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The plastic optical fiber (POF) data business is going through a period of extraordinary growth driven by the automotive manufacturers in Europe and by new technology development. Industrial controls and medical applications continue to be the bedrock of the industry, and they, too, are experiencing healthy growth. Unlike the telecommunications field, the POF business covers many industries and is not as vulnerable to industry downturns.

New technological developments in sources, connectors, and fibers are expanding the bandwidth-distance limits of POF into new applications. After many years of playing second fiddle to the glass optical fiber business, POF is now starting to get the recognition it deserves. Some are even saying that POF could be a disruptive technology.

Over the past three years, there has been a dramatic increase in the GI-POF technology and its availability in the market. This has resulted in increased interest by component suppliers and end users. The market for short, high-speed optical links is experiencing extraordinary growth. These links are less than 100 meters, with speeds up to 40Gbps.

The market for POF could never be brighter with the trend to "all optical networks", need for higher bandwidth, EMI protection, lower cost, lighter weight, ease of use and other factors. POF's main competitor copper is fast running out of steam. New applications are starting to appear in data centers, commercial aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), Internet of Things (IoT), machine vision, sensors for structural health monitoring, and home networking for Ultra High Definition TVs (UHD TV/4K and 8K), to only name a few.

This study presents a comprehensive and historical review of the POF business and should form the basis of future internal market research.

Table Of Contents

Plastic Optical Fiber Market and Technology Assessment Study - 2016 Edition
Foreword

Table of Contents

E.0 Executive Summary

E.1.0 Introduction
E.2.0 Markets
E.2.1 Automobiles
E.2.2 Consumer Electronics
E.2.3 Industrial Controls
E.2.4 Interconnection
E.2.5 Home Networks
E.2.6 Medical
E.2.7 Homeland Security
E.3.0 POF as a Disruptive Technology
E.4.0 Market Forecasts
E.5.0 Technology
E.5.1 Fiber Loss Trends
E.5.2 Bandwidth Trends
E.5.3 Step Index (SI) and Graded Index (GI) PMMA
E.5.4 Perfluorinated Graded Index POF (PF GI-POF)
E.5.5 Other POF Technologies
E.6.0 POF Associations and Interest Groups Trends
E.7.0 What are the Major Impediments to Further Developments in the POF Industry?
E.8.0 New POF developments in 2012/2013
E.9.0 Opportunities
E.10.0 Market Demand
1.0 Introduction

2.0 Why POF?

2.1 Ease of connectorization
2.2 Durability
2.3 Large diameter
2.4 Lower Costs
2.5 Fiber Costs
2.6 Transmitters (Transceivers, Receivers)
2.7 Space Division Multiplexing is Possible
2.8 Receivers
2.9 Connectors
2.10 Test Equipment
2.11 Installation
2.12 Maintenance
2.13 Ease of Handling
2.14 Safety
2.15 Bandwidth
2.16 Developments of other types of fibers
2.17 Many markets are open to POF
2.18 Standards Situation is Improved
2.19 Growth Potential
2.20 Size Matters
2.21 PF GI-POF Takes Advantage of Low-cost Components Developed for GOF
3.0 Comparison Between Copper, GOF, and POF

3.1 An Installer's View
3.1.1 Installation Issues
3.1.2 Testing
3.1.2.1 Do-it-yourself POF Kits
3.1.2.2 Connectorless Connetions
4.0 POF Historical Development and Organization

4.1 Historical Perspective
4.2 POF Organizations Worldwide
4.2.1 POF Developments in Japan
4.2.2 POF in the US
4.2.3 POF in Europe
4.2.3.1 France
4.2.3.2 Germany
4.2.3.3 European Commission
4.2.4 POF in Korea
4.2.5 POF in Australia
4.2.6 POF in Brazil
4.2.7 POF in China
4.2.8 Others
5.0 Technical Characteristics of POF Fibers Systems

5.1 Basic Technical Components of Optical Fiber Systems
5.2 Types of Optical Fibers
5.2.1 Step Index Fibers
5.2.2 Multimode Graded Index Fiber (MMF)
5.2.3 Single-mode Fibers (SMF)
5.3 Plastic Optical Fibers
5.3.1 Materials used for POF
5.3.2 Attenuation
5.3.3 Perfluorinated POF
5.3.4.1 How Numerical Aperture of Fiber Affects Bandwidth
5.3.4.2 Methods to Increase Bandwidth
5.3.4.3 Increased Bandwidth Using Low-NA Source
5.3.5 Graded Index PMMA POF (GI-POF)
5.3.6 Perflourinated (PF) Graded Index POF (GI-POF)
5.3.7 Partially Chlorinated GI-POF
5.3.7.1 New GI PTCEMA
5.3.8 High-temperature Plastic Optical Fibers
5.3.8.1 Polystyrene
5.3.8.2 The Advantages of Polystyrene
5.3.9 Photonic Crystal Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers
5.3.9.1 Microstructured Polymer Fibers
5.3.10 Summary Performance of PMMA and PF-GI POF (SI and GI)
5.3.11 Environmental Effects on POF
5.3.12 Manufacturing Methods of POF
5.3.12.1 Extrusion
5.3.12.2 Preform Drawing
5.3.12.3 Manufacturing Graded Index PMMA POF
5.3.12.4 Manufacturing PF GI-POF
5.3.12.5 Continuous Extrusion Process
5.3.12.5 Continu ous Extrusion Process
6.Light Sources

6.1 LEDs
6.1.1 Low NA LED
6.1.2 Low NA LED Source Perspective for POF Data Link
6.1.3 Materials and Available LED Wavelengths
6.1.4 Gigabit Links Using LEDs
6.2 Resonant Cavity LEDs (RC-LEDs)
6.3 Laser Diodes
6.4 Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs)
6.4.1 Data Links Using Red VCSELS
6.4.2 Red VCSEL Transceivers for Gigabit Transmission over POF
6.5 Outlook for POF Green and Blue Sources
6.6 High Speed POF Receivers
7.0 Optical Connectors and Splicing

7.1 Connectorization
7.1.1 POF Connector Requirements
7.1.2 ATM Forum
7.2 POF Connect Types
7.2.1 PN Connector
7.2.2 Small Multimedia Interface (SMI)
7.2.3 IDB-1394 POF Interface and Latch Connector for Automotive Use
7.2.4 Packard Hughes Interconnect
7.2.5 Optical Mini Jack
7.2.6 Panduit Poly-Jack - RJ-45 Type
7.2.7 MOST Automotive Connector and Header System
7.3 Splicing
7.3.1 Brookhaven Industrial Laboratory
7.3.2 Mechanical Splices
7.3.3 Ultrasonic Splicing
7.4 OptoLock - Connectorless Connection
7.5 Ballpoint Connector
8.0 Couplers

8.1 Optical Busses and Cross-connects
8.2 Switches using Couplers
9.0 POF Cables

10.0 Integrated Optics

10.1 Planar Waveguides and Other Passive Devices
10.2 Holograms
11.0 Lenses

11.1 Polymeric Lenses
11.1.1 Ball Point Pen Collimator Lens
11.2 High-efficiency Optical Concentrators for POF
12.0 Fiber Bragg Gratings

13.0 Optical Amplifiers

13.1 Keio University
13.2 Model for Analyzing the Factors in the Performance of Dye-Doped POF Lasers
13.3 Plastic Optical Fiber with Embedded Organic Semiconductors for Signal Amplification
14.0 Test Equipment

14.1 OTDRs
15.0 POF Systems - Ethernet Example

16.0 POF Hardware for Ethernet

16.1 Commercial Silicon for Gigabit Communication over SI-POF
16.2 Ethernet POF Media Converter for ITU Standard G.hn
16.3 G.hn Chip Sets
16.4 Gigabit Ethernet Standard
16.5 Gigabit Ethernet OptoLock
17.0 Illustrative Examples of POF Data Communications Applications

17.1 Introduction
17.2 Range of Applications 17.3 Optocoupler Applications
17.4 Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Interconnects
17.5 Digital Audio Interface
17.6 Avionic Data Links
17.6.1 Practical Experience in Military and Civilian Avionic Systems
17.6.2 McDonald Douglas
17.6.3 Boeing
17.6.4 Requirements for POF in Commercial Aircraft -Boeing
17.7 Automotive Applications of POF
17.7.1 Automotive Harness Trends
17.7.2 Increase in Electronic Content
17.7.2.1 Different Data Busses in Automobiles
17.7.3 Automobile Standards
17.7.3.1 MOST Standard
17.7.3.2 1394 Automotive Working Group and IDB
17.8 Local Area Networks
17.8.1.1 POF vs. Glass Comparison
17.8.1.2 Operating Experience
17.8.2 Codenoll
17.8.3 Mitsubishi Rayon
17.8.4 NEC Corp. Ethernet
17.9 IEEE 1394 FireWire
17.9.1 Markets for 1394
17.9.2 Transmission Media
17.9.3 1394 as a Home Network
17.9.3.1 IEEE 1394 Proposed Costs
17.10 Tollbooth Applications
17.11 Factory Automation
17.12 Medical Applications
17.13 High Voltage Isolation
17.14 Home Networks
17.14.1 CEBus
17.14.2 Over the Top (OTT)
17.14.3 "Capillary of Light" Home Network
17.15 Test Equipment
17.16 POF Sensors
17.17 Security (Tempest)
17.18 EMI/RFI
17.19 Hydraulic Lifts
17.20 Trains
17.21 Controller Area Network (CAN)
17.22 Point-of-sale Terminals
17.23 Robotics
17.24 Programmable Controllers (PLC)
17.25 Video Surveillance
17.26 High-speed Video
17.27 Home Video
17.28 Digital Signage
18.0 POF Cost Comparisons

18.1 Avago Cost Trade-off White Paper
19.0 POF and Related Standards

19.1 What drives standards?
19.2 Trends in POF Standards
19.3 History of the Development of POF Standards
19.3.1 IEC
19.4 Present Standards that Include POF
19.4.1 Process Control
19.4.1.1 Profibus
19.4.1.2 SERCOS (Serial Realtime Communication System)
19.4.1.3 Interbus
19.4.2 Automotive Standards
19.4.2.1 MOST
19.4.2.2 IDB-1394
19.4.2.3 ByteFlight
19.4.2.4 CEA Aftermarket
19.4.3 Computer Standards
19.4.3.1 ATM
19.4.3.2 IEEE-1394
19.4.3.3 Storage Area Networks
19.4.3.4 Supercomputers/Servers
19.4.3.5 Datacenters
19.4.4 Home Standards
19.4.4.1 CEBUS
19.4.4.2 ATM Forum Residential Broadband
19.4.4.3 IEEE-1394 Home Networking
19.4.4.4 ITU G.h
19.4.5 Consumer Electronics and "Over the Top"
19.4.5.1 Active Optical Cables
19.4.5.2 Over-the-Top-Enabled Devices
20.0 Components and Testing

20.1 Introduction
20.2 IEC
20.3 VDI/VDE
20.4 Standards Summary
21.0 POF Components - Present Status

21.1 POF Fibers
21.1.1 Mitsubishi Rayon
21.1.2 Asahi Kasei
21.1.3 Toray Industries Inc.
21.1.4 Shenzhen Dasheng Optoelectronic Technology Co. Ltd.
21.1.5 Asahi Glass
21.1.6 Nanoptics
21.1.7 OFS-Fitel (now Chromis Fiber Optics)
21.1.8 Redfern Polymer (Cactus Fiber) (Kiriama)
21.1.9 Nexans
21.1.10 Fuji Film
21.1.11 Luvantix
21.1.12 Optimedia
21.1.13 Jiang Daisheng Co. Ltd.
21.1.14 Sekisui Chemical Company
22.0 POF Suppliers

22.1 POF Cables
22.2 Semiconductors (Transceivers) for POF
22.2.1 KDPOF
22.2.2 CoolSilicon/CoolPOF
22.3 Light Sources (Transceivers)
22.3.1 Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
22.3.2 Resonant Cavity LEDs (RC-LEDs)
22.3.3 Laser Diodes
22.3.4 VCSELs
22.4 Photodiodes
22.5 Connectors
22.5.1 Connectorless Technologies
22.6 Couplers
22.7 Test Equipment
22.8 Splicing
22.9 Media Converters
22.10 Data Links
22.11 POF Networks
22.12 IPTV Equipment Providers
22.13 Other POF Passive Components
22.14 Other Active Components
23.0 POF Component Price Trends

23.1 Impact of the MOST Standard
23.2 POF Fiber Pricing
23.2.1 Step Index Fibers
23.2.2 Graded Index POF
23.3 Cables
23.4 Cable Assemblies
23.5 POF Transmitters and Receivers
23.5.1 MOST Pricing
23.6 Conclusions for POF Data Components
23.7 Graded Index PMMA POF
23.8 Perfluorinated GI-POF
23.9 Partially Chlorinated Polymer
23.10 Price targets for POF Components
24.0 Market Drivers

24.1 Technology
24.2 Standards
24.3 Market Needs
24.4 Government Funding
24.5 Education of End Users
24.6 Marketing Push
24.7 Lack of Major Player
24.8 Resistance to Change and Imbedded Infrastructure
25.0 POF Markets and Forecasts

25.1 Automotive Market
25.1.1 How Big is the Market?
25.2 Consumer Electronics Market
25.2.1 Connected TV Device Ownership
25.3 POF Industrial Controls Market and IoT Market
25.4 Home Market and IPTV / Ultra HD TV (4Kand8K)
25.4.1 Market Forecast
25.4.2 UHD TV 4K/8K
25.5 Interconnect Market
25.6 Medical Market
25.7 Total POF Market Potential
26.0 POF Activities in Various Countries

26.1 US
26.2 Plastic Optical Fiber Organization in Japan
26.3 POF in Europe
26.3.1 French Plastic Optical Fibre Club (FOP)
26.3.2 POF in Germany
26.3.3 POF in the UK
26.4 POF in Brazil
26.5 POF in Korea
26.6 Spain
26.7 Australia
27.0 Opportunities in the Emerging POF Business

27.1 Cables and Fiber
27.2 Connectors
27.3 Sources
27.4 Couplers
27.5 Test Equipment
27.6 Splicing
27.7 Hardware
27.8 Data Links
27.9 Distribution
27.10 Design and Engineering
27.11 Converters
27.12 Systems Suppliers
28.0 Strategies for Success in the POF Market

References

Appendix 1: Avago White Paper on POF Sensors
Appendix 2: Avago White Paper on Fiber vs. Copper Links
Appendix 3: 15 Years Polymer Optical Fiber Application Center - A Summary
Appendix 4: List of POF Conferences, POF Symposia and POF WORLD
Appendix 5: Mitsubishi Pencil and KPRI's 4K/8K connector through multiple GI POF micro-collimators based on ball-point pen technology

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