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  5. > The Market for Biowaste AD Plants in Europe (Analyst Version) : Plant Technology – Project Planning – Market - Trends

The Market for Biowaste AD Plants in Europe

Fermenting biowaste is a current focus of many disposal companies and energy producers in Europe. The implementation of the EU waste legislations and the increasing support for using residual materials to produce biogas both favour and determine the construction of biowaste AD plants.
This is why the installed capacities in biogas plants fermenting municipal and industrial biowaste will increase from 900 MWel in 2014 to around 1,750 MWel in 2023 – meaning the capacities will almost double in the next ten years. We furthermore expect the number of plants in Europe to grow from 780 to over 1,800.
ecoprog has analysed the market for biowaste AD plants in Europe in detail and we are happy to offer you a detailed study on this topic. In our work, we have also involved energy agencies, public authorities and waste associations as well as operators and plant manufacturers. The up-to-date analysis of figures, facts, estimations and trends in the European market for the construction and operation of biowaste AD plants is of interest for operators, disposal companies, suppliers, associations, research institutes and consultants.

The analyst version of the market report “The Market for Biowaste AD Plants in Europe” includes:

• The analysis and description of the most important operators and manufacturers of biowaste AD plants with a comparison of the different plant technologies.
• An evaluation of the costs and revenues structures of a biowaste AD plant, based on exemplary plants.
• A presentation of an exemplary project planning for a biowaste AD plant, from the idea for the plant to its commissioning.
• A detailed analysis of all important political, economic, managerial and technical trends for constructing and operating biowaste AD plants.
• A concrete assessment of the current and future market volumes for biowaste AD plants by country, up to and including 2023, based on a transparent and understandable methodology.

Table Of Contents

The Market for Biowaste AD Plants in Europe (Analyst Version) : Plant Technology - Project Planning - Market - Trends
Preface 11
Management summary 13
1 Background 16
1.1. Differentiation 16
1.2. Distinction by input/biomass/feedstock 19
1.3. Distinction by fermentation method 21
1.4. Fermentation vs. composting 22
1.5. Biochemical process: anaerobic fermentation of biomass 23
2 Plant technology 26
2.1. Delivery and processing of biomass 26
2.2. Comparison of fermentation technologies 26
2.3. Analysis of biogas utilisation options 31
2.4. Utilisation of fermentation residues 32
3 Operational key figures 34
3.1. Investment costs by plant design 34
3.2. Current costs 36
3.3. Revenues by biogas utilisation 38
4 Legal framework and market factors 40
4.1. EU Landfill Directive with comparison between countries 40
4.2. EU Waste Framework Directive with comparison between countries 41
4.3. EU energy legislation with comparison between countries 42
4.4. Separately registered biowaste 49
4.5. Market factors for industrial biowaste 56
5 Project planning for a biowaste AD plant 60
5.1. Idea for the project 61
5.2. Analysing the existing situation 62
5.3. Pre-feasibility study 64
5.4. Negotiating stage 65
5.5. Awarding 66
5.6. Approvals 67
5.7. Options for using the biogas 69
5.8. Choosing a technology provider 69
5.9. Calculating economic efficiency 70
5.10. Construction, construction supervision, commissioning 71
6 The European market for biowaste AD plants 72
6.1. Existing plants 72
6.2. Development of market volume 77
7 Competition in Europe 85
7.1. Operators: market shares and locations 85
7.2. Plant manufacturers: market shares and references 87
8 National markets 96
8.1. Austria 96
8.2. Belgium 100
8.3. Bulgaria 104
8.4. Croatia 108
8.5. Cyprus 112
8.6. Czech Republic 116
8.7. Denmark 121
8.8. Estonia 126
8.9. Finland 130
8.10. France 136
8.11. Germany 144
8.12. Greece 151
8.13. Hungary 155
8.14. Iceland 159
8.15. Ireland 162
8.16. Italy 166
8.17. Latvia 170
8.18. Lithuania 175
8.19. Luxembourg 180
8.20. Malta 184
8.21. Netherlands 187
8.22. Norway 192
8.23. Poland 197
8.24. Portugal 202
8.25. Romania 206
8.26. Slovakia 210
8.27. Slovenia 214
8.28. Sweden 218
8.29. Switzerland 223
8.30. Spain 228
8.31. United Kingdom 233
Glossary 242
Methodology and sources 244

Table of figures

Figure 1: Amounts and ways of treating separately collected biowaste 16
Figure 2: Biogas in the energy industry 17
Figure 3: Collection and treatment of biowaste 18
Figure 4: Generating gas from biomass 19
Figure 5: Composting vs. fermentation 23
Figure 6: Phases of the biogas generation 24
Figure 7: Average biogas yield and methane content of various substrates 25
Figure 8: Exemplary delivery and processing of biowaste 26
Figure 9: Cylindrical digester 27
Figure 10: Example of a plug-flow digester 28
Figure 11: Vertical fermenter 29
Figure 12: Garage digester 30
Figure 13: Ways of using the biogas and the generated energy 31
Figure 14: Exemplary investment costs of a biowaste AD plant (30,000 t/a) 34
Figure 15: Exemplary investment costs of biowaste AD plants by size groups 35
Figure 16: Exemplary current costs of a biowaste AD plant 37
Figure 17: Exemplary calculation of energy revenues of a biowaste AD plant 39
Figures 18: Amounts and treatment of MSW in the EU (EU-27) 41
Figure 19: Food and foodstuff industry in the EU, by country 42
Figure 20: Reduction of landfilled biodegradable waste (third term) 44
Figure 21: Landfill Directive deadlines and reductions for complying with the 3rd deadline 45
Figure 22: Instruments for reducing landfilling in the EEA 46
Figure 23: Hierarchy for waste handling 48
Figure 24: Goals of EU member states for developing biogas, landfill gas and sewage gas 50
Figure 25: RE subsidies in the EU 52
Figure 26: Subsidisation systems for electricity from biowaste fermentation in the EU 54
Figure27: Decision and implementation of the EU Waste Framework Directive 58
Figure 28: Rough time and cost planning for a biowaste AD plant 60
Figure 29: Conception 61
Figure 30: Awarding 66
Figure 31: Planning 67
Figure 32: Construction 70
Figure 33: Existing biowaste AD plants in the EU (late 2014) 72
Figure 34: Installed capacities in biowaste AD plants in the EU 73
Figure 35: Average plant size (kWel) in 2014 73
Figure 36: Number of biowaste AD plants by type of biowaste by country 74
Figure 37: Registration and potential of separately collected biowaste and green waste in the EU 75
Figure 38: Existing MBT plants in Europe 75
Figure 39: Shares of treatment methods for municipal waste in the EU by country 76
Figure 40: Market forecast Europe 2014 to 2023 77
Figure 41: Countries in a subsidisation matrix 78
Figure 42: Construction of new biowaste AD plants per year 79
Figure 43: Construction of additional biowaste AD plants in Europe between 2014 and 2023 80
Figure 44: Development of number of plants by country 82
Figure 45: Development of installed capacity by country (capacity MWel) 83
Figure 46: Development of capacity by country (t/a)* 84
Figure 47: Ranking of the largest manufacturers for biowaste AD plants in Europe, by installed capacity 88
Figure 48: Market shares of the largest manufacturers for biowaste AD plants 89
Figure 49: Amounts and treatment of municipal solid waste in Austria 96
Figure 50: Electricity generation by energy source in Austria 97
Figure 51: Project outlook Austria 99
Figure 52: Amounts and treatment of municipal solid waste in Belgium 100
Figure 53: Electricity generation by energy source in Belgium 101
Figure 54: Project outlook Belgium 103
Figure 55: Amounts and treatment of municipal solid waste in Bulgaria 105
Figure 56: Electricity generation by energy source in Bulgaria 106
Figure 57: Biogas feed-in tariff in Bulgaria (2014/2015) 107
Figure 58: Project outlook Bulgaria 108
Figure 59: Market development for Bulgaria 108
Figure 60: Amounts and treatment of municipal solid waste in Croatia 109
Figure 61: Electricity generation by energy source in Croatia 110
Figure 62: Biogas feed-in tariff in Croatia 110
Figure 63: Market development for Croatia 111
Figure 64: Project outlook Croatia 112
Figure 167: Amounts and treatment of municipal solid waste in Spain 218
Figure 168: Electricity generation by energy source in Spain 220
Figure 169: Market development for Spain 222
Figure 170: Project outlook Spain 222
Figure 171: Amounts and treatment of municipal solid waste in Sweden 223
Figure 172: Electricity generation by energy source in Sweden 225
Figure 173: Origin and use of biogas in Sweden (2012) 226
Figure 174: Market development for Sweden 227
Figure 175: Project outlook Sweden 227
Figure 176: Amounts and treatment of municipal solid waste in Switzerland 228
Figure 177: Electricity generation by energy source in Switzerland 229
Figure 178: Biogas feed-in tariff in Switzerland 230
Figure 179: Market development for Switzerland 231
Figure 180: Project outlook Switzerland 232
Figure 181: Amounts and treatment of municipal solid waste in the United Kingdom 233
Figure 182: Electricity generation by energy source in the United Kingdom 235
Figure 183: Feed-in tariff in the United Kingdom 2014/2015 235
Figure 184: Degression factor for adjusting the feed-in tariff in the United Kingdom 236
Figure 185: Maximum "strike price" for the contracts of difference (CFD) from 2014 to 2019 (€/MWh)* 237
Figure 186: Quantitative distribution of feedstocks in biogas plants in the United Kingdom (Status: 2014) 238
Figure 187: Market development for United Kingdom 239
Figure 188: Project outlook in the United Kingdom 240

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