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Brief

Practel, Inc. has published several research/marketing reports on the Smart Sensors (SS) and Wireless SS (WSS) developments and, in particular, on their networking (Wireless Sensors Networks – WSNs). This report aims to further analyze WSS networking trends; with emphasis on the TCP/IP role in the creation the “Internet of things - IoT” and M2M communications. It also emphasizes the importance of Visible Light Communications in the creation of ubiquitous networking.

The Internet offers the potential to connect billions of machines and objects, creating what are known as the ‘Internet of Things'(IoT). This integrates various technologies including, Machine-to-Machine service platforms and WSNs.

The sufficient part of this report is dedicated to the analysis of Visible Light Communications (VLC) and its role to support ubiquitous communications necessary for the IoT/M2M development. VLC is still in the starting position, but promises inexpensive, high-speed communications with a wide variety of applications to connect smart objects.

The report details standardization activity on IoT/M2M, analyzes their markets and the evolving industry.

Up-to-date analysis of VLC technologies, applications, markets and the industry shows the important role that is placed on this type communications in support of IoT/M2M.

This report is based on data and information sourced from proprietary databases, primary and secondary research and in-house analysis by Practel’s team.

The report is written for a wide audience of technical, marketing and sale specialists working in the area WSN, IoT/M2M and VLC developments.

Research Methodology

Considerable research was done using the Internet. Information from various Web sites was studied and analyzed; evaluation of publicly available marketing and technical publications was conducted. Telephone conversations and interviews were held with industry analysts, technical experts and executives. In addition to these interviews and primary research, secondary sources were used to develop a more complete mosaic of the market landscape, including industry and trade publications, conferences and seminars.

The overriding objective throughout the work has been to provide valid and relevant information. This has led to a continual review and update of the information content.

Target Audience

This report is important for organizations involved in the development related to IoT/M2M and VLC technologies. They need to understand the market dynamics and to be familiar with vendors’ portfolios to make a right choice in selection of equipment.

Table Of Contents

M2M/IoT and Visible Light Communications : Technologies, Markets and Applications
1.0 Introduction 8
1.1 General 8
1.2 Scope and Goals 9
1.2.1 Layered Approach 9
1.3 Research Methodology 10
1.4 Target Audience 10
2.0 Wireless Smart Sensors and WSN 11
2.1 IoT and M2M Communications - Introduction 11
2.2 Intelligence-Definition 11
2.3 Structure and Components 12
2.3.1 Transducer Interface Module (TIM) 13
2.3.2 Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) 13
2.4 Trends 14
2.5 WSN: Requirements 15
2.6 Networking 17
2.7 From WSN to USN 19
3.0 Market Specifics - WSS/WSN 20
3.1 Assumptions 20
3.2 Results 20
3.2.1 WSS Statistics 20
3.2.2 WSN Statistics 22
4.0 IP for Smart Objects 23
4.1 IETF and IP/WSN 23
4.1.1 Roots 23
4.1.2 Efforts 23
4.1.2.1 Major Issues and Solutions 23
4.1.3 Major Projects 24
4.1.3.1 Motivation: 24
4.1.4 6LoWPAN WG 25
4.1.4.1 Definition 25
4.1.4.2 Limitations 25
4.1.4.3 M2M and 6LoWPAN 26
4.1.4.4 Applications Specifics 27
4.1.4.5 Details 27
4.1.4.6 Adaptation 28
4.1.4.7 Upper Layers 29
4.1.4.8 Connectivity 29
4.1.4.9 Industry Support 31
4.1.4.10 NanoStack 32
4.1.5 ROLL WG 33
4.2 IPSO Alliance 34
4.3 Illustration: ISA 100.11a - WSN-IP at Work 34
4.3.1 ISA100 34
4.3.2 Approvals 35
4.3.3 Scope 35
4.3.4 Infrastructure 36
4.3.5 Market Estimate 37
4.4 Vendors 38
Cisco 38
Honeywell 39
Linear Technology 41
Nivis 41
NXP 42
Panasonic 43
Sensinode (acquired by ARM in 2013) 44
TI 44
Yokogawa 45
5.0 M2M Communications 47
5.1 Special Needs 47
5.1.1 Spectrum 48
5.1.2 Summary 49
5.2 Standardization - Industry Activities 50
5.2.1 IEEE 51
5.2.2 ETSI 51
5.2.3 ITU 53
5.2.4 oneM2M Alliance 54
5.2.4.1 Service Layer Architecture 55
5.2.4.2 Benefits 56
5.2.5 Telefonica multi-Operators Alliance 57
5.2.6 M2M Alliance 58
5.2.7 Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) 58
5.2.8 GSC MSTF 59
5.2.9 Wave2M 59
5.2.9.1 Aim 59
5.2.9.2 Platform 59
5.2.10 Summary 61
5.3 Market 61
5.3.1 Data 61
5.3.2 Estimate 62
5.4 Industry-Innovations 65
Arqiva/Sensus 65
Kore Telematics 66
Link Labs 67
M2M Spectrum Networks 68
On-Ramp 68
SigFox/Telit 69
Telensa/Plextek 71
6.0 IoT 72
6.1 M2M and IoT 72
6.2 Open Interconnect Consortium 72
6.3 Industrial Internet Consortium 73
6.4 IoT - Market 74
6.5 IoT Platforms 75
6.6 IoT and ITU 75
6.7 IoT Forum 76
6.8 IEEE and IoT - P2413 77
6.9 ISO/IEC 77
6.10 Layered Structure 77
7.0 IoT and Visible Light Communications (VLC) 79
7.1 VLC - Bridge to IoT 79
7.2 LED Specifics 79
7.2.1 General 80
7.2.2 Spectrum 81
7.3 Types 81
7.4 LED Modulation 85
7.4.1 Limitations 85
7.5 LED Evolution 86
7.5.1 General - Dual Functionality 86
7.5.2 Developments - History 86
7.5.3 Technical/Economic Characteristics 87
7.6 Visible Light Communications 91
7.6.1 General 91
7.6.2 Drivers 92
7.6.3 Industry Activity 92
7.6.3.1 Example: UC-Light Center 93
7.6.4 VLC Standards Development 93
7.6.5 The IEEE 802.15.7 Standard 93
7.6.5.1 Considerations 94
7.6.5.2 Project 95
7.6.5.2.1 Coexistence 95
7.6.5.2.2 Scope 95
7.6.5.2.3 Base 96
7.6.5.2.4 Use Cases 96
7.6.5.2.5 Physical Layer 98
7.6.5.2.5.1 General 98
7.6.5.2.5.2 Responsibilities 98
7.6.5.2.5.3 Types 98
7.6.5.2.5.4 Error Protection 99
7.6.5.2.5.5 Rates 99
7.6.5.2.5.6 Frequency Plan 99
7.6.5.2.5.7 PHY Services 100
7.6.5.2.5.8. Regulations 100
7.6.5.2.6 MAC Layer 101
7.6.5.2.6.1 Responsibilities 101
7.6.5.2.6.2 Functionalities 101
7.6.5.2.6.3 Channel Access 102
7.6.5.2.7 Security 102
7.6.6 JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association) 102
7.6.6.1 JEITA CP-1221 102
7.6.6.2 JEITA CP-1222 103
7.6.6.3 JEITA CP-1223 (2013) 103
7.6.7 Visible Light Communications Consortium (VLCC) 104
7.6.7.1 General 104
7.6.7.2 Experimental Systems- VLCC Projects 106
7.6.8 ECMA 397-2010 107
7.6.9 Li-Fi Consortium 108
7.6.10 VLC Channel-Details 108
7.6.10.1 General 108
7.6.10.2 Communications Channel 109
7.6.10.3 Transmitter 110
7.6.10.4 Receiver 111
7.6.10.4.1 Image Sensors 111
7.6.10.4.2 LED as Receiver 111
7.6.11 Major Characteristics 112
7.6.11.1 General 112
7.6.11.2 Modulation 112
7.6.11.3 VLC Channel: Characteristics Summary 112
7.6.11.4 Emerging Areas 114
7.6.11.5 Limitations 114
7.6.12 Applications: Summary 114
7.6.13 Companies and Organizations 117
ByteLight 117
Casio 118
LVX 119
Luciom 120
Nakagawa Laboratories 120
NEC 121
Oledcomm 122
Omega Project 122
Outstanding Technology 123
PureLi-Fi 124
Renesas 125
Siemens 125
Supreme Architecture 126
TCL 127
Tamura 128
7.6.14 Major Applications 128
7.6.14.1 ITS 129
7.6.14.2 Optical Wireless LAN 130
7.6.14.3 Medical 130
7.6.14.4 Localization 131
7.6.14.5 City Wide Wireless Network 131
7.6.14.6 Summary 132
7.6.15 Market 133
8.0 Conclusions 134

List of Figures

Figure 1: Layered View 9
Figure 2: WSS Structure 13
Figure 3: TIM/NCAP and IEEE 1451 14
Figure 4: IoT Illustration 19
Figure 5: TAM - WSS Sales - Global ($B) 21
Figure 6: TAM: WSS Sales - Global (Mil. Units) 21
Figure 7: TAM: WSN Equipment Sales - Global ($B) 22
Figure 8: Standardization 26
Figure 9: 6LoWPAN Protocol Stack 28
Figure 10: Header Stacks 29
Figure 11: 6LoWPAN Network Scenario 30
Figure 12: ISA 100.11a Protocol Stack 36
Figure 13: TAM - ISA100.11a-based IA WSN ($M) 38
Figure 14: ETSI Activity 52
Figure 15: High-level Architecture 53
Figure 16: M2M Layers 56
Figure 17: Summary 61
Figure 18: M2M Applications 62
Figure 19: Projections: M2M Traffic Growth (PB/Month) 63
Figure 20: TAM: M2M Communications Revenue ($B) 64
Figure 21: TAM: Mobile Operators Revenue in M2M ($B) 64
Figure 22: TAM: M2M Communications - Satellite Segment ($B) 65
Figure 23: Projections: IoT Technologies and Applications Market ($T) 74
Figure 24: Projections - Number of Smart Devices in Households - Global (Bil. Units) 75
Figure 25: IoT - Layered Structure 78
Figure 26: LED Structure 80
Figure 27: Spectrum (450-750 nm - visible) 81
Figure 28: LED Properties Illustration 83
Figure 29: TAM: U.S. LED Sales ($B) 88
Figure 30: TAM: U.S. LED Sales (Bil. Units) 89
Figure 31: Cost and Brightness- Light Sources 90
Figure 32: WPAN/WLAN Family and VLC 91
Figure 33: Illustration-VLC Channel 110
Figure 34: Applications 115
Figure 35: TAM: VLC Technology ($B) 133

List of Tables

Table 1: WSN - Major Short Range RF Technologies Characteristics 18
Table 2: Applications Segments (2014) 22
Table 3: Key M2M Elements 51
Table 4: Use Cases 53
Table 5: Wavelengths (nm) 81
Table 6: Laser vs. LED 85
Table 7: Use Cases 97
Table 8: Devices and Characteristics 97
Table 9: Frequency Plan 100
Table 10: VLC Properties 113
Table 11: VLC, IR and RF Communications ITS Applications Comparison 116
Table 12: Locations Technologies-VLC Place 116

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