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  4. > Progress in Optical Wireless Communications - VLC and FSOTechnologies, Applications and Markets

This Practel report continues the company's project on free space optical communications research. It updates Practel reports on this subject published in 2010-2012.

Particular, the report concentrates on:

VLC - Visible Light Communication
FSF - Free Space Fiber.
In connection with the VLC developments, the report is addressing Light Emitting Diode (LED) technologies and markets. LED, in the near future, will be a dominate source of illumination; and used also as a transmitting device. The VLC LED-based channels promise to deliver high-speed data in office, home and other environments with high signal-to-noise ratio, and minimum infrastructure expenses.

The report is analyzing the emerging VLC industry, economics, technologies, standardization and applications. It shows that the spectrum of VLC applications is increasing with each year to support such developments as Intelligent Transportation Systems, Localization and other.

FSF devices are solving access issues in metro and LAN environments; they are also used in other applications. They are relatively inexpensive, support Gb/s rates of transmission, offering low maintenance cost and guarantee a short installation time and security of communications. The report presents the FSF technologies and market analysis as well as discusses their applications together with the survey of vendors and their portfolios.

Table Of Contents

Progress in Optical Wireless Communications - VLC and FSOTechnologies, Applications and Markets
1.0. Introduction

1.1. General
1.2. Winner - Illumination
1.3. LED as Communications Transmitter
1.4. Free Space Fiber
1.4.1. Li-Fi
1.5. Scope
1.6. Research Methodology
1.7. Target Audience
2.0. LED Specifics

2.1. General
2.2. Spectrum
2.3. Types
2.4. LED Modulation
2.4.1. Limitations
2.5. LED Evolution
2.5.1. General
2.5.2. Development and Market
3.0. Visible Light Communications

3.1. General
3.1.1. Drivers
3.1.2. Industry Activity
3.1.2.1. UC-Light Center
3.1.3. Free Space Fiber and VLC - Summary
3.2. VLC Standards Development
3.2.1. The IEEE 802.15.7
3.2.1.1. Considerations
3.2.1.2. Project
3.2.1.2.1. Coexistence
3.2.1.2.2. Essence
3.2.1.2.3. Base
3.2.1.2.4. Use Cases
3.2.1.2.5. Physical Layer
3.2.1.2.5.1. General
3.2.1.2.5.2. Responsibilities
3.2.1.2.5.3. Types
3.2.1.2.5.4. Error Protection
3.2.1.2.5.5. Rates
3.2.1.2.5.6. Frequency Plan
3.2.1.2.5.7. PHY Services
3.2.1.2.5.8. Regulations
3.2.1.2.6. MAC Layer
3.2.1.2.6.1. Responsibilities
3.2.1.2.6.2. Functionalities
3.2.1.2.6.3. Channel Access
3.2.1.2.7. Security
3.2.2. Jeita (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association)
3.2.2.1. JEITA CP-1221
3.2.2.2. JEITA CP-1222
3.2.2.3. JEITA CP-1223 (2013)
3.2.3. Visible Light Communications Consortium (VLCC)
3.2.3.1. General
3.2.3.2. Experimental Systems- VLCC Projects
3.3. Details
3.3.1. Communications Channel
3.3.2. Transmitter
3.3.3. Receiver
3.3.3.1. Image Sensors
3.3.4. Major Characteristics
3.3.4.1. General
3.3.4.2. Modulation
3.3.4.3. VLC Channel: Characteristics Summary
3.3.4.4. Emerging Areas
3.3.4.5. Limiting Factors
3.3.4.6. Applications: Summary
3.4. Companies and Organizations
ECMA
ByteLight
Casio
LVX
Nakagawa Laboratories
NEC
Omega Project
Outstanding Technology
PureVLC-PureLi-Fi
Renesas
Siemens
Supreme Architecture
TCL
Tamura
Visilink
3.5. Major Applications
3.5.1. ITS
3.5.2. Optical Wireless LAN
3.5.3. Medical
3.5.4. Localization
3.5.5. City Wide Wireless Network
3.6. Market
4.0. Free Space Fiber

4.1. General
4.2. Major Characteristics
4.3. Protection
4.4. Applications
4.4.1. Requirements
4.4.2. Inter-satellite Links
4.4.3. Intra-building Communications
4.4.4. Inter-building Communications
4.5. FSF Communications Benefits and Limitations: Summary
4.5.1. Weather Factor
4.5.2. Building Swaying
4.6. Design Issues
4.7. Customers
4.8. FSF Market
4.8.1. General
4.8.2. Market Drivers
4.8.3. Competition
4.8.3.1. Fiber Optics Systems
4.8.3.2. Microwave
4.8.3.3. PONs
4.8.4. Forecast
4.8.4.1. General
4.8.4.2. Model Assumptions
4.8.4.3. Structure
4.8.4.4. Market Estimate
4.9. Vendors
AOptix
CableFree
Canon USA
CBL
Dailianxu Engineering Company
Dominion Laserbeam-SkyFiber
fSONA
GeoDesy
Guilin
LightPointe
LSA
Optel
PAV
Plaintree
RedLine
Space Photonics
4.10. Standards
4.10.1. G.640 - Co-location longitudinally compatible interfaces for free space optical systems
4.10.2. RECOMMENDATION ITU-R P.1814-2007: Prediction methods required for the design of terrestrial free-space optical links
4.10.3. ARIB STD-T50 (OPTICAL WIRELESS LAN SYSTEM) v4-2009
5.0. Conclusions

List of Figures:

Figure 1: OWS Connections
Figure 2: LED Price Factor
Figure 3: LED Illustration
Figure 4: LED Spectrum
Figure 5: U.S. LED Bulbs for Illumination: Market Size ($B)
Figure 6: U.S. LED Bulbs for Illumination: Market Size (Bil. Units)
Figure 7: Cost and Brightness- Light Sources
Figure 8: Illustration-VLC Channel
Figure 9: Simplified FSF Device Diagram
Figure 10: FSF Market Segments
Figure 11: TAM: U.S. FSF Equipment Sales ($M)
Figure 12: TAM: U.S. FSF Equipment Sales (Unit 000)
Figure 13: FSF Market Geography

List of Tables:

Table 1: Light Sources Characteristics
Table 2: VLC and FSF
Table 3: Wavelengths (nm)
Table 4: Laser vs. LED
Table 5: Use Cases
Table 6: Devices
Table 7: Channels
Table 8: VLC Properties
Table 9: VLC, IR and RF Communications Applications Comparison
Table 10: Locations Technologies-VLC Place

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