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Target Audience

This report is written for a wide population of researches, technical and sales staff involved in the developing of the Cognitive Radio technologies, particular in the White Spaces environment to enhance M2M communications. It is recommended for both service providers and vendors that are working with related technologies.


The value in machines having wireless communications has long been understood and a large market is predicted for many years. That this has not transpired yet has been because of the difficulty of meeting all the requirements within the constraints of the available radio spectrum.

These constraints changed significantly with the advent of White Space (WS) availability.

The report concentrates on the development of White Spaces communications as one of the first technologies that utilizes properties of reconfigurable radio. It shows that the combination of spectrum awareness together with the selection of White Spaces frequencies windows create a new modern multi-applications industry. The report analyzes specifics of White Spaces communications in such environments and reflects communications benefits and issues. The White Spaces communications market is just evolving and promises multiple applications; one of such applications - M2M communications - is detailed.

The report goal was to analyze M2M communications based on utilization of White Spaces. To reach this goal:

1. Reconfigurable radio analysis was performed to show roots of spectrum sensing in WS communications. Technologies, standards, markets, industry and applications of reconfigurable radio were addressed.
2. White Spaces communications origin, properties, regulations, standards and industry were analyzed.
3. Development of the evolving industry - M2M/IoT communications - was addressed. For this purposes, specifics of such communications, their standardization, market properties and industry have been presented.
4. WS-supported M2M communications were analyzed; the evolving industry activity, standardizations efforts and specifics have been presented. In particular, the Weightless standard development was addressed.
The report is written for a wide audience of researches, engineers and managers that are involved in the development and utilization of cognitive radios and M2M communications for commercial markets.

Table Of Contents

Reconfigurable Radio - White Spaces M2M Communications
1.0 Introduction

1.1 General
1.2 Scope
1.2.1 Major Goal
1.3 Research Methodology
1.4 Target Audience
2.0 Software Defined and Cognitive Radios

2.1 General
2.2 Purpose
2.3 Definitions (WIF, FCC, ITU)
2.3.1 Wireless Innovation Forum Position
2.4 SDR: Regulations
2.4.1 FCC Equipment Type Process Application Guide First Approval
2.4.2 ITU
2.4.3 Ofcom
2.5 Standardization Organizations Efforts
2.5.1 ITU-R
2.5.2 ETSI General Major Points
2.5.3 3GPP
2.5.4 IEEE
2.5.5 NASA
2.6 Considerations
2.7 Properties
2.7.1 Layers
2.7.2 Details
2.7.3 Versatility
2.7.4 Issues
2.8 SDR Implementations
2.9 Applications
2.9.1 Commercial
2.9.2 SDR/CR in Military SCA
2.9.3 Public Safety Communications (PSC)
2.10 SDR/CR: Benefits
2.11 Impact
2.11.1 Geographical Differences
2.12 Market
2.12.1 Landscape Factors
2.12.2 Trends
2.12.3 Cost
2.12.4 Different Perspective
2.12.5 Market Drivers-Summary
2.12.6 Market Forecast Model Assumptions Estimate
2.13 Industry
Aeronix (SDR Components)
AirNet Communications (SDR Base Stations)
AirSpan (BS)
Alcatel-Lucent (Base Stations)
Analog Devises (Chipsets)
Array Systems Computing (DSP)
Cambridge Consultants (PHY, Base Station)
Carlson Wireless (Platform)
Cisco (802.11a)
General Dynamics (Platform)
DataSoft (SDR Design, SW)
Digital Receiver Technology (Radio Modules)
Etherstack (Software)
Green Hills (Software)
Harris (SDR)
Huawei (Platform)
Intel (Platform)
Lockheed Martin
Lyrtech - Nutaq (DSP and FPGA development solutions)
Motorola Solutions (BS)
Nokia Siemens Networks (Base Station)
Objective Interface Systems (Software)
PrismTech (SDR Development Environment)
Rockwell Collins (Radios)
Spectrum Signal Processing (Platforms)
Tecore Networks (Infrastructure)
Thales (Radio)
TI (Chips)
Vanu (Base Stations)
Wind River (Software)
Xilinx (Chips, SDR Development Kit)
xG Technology (Radio)
ZTE (Platforms)
3.0 White Spaces Communications: Regulations

3.1 Definition
3.2 Rational
3.3 FCC Activity
3.3.1 Start
3.3.2 Devices
3.3.3 Clarifications Sensing Power
3.3.4 Specifics Protection Frequencies TVWS Database (U.S.)
3.3.5 Further Work
3.4 Japan
3.5 Europe: Ofcom and Other
3.6 Canada
3.7 Ecosystem and Use Cases
4.0 White Spaces Communications: Standardization and Industry

4.1 WS Alliance
4.1.1 Wi-FAR
4.1.2 WSAConnect
4.2 WIF - WS
4.3 WS-related IEEE Standards
4.3.1 IEEE 802.11af - 2013 General: Expectations - Wi-Fi on Steroids Differences Benefits Specifics Building Blocks PHY Prototyping Summary
4.3.2 IEEE SCC 41 - DySpan SC IEEE 1900.4 IEEE 1900.4a - 2011 IEEE 1900.4.1
4.3.3 IEEE 802.22 - 2011 General WG 802.22 and FCC Overview Physical Layer - Major Characteristics Frames Cognitive Functions and MAC IEEE 802.22.1 IEEE 802.22.2 IEEE 802.22a-2014 P802.22b Summary-IEEE802.22
4.3.4 IEEE 802.19 IEEE 802.19.1-2014
4.3.5 IEEE 802.15.4m-2014
4.4 CogNeA and ECMA Activity
4.4.1 CogNeA Development
4.4.2 ECMA-392-2011
4.6 ETSI
4.7 Industry
Carlson Wireless
KTS Wireless
Metric Systems
Redline Communications
Spectrum Bridge
4.8 Market
4.9 Trials and Projects
4.9.1 London Trial
4.9.2 Additional Information
4.9.3 Microsoft Wi-Fi-NC and Other
4.9.4 Utility
4.9.5 Airspan Trials
4.9.6 Neul Trials
5.0 M2M Communications and WS

5.1 Special Needs
5.1.1 Spectrum
5.1.2 Summary
5.2 Standardization
5.2.1 IEEE
5.2.2 ETSI
5.2.3 ITU
5.2.4 oneM2M
5.2.5 ISO/IES
5.3 Market
5.3.1 Data
5.3.2 Estimate
5.4 Industry-Innovations
Kore Telematics
M2M Spectrum Networks
5.5 Role of TVWS
5.5.1 Progress
5.5.2 Challenges
5.5.3 Solution
5.5.4 Cambridge TVWS Consortium - Cambridge Trial
5.5.5 Development of Weightless Technology Standard Details Specifics Neul Weightless Chip Technology Features Network Structure Plan Performance Summary Specific Details Range of Applications NextG-Com: Industry Market Considerations
6.0 Conclusions

List of Charts

Figure 1: Conceptual View
Figure 2: Reconfigurable BS
Figure 3: SDR: Reference Architecture
Figure 4: SDR and OSI Reference Model
Figure 5: PSC Specifics
Figure 6: TAM: Global SDR-based Equipment Sales ($B)
Figure 7: SDR Market Segments
Figure 8: SDR Market Geography (2014)
Figure 9: TVWS Channels
Figure 10: UK TVWS- Spectrum
Figure 11: Architecture: 802.19.1
Figure 12: TVWS Market
Figure 13: IoT Environment
Figure 14: ETSI Activity
Figure 15: Use Cases
Figure 16: M2M Applications
Figure 17: Projections: M2M Traffic Growth (PB/Month)
Figure 18: TAM: M2M Communications Revenue ($B)
Figure 19: Weightless Networking: Simplified
Table 1: SDR Tiers
Table 2: CR Features
Table 3: U.S. - PSC Users
Table 4: SDR Market Drivers
Table 5: TV Channels: WS Frequencies Allowed by FCC
Table 6: TV Channels and Fixed TVBDs
Table 7: Database Status (2014)
Table 8: IEEE WS-related Standards
Table 9: Use Cases
Table 10: Major Characteristics: IEEE 802.22
Table 11: Key M2M Elements
Table 12: Iceni Characteristics

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