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  4. > Small Cells and Backhaul Solutions: Markets and Technologies Trends

One of the major trends in current mobile networks developments is evolution towards small cells (SC) technologies. It is expected that in a couple of years small cell structures will prevail; and successfully compete with other types of applicable technologies. Often, an open issue for small cells is backhaul, which may be a major part of the total network Capex. It is no wander that the industry pays a lot of attention to develop cost-efficient backhaul solutions.

The report analyses specifics of the SC developments with an emphasis on their backhaul. The industry, technologies and market characteristics are addressed.

Two specific technologies: 60 GHz radio and White Spaces communications are analyzed in details as promising cost efficient SC backhaul solutions. They both may allow inexpensive spectrum (which in the case of White Spaces utilization may have a negligible effect on the total backhaul cost).

Table Of Contents

Small Cells and Backhaul Solutions: Markets and Technologies Trends
1.0. Introduction

1.1. General
1.2. Trend - Small Cells Developments
1.3. Scope
1.4. Report Structure
1.5. Research Methodology
1.6. Target Audience
2.0. 4G Era

2.1. Transition
2.2. Typical Features
2.3. Growth
2.3.1. Architectures
3.0. Small Cells

3.1. SC Proliferation
3.2. Nomenclature
3.2.1. Group
3.3. Specifics
3.4. Applications
3.4.1. Indoor Use Cases
3.4.2. Outdoor Use Cases
3.5. Benefits and Issues
3.6. Small Cell Market
3.6.1. Market Geography
3.6.2. Price Trend
3.6.3. Estimate
4.0. Small Cell Backhaul

4.1. Specifics
4.1.1. Change
4.1.2. Features
4.1.3. Summary
4.2. Requirements
4.2.1. Challenges
4.3. Types
4.4. IEEE Contributions
4.5. Market Characteristics
5.0. Small Cell Industry

AirHop Communications
Nokia Siemens Networks
Ruckus Wireless
Ubiquisys (acquired by Cisco in 2013)
6.0. Small Cell Backhaul Industry

Airspan (integrated Wireless Backhaul - NLOS)
Alcatel-Lucent (60 GHz and other)
Aviat (E-band)
Blinq (sub - 6 GHz)
Cambridge Broadband (Mobile Wireless Backhaul)
Ceragon (Several Solutions)
DragonWave (Several Solutions)
LightPointe (60 GHz and Other)
NEC (60 GHz)
Radwin (sub-6 GHz)
Siklu (60 GHz)
Sub10 Systems (60 GHz; E-band)
Taqua (Microwave NLOS)
7.0. Conclusions

Attachment I: 60 GHz Radio - SC Backhaul
I.0. 60 GHz Radio
I.1. General
I.2. Spectrum Specifics
I.2.1. Oxygen Absorption
I.3. Antenna Focus
I.4. Radiation Limiting at 60 GHz
I.5. Combined Effect
I.6. Progress in the Chip Technology for mmWave
I.6.1. Modulation
I.6.2. Antenna
I.6.2.1. Indoor Behavior
I.6.2.2. Outdoor Behavior
I.7. Wi-Fi and 60 GHz Radio
I.8. Summary
I.9. 60 GHz Radio - Developments and Market
I.9.1. Details - Synopsis
I.9.2. Place
I.9.3. Addressable Market
I.9.3.1. General
I.9.3.2. Drivers
I.9.3.3. Forecast
I.9.4. 60 GHz Radio - Backhaul Choice
I.9.5. Industry
Huber + Suhner
HXI (Subsidiary of Renaissance Electronics Corporation)
Sub10 Systems
Attachment II White Spaces Communications
II.0. White Spaces Communications Development
II.1. Definition
II.2. Factors
II.3. FCC Activity
II.3.1. Start
II.3.2. Devices
II.3.3. Clarifications
II.3.3.1. Sensing
II.3.3.2. Power
II.3.4. Specifics
II.3.4.1. Protection
II.3.4.2. Frequencies
II.3.4.3. TVWS Database (U.S., Japan)
II.4. Europe: Ofcom and Other
II.5. Ecosystem and Use Cases
II.6. Industry Activity
II.6.1. Microsoft
II.6.2. Utility
II.6.3. Airspan Trials
II.6.4. Neul Trials
II.7. White Spaces and Related Standards
II.7.1. WS Alliance
II.7.2. WIF WS Activity
II.7.3. IEEE Standards
II.7.3.1. IEEE 802.16h-2010
II. Uncoordinated coexistence mechanism
II. Coordinated coexistence mechanism
II.7.3.2. IEEE 802.11af
II. General: Expectations - Wi-Fi on Steroids
II. Differences
II. Benefits
II. Specifics
II. Prototyping
II. Summary
II.7.3.3. IEEE 1900.4 (DySpan)
II.7.3.4. IEEE 1900.4a - 2011
II.7.3.5. IEEE P1900.4.1
II.7.3.6. IEEE 802.22 - 2011
II. General
II. Progress: WG 802.22 and FCC
II. Overview
II. Physical Layer - Major Characteristics
II. Frames
II. Cognitive Functions and MAC
II.7.3.7. IEEE 802.22.1
II.7.3.8. IEEE 802.22.2
II.7.3.9. IEEE 802.22a and 802.22b
II.7.3.10. 802.22 and Smart Grid Application
II.7.3.11. Summary
II.7.3.12. IEEE 802.19
II.7.3.13. IEEE 802.19.1
II.7.3.14. IEEE 802.15.4m
II.7.4. CogNeA and ECMA Activity
II.7.4.1. CogNeA
II. Development
II.7.4.2. ECMA-392-2011
II.7.5. IETF
II.8. Market
II.9. Industry
Carlson Wireless
KTS Wireless
Metric Systems
Spectrum Bridge

List of Figures:

Figure 1: Projection: Mobile Data Traffic Growth - Globally (Petabytes/Month)
Figure 2: Macro vs Small BS - Shipped (Ratio)
Figure 3: Base Stations Characteristics
Figure 4: Small Base Stations Pricing
Figure 5: TAM: Small Cell Base Stations Shipped Global (Mil. Units)
Figure 6: TAM: Small Cell Base Stations Shipped Global ($B)
Figure 7: TAM: SC Backhaul Equipment Shipped ($B)
Figure 8: TAM: SC Backhaul Equipment Shipped (Mil. Units)
Figure 9: 60 GHz Connections
Figure 10: Attenuation in 60 GHz Band
Figure 11: Absorption Details
Figure 12: Bands Features Comparison
Figure 13: TAM: Global Sales of 60 GHz Radio - Fixed Point-to-Point ($B)
Figure 14: TVWS Channels
Figure 15: UK - Spectrum
Figure 16: Architecture
Figure 17: TVWS Market

List of Tables:

Table 1: BS Classification
Table 2: Summary: Backhaul
Table 3: Comparison
Table 4: Directivity
Table 5: 60 GHz Links Characteristics
Table 6: 60 GHz Link Characteristics
Table 7: TV Channels
Table 8: IEEE Standards
Table 9: Use Cases
Table 10: Major Characteristics: IEEE 802.22

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