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CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape - South Africa

Summary

GlobalData, the industry analysis specialist, has released its latest report, “CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape - South Africa”. The report is an essential source of information on and analysis of the healthcare, regulatory and reimbursement landscape in South Africa. It identifies the key trends in the country’s healthcare market and provides insights into its demographic, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape and healthcare infrastructure. Most importantly, the report provides valuable insights into the trends and segmentation of its pharmaceutical and medical device markets. It uses data and information sourced from proprietary databases, secondary research, and in-house analysis by GlobalData’s team of industry experts.

The population of South Africa was approximately 53 million in 2013, having grown at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 1.7% from 2008. In 2011, the government introduced the National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme, although it is still in the early stages of implementation and is not expected to be fully implemented until 2025. In 2013, the government spent $2.2 billion on R&D and exported approximately $198.1m of pharmaceuticals. The pharmaceutical market was worth approximately $2.5 billion in 2008, and is projected to reach approximately $5.6 billion by 2020 at a CAGR of 7.0%. The medical device market was valued at $1.6 billion in 2008 and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 4.1% to an estimated $2.6 billion in 2020. These positive growth trends can be primarily attributed to -
- An increasingly elderly population
- Government initiatives
- Domestic business competitiveness

Scope

The report provides information on the healthcare, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape in South Africa, and includes -
- An overview of the pharmaceutical and medical device markets, comprising market size, segmentation, and key drivers and barriers
- Profiles and SWOT analyses of the major players in the pharmaceutical market: Aspen Pharmacare, Adcock Ingram, Sanofi, Pfizer and Roche; and profiles and SWOT analyses of the major players in the medical device market: Siemens Healthcare, Essilor, B. Braun, Roche, Covidien
- Insightful review of the reimbursement and regulatory landscape, with analysis covering details of the country’s healthcare reimbursement process, regulatory agencies and the approval processes for new drugs and medical devices
- Detailed analysis of the political and economic environment, covering economic indicators, demographics, healthcare infrastructure and healthcare expenditure
- An overview of the opportunities for and challenges to growth in the healthcare market

Reasons to buy

This report will enhance your decision-making capability by allowing you to -
- Develop business strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving the South African healthcare market
- Drive revenues by understanding the key trends, reimbursement and regulatory policies, pharmaceutical market segments, and companies likely to affect the South African healthcare market in the future
- Formulate effective sales and marketing strategies by understanding the competitive landscape and analyzing the performance of various competitors
- Organize your sales and marketing efforts by identifying the market categories and segments that present the best opportunities for consolidation, investment, and strategic partnerships
- Identify, understand, and capitalize on the opportunities and challenges in the South African healthcare market

Table Of Contents

CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape - South Africa
1 Table of Contents
2 Introduction 19
2.1 GlobalData Report Guidance 19
3 Overview of the Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Markets 20
3.1 Pharmaceutical Market 20
3.1.1 Market Overview 20
3.1.2 Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports 22
3.1.3 Supply Channels 24
3.1.4 Market Segments 26
3.1.5 Overview of Top Five Therapeutic Areas 32
3.1.6 Major Players 33
3.2 Medical Device Market 75
3.2.1 Market Overview 75
3.2.2 Overview of Top Five Segments 77
3.2.3 Diagnostic Market 91
3.2.4 Major Players 93
3.3 Market Drivers and Barriers 122
3.3.1 Drivers 122
3.3.2 Barriers 123
4 Market Access 125
4.1 Reimbursement and Payer Landscape 125
4.1.1 Overview of Healthcare System 125
4.1.2 Reimbursement Process 128
4.1.3 Overview of Insurance Providers 131
4.1.4 Patient Share in Healthcare Spending 133
4.1.5 Pricing Policies 134
4.2 Regulatory Landscape 135
4.2.1 Overview of Regulatory Agencies 135
4.2.2 Market Authorization Procedure for Medicines 137
4.2.3 Market Authorization Procedure for Medical Devices 141
4.2.4 Licensing Process for Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Manufacturing 143
4.2.5 Licensing Process for Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports 144
4.2.6 Intellectual Property Rights 147
4.2.7 Clinical Trial Regulations 152
4.2.8 Pharmaceutical Advertising Regulations 155
4.2.9 Pharmacy Regulations 156
4.2.10 Labeling and Packaging Regulations 158
5 Country Analysis 163
5.1 Political Environment 163
5.1.1 Political Structure 163
5.1.2 Analysis of the Current Political Environment 164
5.1.3 Healthcare Policy Initiatives 167
5.2 Economic Landscape 167
5.3 Economic Indicators 171
5.3.1 Gross Domestic Product 171
5.3.2 Gross National Income 176
5.3.3 Inflation 177
5.3.4 Currency Exchange Rate 180
5.3.5 Foreign Direct Investment 181
5.3.6 Foreign Exchange Reserves 182
5.3.7 Trade Balance 183
5.3.8 General Government Structural Balance 186
5.3.9 General Government Net Debt 188
5.3.10 Major Industries 190
5.4 Demographics 191
5.4.1 Population 191
5.4.2 Education and Literacy 210
5.4.3 Employment 214
5.4.4 Disease Burden 216
5.5 Healthcare Infrastructure 219
5.5.1 Healthcare Facilities 219
5.5.2 Healthcare Parameters 225
5.5.3 Environmental Health 230
5.5.4 Healthcare Personnel 233
5.6 Healthcare Expenditure 237
5.6.1 Overview 237
5.6.2 Major Components of Healthcare Spending 238
5.6.3 Public and Private Sector Share 239
5.6.4 Spending in Healthcare, Research and Development 241
5.7 Trade Associations 244
5.7.1 Innovative Pharmaceutical Association South Africa 244
5.7.2 Pharmaceutical Society of South Africa 244
5.7.3 National Association of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers 245
5.7.4 Hospitals Association of South Africa 245
5.8 Trade Fairs 246
6 Opportunities and Challenges 247
6.1 Opportunities 247
6.2 Challenges 248
7 Appendix 250
7.1 Abbreviations 250
7.2 Bibliography 253
7.3 Research Methodology 269
7.3.1 Coverage 269
7.3.2 Secondary Research 270
7.3.3 Forecasts 270
7.3.4 Expert Panel 270
7.4 Disclaimer 271

1.1 List of Tables

Table 1: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 21
Table 2: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 22
Table 3: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports ($m), 2008-2013 23
Table 4: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, Pharmacist Markup Overview, 2011 25
Table 5: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, Generics Market, Generic Consumption by Volume (%), 2008-2013 27
Table 6: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, OTC Market, OTC Consumption by Volume (%), 2008-2013 31
Table 7: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, Collaborations and Acquisitions, Aspen Pharmacare, 2013 35
Table 8: Pharmaceutical market, South Africa, Major Products, Aspen Pharmacare, 2013 36
Table 9: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, Product Pipeline, Aspen Pharmacare, 2013 37
Table 10: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, Major Products, Adcock Ingram, 2013 44
Table 11: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, Pipeline Information, Adcock Ingram, 2013 44
Table 12: Pharmaceutical Market, Sanofi, Global, Major Products, 2013 51
Table 13: Pharmaceutical Market, Sanofi, Global, Late-stage Pipeline, 2014 52
Table 14: Pharmaceutical Market, Novartis, Global, Major Products, Revenue ($bn) and Annual Growth (%), 2013 57
Table 15: Pharmaceutical Market, Novartis, Global, Planned Filings, 2014-2018 58
Table 16: Pharmaceutical Market, Roche, Global, Major Products, Revenue ($m) and Annual Growth (%), 2013 68
Table 17: Pharmaceutical Market, Roche, Global, Late-stage Pipeline, 2013 69
Table 18: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 76
Table 19: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 77
Table 20: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Ophthalmic Devices ($m), 2008-2013 79
Table 21: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Ophthalmic Devices, Sales Trends for Major Players, 2012 80
Table 22: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Orthopedic Devices, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 81
Table 23: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Orthopedic Devices, Sales Trends for Major Players, 2012 82
Table 24: Medical Device Market, South Africa, In Vitro Diagnostics, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 84
Table 25: Medical Device Market, South Africa, In Vitro Diagnostics, Sales Trends for Major Players, 2012 85
Table 26: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Cardiovascular Diseases, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 86
Table 27: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Cardiovascular Devices, Sales Trends for Major Players, 2012 87
Table 28: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Nephrology and Urology Devices, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 89
Table 29: Medical Device Market, Nephrology and Urology Devices, Sales Trends for Major Players, 2012 90
Table 30: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 92
Table 31: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Diagnostic Market, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 92
Table 32: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Major Medical Device Companies, 2012 93
Table 33: Medical Device Market, Roche, Global, Major Products, 2014 111
Table 34: Healthcare System, South Africa Government Employees Medical Scheme, 2012 131
Table 35: Healthcare Spending, South Africa, Patient Share in Healthcare Spending (%), 2008-2013 133
Table 36: Pricing Policies, South Africa, Pharmacist Markup Overview, 2011 134
Table 37: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2008-2013 172
Table 38: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Gross Domestic Product per Capita Forecast ($), 2014-2020 173
Table 39: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth (%), 2008-2013 174
Table 40: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth Forecast (%), 2014-2020 175
Table 41: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Gross National Income per Capita ($), 2008-2013 176
Table 42: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Average Consumer Price Index, 2008-2013 177
Table 43: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Average Consumer Price Index Forecast, 2014-2020 178
Table 44: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Average Consumer Price Annual Change (%), 2008-2013 179
Table 45: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Currency Exchange Rate (ZAR/$), 2008-2013 180
Table 46: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2008-2013 182
Table 47: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2008-2013 183
Table 48: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Imports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 184
Table 49: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Exports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 186
Table 50: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2008-2013 187
Table 51: Economic Indicators, South Africa, General Government Net Debt (% of GDP), 2008-2013 188
Table 52: Economic Indicators, South Africa, General Government Net Debt Forecast (% of GDP), 2014-2020 189
Table 53: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Major Industries by Contribution to Gross Domestic Product, 2013 191
Table 54: Demographics, South Africa, Population (million), 2008-2013 192
Table 55: Demographics, South Africa, Population Forecast (million), 2014-2020 193
Table 56: Demographics, South Africa, Population, Urban and Rural Population Share (%), 2008-2013 194
Table 57: Demographics, South Africa, Population, Urban and Rural Population Share Forecast (%), 2014-2020 195
Table 58: Demographics, South Africa, Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2008-2013 197
Table 59: Demographics, South Africa, Population Distribution by Age Group Forecast (%), 2014-2020 198
Table 60: Demographics, South Africa, Births (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 199
Table 61: Demographics, South Africa, Mortality (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 200
Table 62: Demographics, South Africa, Major Causes of Mortality, 2011 202
Table 63: Demographics, South Africa, Children Table 64: Demographics, South Africa, Immunization Rate (%), 2008-2013 205
Table 65: Demographics, South Africa, Major Causes of Male Mortality, 2011 206
Table 66: Demographics, South Africa, Major Causes of Female Mortality, 2011 207
Table 67: Demographics, South Africa, Gender Ratio (M/F), 2008-2013 208
Table 68: Demographics, South Africa, Life Expectancy at Birth (Years), 2008-2013 210
Table 69: Demographics, South Africa, Enrollment, Number of Students (Million) by Level of Education, 2012-2013 212
Table 70: Demographics, South Africa, Gender Parity Index by Level of Education, 2012-2013 213
Table 71: Demographics, South Africa, Unemployment Rate (%), 2008-2013 215
Table 72: Demographics, South Africa, Distribution of Employment by Sectors (%), 2013 216
Table 73: Demographics, South Africa, Number of Physician-Diagnosed Cases per Disease, Rate (%), 2011 217
Table 74: Demographics, South Africa, Major Diseases, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (per 100,000 Population), 2004 219
Table 75: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Number of Hospitals, 2008-2013 220
Table 76: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Hospital Establishments, 2008-2013 221
Table 77: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Public Hospitals, 2008-2013 223
Table 78: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Diagnostic Equipment (per Million Population), 2008-2013 224
Table 79: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Hospital Beds (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 225
Table 80: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Hospital Beds by Sector, 2008-2013 226
Table 81: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Public Hospital Beds, 2008-2013 228
Table 82: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Physicians (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 230
Table 83: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, PM10 (µg/m3), 2008-2013 231
Table 84: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Million Metric Tons), 2008-2013 232
Table 85: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Nurses (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 234
Table 86: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Pharmacists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 235
Table 87: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Dentists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 236
Table 88: Healthcare Expenditure, South Africa, Healthcare Expenditure (% of GDP), 2008-2013 237
Table 89: Healthcare Expenditure, South Africa, Primary Healthcare Expenditure, Current Health Expenditure by Mode of Production (%), 2013/14 239
Table 90: Healthcare Expenditure, South Africa, Healthcare Expenditure, Public-Private Share (%), 2008-2013 240
Table 91: Healthcare Expenditure, South Africa, Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development (% of Gross Domestic Product), 2008-2013 242
Table 92: Healthcare Expenditure, South Africa, Healthcare RandD Expenditure by Field of Science (% of GDP on RandD), 2008-2013 243
Table 93: Healthcare Expenditure, South Africa, Major Healthcare Trade Fairs, 2014-2015 24

1.2 List of Figures

Figure 1: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 21
Figure 2: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 22
Figure 3: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports ($m), 2008-2013 23
Figure 4: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, Supply Chain, 2014 24
Figure 5: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, Generics Market, Generic Consumption by Volume (%), 2008-2013 27
Figure 6: Pharmaceutical Market, South Africa, OTC Market, OTC Consumption by Volume (%), 2008-2013 31
Figure 7: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 76
Figure 8: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 77
Figure 9: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Ophthalmic Devices, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 78
Figure 10: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Ophthalmic Devices, Sales Trends for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 79
Figure 11: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Orthopedic Devices, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 81
Figure 12: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Orthopedic Devices, Sales Trends for Major Players, 2008-2012 82
Figure 13: Medical Device Market, South Africa, In Vitro Diagnostics, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 83
Figure 14: Medical Device Market, South Africa, In Vitro Diagnostics, Sales Trends for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 84
Figure 15: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Cardiovascular Devices, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 86
Figure 16: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Cardiovascular Devices, Sales Trends for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 87
Figure 17: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Nephrology and Urology Devices, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 89
Figure 18: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Nephrology and Urology Devices, Sales Trends for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 90
Figure 19: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 91
Figure 20: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Diagnostic Market, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 92
Figure 21: Medical Device Market, South Africa, Major Medical Device Companies, Revenue ($m), 2012 93
Figure 22: Healthcare Market, South Africa, Drivers and Barriers, 2014 124
Figure 23: Healthcare System, South Africa, Major Healthcare Financing Reforms, 1994-2014 127
Figure 24: Healthcare System, South Africa, Process of Addition to Essential Drugs List, 2014 130
Figure 25: Healthcare Spending, South Africa, Patient Share in Healthcare Spending (%), 2008-2013 133
Figure 26: Regulatory Landscape, South Africa, Medicines Control Council Structure, 2014 136
Figure 27: Regulatory Landscape, South Africa, New Drug Approval Process, 2014 140
Figure 28: Market Access, South Africa, Patent Approval Process, 2014 150
Figure 29: Market Access, South Africa, Trademark Registration Process, 2014 152
Figure 30: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2008-2013 172
Figure 31: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Gross Domestic Product per Capita Forecast ($), 2014-2020 173
Figure 32: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth (%), 2008-2013 174
Figure 33: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth Forecast (%), 2014-2020 175
Figure 34: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Gross National Income per Capita ($), 2008-2013 176
Figure 35: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Average Consumer Price Index, 2008-2013 177
Figure 36: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Average Consumer Price Index Forecast, 2014-2020 178
Figure 37: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Average Consumer Price Annual Change (%), 2008-2013 179
Figure 38: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Currency Exchange Rate (ZAR/$), 2008-2013 180
Figure 39: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2008-2013 182
Figure 40: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2008-2013 183
Figure 41: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Imports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 184
Figure 42: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Exports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2008-2013 185
Figure 43: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2008-2013 187
Figure 44: Economic Indicators, South Africa, General Government Net Debt (% of GDP), 2008-2013 188
Figure 45: Economic Indicators, South Africa, General Government Net Debt Forecast (% of GDP), 2014-2020 189
Figure 46: Economic Indicators, South Africa, Major Industries by Contribution to Gross Domestic Product, 2013 190
Figure 47: Demographics, South Africa, Population (million), 2008-2013 192
Figure 48: Demographics, South Africa, Population Forecast (million), 2014-2020 193
Figure 49: Demographics, South Africa, Population, Urban and Rural Population Share (%), 2008-2013 194
Figure 50: Demographics, South Africa, Population, Urban and Rural Population Share Forecast (%), 2014-2020 195
Figure 51: Demographics, South Africa, Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2008-2013 197
Figure 52: Demographics, South Africa, Population Distribution by Age Group Forecast (%), 2014-2020 198
Figure 53: Demographics, South Africa, Births (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 199
Figure 54: Demographics, South Africa, Mortality (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 200
Figure 55: Demographics, South Africa, Major Causes of Mortality, 2011 201
Figure 56: Demographics, South Africa, Children Figure 57: Demographics, South Africa, Immunization Rate (%), 2008-2013 204
Figure 58: Demographics, South Africa, Major Causes of Male Mortality, 2011 206
Figure 59: Demographics, South Africa, Major Causes of Female Mortality, 2011 207
Figure 60: Demographics, South Africa, Gender Ratio (M/F), 2008-2013 208
Figure 61: Demographics, South Africa, Life Expectancy at Birth (Years), 2008-2013 209
Figure 62: Demographics, South Africa, Enrollment, Number of Students (Million) by Level of Education, 2012-2013 212
Figure 63: Demographics, South Africa, Gender Parity Index by Level of Education, 2012-2013 213
Figure 64: Demographics, South Africa, Unemployment Rate (%), 2008-2013 214
Figure 65: Demographics, South Africa, Distribution of Employment by Sector (%), 2013 215
Figure 66: Demographics, South Africa, Number of Physician-Diagnosed Cases per Disease, Rate (%), 2011 217
Figure 67: Demographics, South Africa, Major Diseases, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (per 100,000 Population), 2004 218
Figure 68: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Number of Hospitals, 2008-2013 220
Figure 69: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Hospital Establishments, 2008-2013 221
Figure 70: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Public Hospitals, 2008-2013 223
Figure 71: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Diagnostic Equipment (per Million Population), 2008-2013 224
Figure 72: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Hospital Beds (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 225
Figure 73: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Hospital Beds by Sector, 2008-2013 226
Figure 74: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Public Hospital Beds, 2008-2013 228
Figure 75: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Physicians (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 229
Figure 76: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, PM10 (µg/m3), 2008-2013 231
Figure 77: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Million Metric Tons), 2008-2013 232
Figure 78: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Nurses (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 234
Figure 79: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Pharmacists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 235
Figure 80: Healthcare Infrastructure, South Africa, Dentists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 236
Figure 81: Healthcare Expenditure, South Africa, Healthcare Expenditure (% of GDP), 2008-2013 237
Figure 82: Healthcare Expenditure, South Africa, Primary Healthcare Expenditure, Current Health Expenditure by Mode of Production (%), 2013/14 238
Figure 83: Healthcare Expenditure, South Africa, Healthcare Expenditure, Public-Private Share (%), 2008-2013 240
Figure 84: Healthcare Expenditure, South Africa, Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development (% of Gross Domestic Product), 2008-2013 241
Figure 85: Healthcare Expenditure, South Africa, Healthcare RandD Expenditure by Field of Science (% of GDP on RandD ), 2008-2013 243
Figure 86: Healthcare Market, South Africa, Opportunities and Challenges, 2014 249

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