2.14 Market
2.14.1 Landscape
2.14.2 Trends
2.14.3 Cost
2.14.4 Different Perspective
2.14.5 Drivers-Summary
2.14.6 Market Forecast Model Assumptions Estimate
2.15 Industry
2.15.1 Vendors
Aeronix (SDR Components)
AirNet Communications (SDR Base Stations)
Alcatel-Lucent (Base Station)
Analog Devices (Chipsets)
Array Systems Computing (DSP)
Cambridge Consultants (Phy, Base Station)
Carlson Wireless (Platform)
Cisco (802.11a)
DataSoft (SDR Design, SW)
Digital Receiver Technology (Radio Modules)
Etherstack (Software)
Green Hills (Software)
Harris (SDR)
Huawei (Platform)
ISR Technologies (Platforms)
Infineon-Intel (Platform)
Lyrtech - Nutaq (DSP and FPGA development solutions)
Mercury Systems (Toolsets)
Nokia Siemens Networks (Base Station)
Objective Interface Systems (Software)
PrismTech (SDR Development Environment)
Rockwell Collins (Radios)
Spectrum Signal Processing (Platforms)
Tecore Networks (Infrastructure)
Thales (Radio)
TI (Chips)
Wind River (Software)
Xilinx (Chips, SDR Development Kit)
xG Technology (Radio)
ZTE (Platforms)
3.0 White Spaces Communications Development

3.1 Definition
3.2 Factors
3.3 FCC Activity
3.3.1 Start
3.3.2 Devices
3.3.3 Clarifications Sensing Power
3.3.4 Specifics Protection Frequencies TVWS Database (U.S., Japan)
3.4 Europe: Ofcom and Other
3.5 Ecosystem and Use Cases
3.6 Industry Activity
3.6.1 Microsoft
3.6.2 Utility
3.6.3 Airspan Trials
3.6.4 Neul Trials
4.0 White Spaces and Related Standards

4.1 WS Alliance
4.1.1 WIF WS Activity
4.2 IEEE Standards
4.2.1 IEEE 802.16h-2010 Uncoordinated coexistence mechanism Coordinated coexistence mechanism
4.2.2 IEEE 802.11af General: Expectations - Wi-Fi on Steroids Differences Benefits Specifics Prototyping Summary
4.2.3 IEEE 1900.4 (DySpan) IEEE 1900.4a - 2011 IEEE P1900.4.1
4.2.4 IEEE 802.22 - 2011 General Progress: WG 802.22 and FCC Overview Physical Layer - Major Characteristics Frames Cognitive Functions and MAC IEEE 802.22.1 IEEE 802.22.21 IEEE 802.22a and 802.22b 802.22 and Smart Grid Application Summary
4.2.5 IEEE 802.19 IEEE 802.19.1
4.2.6 IEEE 802.15.4m
4.3 CogNeA and ECMA Activity
4.3.1 CogNeA Development
4.3.2 ECMA-392-2011
4.4 IETF
4.5 Market
4.6 Industry
Carlson Wireless
KTS Wireless
Metric Systems
Spectrum Bridge
5.0 M2M Communications and WS

5.1 General
5.1.1 Industry
Kore Telematics
5.2 Standardizat
5.2.1 IEEE
5.2.2 ETSI
5.2.3 ITU
5.3 Role of TVWS
5.3.1 Current: M2M Specifics Challenges
5.3.2 Solution
5.3.3 Cambridge TVWS Consortium - Cambridge Trial
5.3.4 Weightless Requirements Neul Weightless Chip Highlights Network Structure Performance Summary Applications Market Considerations
6.0 Conclusions

List of Charts

Figure 1: SDR and OSI Reference Model
Figure 2: TAM: Global SDR Sales ($B)
Figure 3: SDR Market Segments (Military vs. Commercial)
Figure 4: SDR Market Geography (2013)
Figure 5: TVWS Channels
Figure 6: UK - Spectrum
Figure 7: Architecture
Figure 8: TVWS Market
Figure 9: ETSI Activity
Figure 10: Weightless Networking: Simplified
Table 1: Tiers
Table 2: Features
Table 3: ETSI Documents
Table 4: SDR Market Drivers
Table 5: TV Channels
Table 6: IEEE Standards
Table 7: Use Cases
Table 8: Major Characteristics: IEEE 802.22

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