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Analyzing Coal to Liquids 2015

  • February 2015
  • -
  • Aruvian's R'search
  • -
  • 190 pages

Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. Coal is a readily combustible black or brownish-black rock. It is a sedimentary rock, but the harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rocks because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. It is composed primarily of carbon along with assorted other elements, including sulfur. It is the largest single source of fuel for the generation of electricity world-wide, as well as the largest world-wide source of carbon dioxide emissions, slightly ahead of petroleum and about double that of natural gas. Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining, either underground mining or open pit mining.

Coals can also be converted into liquid fuels like gasoline or diesel by several different processes. The Fischer-Tropsch process of indirect synthesis of liquid hydrocarbons was used in Nazi Germany for many years and is today used by Sasol in South Africa. Coal would be gasified to make syngas (a balanced purified mixture of CO and H2 gas) and the syngas condensed using Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to make light hydrocarbons which are further processed into gasoline and diesel. Syngas can also be converted to methanol, which can be used as a fuel, fuel additive, or further processed into gasoline via the Mobil M-gas process.

Coal liquefaction is one of the backstop technologies that could potentially limit escalation of oil prices and mitigate the effects of transportation energy shortage that some authors have suggested could occur under peak oil. This is contingent on liquefaction production capacity becoming large enough to satiate the very large and growing demand for petroleum. Estimates of the cost of producing liquid fuels from coal suggest that domestic U.S. production of fuel from coal becomes cost-competitive with oil priced at around 35 USD per barrel, (break-even cost). This price, while above historical averages, is well below current oil prices. This makes coal a viable financial alternative to oil for the time being, although current production is small.

Aruvian's R'search brings you an in-depth focus on the emerging technology of Coal to Liquids. The report focuses on all aspects of the various processes involved in the CTL process, conversion processes utilized on natural gas, the major companies which are investing in this technology, the reasons for investing in CTL and the investment scenario in the technology, and the financial difficulties faced during financing of projects.

The report looks at the growth factors, challenges and barriers, the concept of using CTL fuel for transportation, the economic feasibility of CTL technologies and CTL projects, the effect of CTL on the energy market, and of course, the basics of Coal to Liquid technologies. A lot more awaits you inside this comprehensive intelligent analysis of CTL technology and market.

Table Of Contents

Analyzing Coal to Liquids 2015
A. Executive Summary

B. Understanding Coal
B.1 Coal Basics
B.2 Coal as a Fuel - Historical Perspective
B.3 Composition of Coal
B.4 Types of Coal
B.4.1 Anthracite
B.4.2 Lignite
B.4.3 Bituminous
B.4.4 Sub-Bituminous
B.5 Coal Fuel - The Environmental Fallout
B.6 Coal Burn Residue Management

C. Consolidation in the Global Coal Industry

D. Rising Global Demand for Oil

E. Background Analysis
E.1 Background
E.2 Technical Background

F. Overview of Coal to Liquids
F.1 Introduction
F.2 Direct Liquefaction
F.3 Indirect Liquefaction
F.4 Defining Higher Heating Value and Lower Heating Value
F.5 Analyzing the Gasification Process
F.6 Products Produced from Syngas
F.7 Role of Substitute Natural Gas
F.8 Role of Methanol
F.9 Role of Dimethyl-Ether
F.10 Role of Liquids Hydrocarbons

G. History of Coal to Liquids
G.1 Historical Overview
G.2 History of Direct Liquefaction
G.3 History of Indirect Liquefaction

H. Overview of the CTL Process
H.1 Introduction
H.2 Carbonization and Pyrolysis
H.3 Looking at Direct Liquefaction
H.3.1 Coal Liquefaction
H.3.2 Production of Hydrogen
H.3.3 Product Improvement
H.3.4 Offsite Plants
H.4 Looking at Indirect Liquefaction
H.4.1 Production of Syngas
H.4.2 Conversion of Synthesis Gas
H.4.3 Product Improvement
H.4.4 Offsite Plants
H.5 A Look at Coal to Gasoline
H.6 A Look at Methanol to Gasoline (MTG)
H.7 Comparing CTL and CTG

I. Analyzing Products of the CTL Process and Yields

J. Analyzing the Capital Cost Involved in CTL

K. Investment in Global Coal to Liquids

L. Analyzing Carbon Emissions from CTL Plants
L.1 Overview
L.2 Transport Emissions
L.3 Process Emissions

M. Liquid Coal and Global Warming

N. Managing GHG Emissions from CTL
N.1 Overview
N.2 Carbon Capture and Sequestration
N.3 Enhanced Oil Recovery and Carbon Capture
N.4 Combined Gasification of Coal and Biomass

O. Benefits of Coal to Liquids Production

P. Barriers to CTL
P.1 Permitting Issues
P.2 Agreements with Vendors Issues

Q. Rising Fuel Prices and CTL

R. Analyzing the Market Potential of CTL
R.1 Global Overview
R.2 Australia
R.3 China
R.4 Germany
R.5 Indonesia
R.6 India
R.7 United States
R.8 Market Incentives

S. Analyzing Processes Related to CTL

T. Coal to Liquids in the United States
T.1 Requirement of CTL in US
T.2 US' Abundant Supply of Coal
T.3 Why is CTL Not a Reality in the US
T.3.1 Dangers of Coal Mining
T.3.2 Global Warming and CO2 Emissions
T.3.3 Pollution from Liquid Coal
T.4 Existing Technologies in the US
T.5 Advantages of CTL to the US
T.6 Commercializing the CTL Industry
T.7 CTL and US Energy Security
T.8 US Environment and CTL
T.9 US Economy and CTL
T.10 Requirements for the Future

U. Future Perspective of CTL
U.1 Future Outlook
U.2 Oil Prices Outlook and CTL
U.3 Future Outlook on CTL Capital Costs
U.4 Future Outlook on Feedstock Costs
U.4.1 Coal Consumption
U.4.2 Coal Cost
U.4.3 Coal Quality
U.4.4 Barriers to Coal Production
U.5 Outlook for Availability of Equipment for CTL Plant Construction
U.6 Regulatory Outlook
U.7 Future Requirements for Transportation
U.8 Forecast on Carbon Dioxide Emissions
U.9 China's Economic Growth
U.10 Technological Advancements
U.11 Global Forecast for CTL Market

V. Case Studies
V.1 Alaska West Cook Inlet CTL Project
V.2 Healy Coal-to-Liquids Plant
V.3 CTL Project Carbon County, Wyoming
V.4 Sasol's CTL Project in the Shaanxi Province
V.5 Refinery-Based CTL Pathways for Jet Fuel and Other Products
V.6 Emergence of Plug-in Hybrids
V.7 Coal to Liquids in South Africa
V.8 Coal to Liquids in China

W. Leading Industry Contributors
W.1 ConocoPhillips
W.1.1 Corporate Profile
W.1.2 Business Segment Analysis
W.1.3 Financial Analysis
W.1.4 SWOT Analysis
W.2 Sasol
W.2.1 Corporate Profile
W.2.2 Business Segment Analysis
W.2.3 Financial Analysis
W.2.4 SWOT Analysis
W.3 Rentech, Inc.
W.3.1 Corporate Profile
W.3.2 Business Segment Analysis
W.3.3 Financial Analysis
W.3.4 SWOT Analysis
W.4 Syntroleum Corporation
W.4.1 Corporate Profile
W.4.2 Business Segment Analysis
W.4.3 Financial Analysis
W.5 DKRW Advanced Fuels
W.7 Shell China
W.8 Synthesis Energy Systems

X. Appendix

Y. Glossary of Terms

List of Figures

Figure 1: Timeline of Coal History
Figure 2: Hydrogen Content of Coal Relative to Other Carbonaceous Fuels
Figure 3: Direct Liquefaction
Figure 4: Overall Conversion for Gasification
Figure 5: Water-Gas Shift Reaction
Figure 6: Potential Products derived from Syngas
Figure 7: Reaction from Synthesis Gas to Methane using Nickel Catalyst
Figure 8: Reaction from Synthesis Gas to Methane using Copper Catalyst
Figure 9: Reaction from Synthesis Gas to Hydrocarbons using Iron or Cobalt Catalyst
Figure 10: Location of the World's Main Fossil Fuel Reserves (Gigatons of Oil Equivalent)
Figure 11: Mild Pyrolysis
Figure 12: Process Flow Diagram for Direct Liquefaction
Figure 13: The NEDOL Process
Figure 14: The SASOL HTFT Process
Figure 15: HTI Direct Liquefaction
Figure 16: Process Flow Diagram for Indirect Liquefaction
Figure 17: Block Flow Diagram - Coal-to-Gasoline
Figure 18: HIS Min O/T Conversion
Figure 19: HIS Max O/T Conversion
Figure 20: HIS 100% Conversion
Figure 21: CTL Capital Costs
Figure 22: Capital Cost for CTL Plants with Varying Size and Configuration
Figure 23: Capital Costs: Impact of Scale
Figure 24: Unconventional Petroleum Liquids Capital Cost Investment (Thousand $ per Daily Barrel of Capacity)
Figure 25: Full Life-Cycle GHG Emissions for F-T and Petroleum Diesels
Figure 26: Emissions Reductions from Synthetic Fuels - Europe
Figure 27: Historical Energy Price Trends (US$ per Ton of Oil Equivalent)
Figure 28: Process Flow Diagram for Indirect Liquefaction Process Co-Producing of F-T Liquids and Power
Figure 29: Process Flow Diagram for Co-Producing SNG and Power
Figure 30: Coal to Liquids US Production, 2030
Figure 31: Historical Energy Commodity Prices ($/mmBtu)
Figure 32: EIA Oil Price Forecast (Dollars per Barrel), 2006-2030
Figure 33: Capital Cost for CTL Plants from Various Sources and Sizes
Figure 34: Projected CTL/CTG US Coal Consumption (Billions of Tons per Year), 2030
Figure 35: CTL Barrels per Ton Conversion (Barrels per Ton), 2030
Figure 36: Millions of Btu of Coal per Barrel, 2030
Figure 37: Expected Fuel Costs for CTL, 2004-2030
Figure 38: Heat Content of Coal (Btu/Lb), 2030
Figure 39: 80,000 bbl/d Coal to Liquids Beluga CTL Plant
Figure 40: Process Inputs and Outputs for the Healy F-T Plant
Figure 41: Site Location
Figure 42: Figure 6: Fischer-Tropsch Technology used by Sasol
Figure 43: Global Vehicle Stock Growth
Figure 44: Growth in World Oil Demand 2002-2030
Figure 45: Global Coal Reserves at end 2014
Figure 46: Main World Coal Trade Flows
Figure 47: Geological Storage Options for CO2
Figure 48: Coal to Liquids Process

List of Tables

Table 1: Global Coal Acquisition History Primary Acquisitions
Table 2: United States Coal Production 15 Year Production Contrast
Table 3: CTL Plant Economics
Table 4: Coal-to-Liquids Plants being considered in the US
Table 5: CTL Pilot Plants in the US
Table 6: International CTL Plants and Projects

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