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Biomimicry - often referred to as biomimetics - can be defined as the study of designs, models and systems in nature for the purpose of imitating and adapting them or gaining inspiration from them to create practical solutions to everyday problems. Animals, insects, plants and other living organisms have evolved over billions of years in order to survive and adapt in dynamic environments, and many natural adaptations have proved to be more effective than man-made solutions. Biomimicry has been exploited in the creation of performance apparel fabrics with a wide variety of functional properties, including antimicrobial efficacy, camouflage, drag reduction, dry adhesion, thermal insulation and water repellency.

Also, biomimicry has been used to develop processes for imparting properties using materials, methods and technologies which are more environmentally friendly than those used conventionally. This report provides an introduction to biomimicry and its importance to the development of functional performance apparel. Also, it includes case studies of materials and performance apparel products which have functional features replicated from nature. Furthermore, the report discusses the topics of biomimicry and sustainability, and provides an outlook for the future.

Table Of Contents

Biomimicry: science of nature inspires design of high-tech performance apparel
List of contents
SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION TO BIOMIMICRY
DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMIMICRY
USING NATURE AS A GUIDE TO SOLVING PROBLEMS
Biomimicry in performance apparel
FUNCTIONAL FEATURES INCORPORATED IN PERFORMANCE
APPAREL WHICH ARE REPLICATED FROM NATURE
Antimicrobial efficacy
Chitosan
Shark skin
Bioluminescence
Camouflage
Drag reduction
Dry adhesion
Burdock plant
Gecko feet
High strength
Limpet teeth
Spider silk
Moisture management
Pine cone effect
Xylem conduits
Self-repair
Thermal insulation
Bird feathers
Polar bear hairs
Vivid coloration
Morphotex
Bastard hogberry
Water repellency
Examples of textile technologies and materials based on the lotus effect
Superhydrophobic material modelled on nasturtium leaves and morpho butterfly wings
Fabric modelled on the microstructures of aquatic bird feathers
BIOMIMICRY AND SUSTAINABILITY
OUTLOOK

List of tables

Table 1: Appraisals of biomimicry
Table 2: Living organisms and natural materials and the functions they have inspired in
performance apparel

List of figures

Figure 1: Shark skin
Figure 2: Microscopic image of Velcro
Figure 3: Microscopic image of a toe pad on the foot of a gecko
Figure 4: Microscopic image of limpet teeth
Figure 5: Monster Silk knitted textile
Figure 6: Response to moisture levels in a pine cone
Figure 7: Cross section of a polar bear hair
Figure 8: Surface of a morpho butterfly wing
Figure 9: Dress made from Morphotex fibres
Figure 10: Bastard hogberry fruit
Figure 11: Beading up of water on the leaf of a lotus plant
Figure 12: Microscopic image of the surface of a lotus leaf
Figure 13: Illustration of fabric treated with ecorepel

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