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Water Infrastructure Repair Technologies: Global Markets

  • March 2017
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 269 pages

Use this report to:
- Receive information on water infrastructure repair technologies (WIRT) used in global drinking water distribution and wastewater collection piped infrastructure systems.
- Assess the factors directing the global WIRT market along with technological hurdles and advances.
- Receive information on WIRT technologies including assessment, spot repair, rehabilitation and replacement technologies.
- Identify market opportunities, possible future direction and partnerships for WIRT.

Highlights
- The global market for water infrastructure repair technology (WIRT) market reached $68.8 billion in 2016 and should reach $92.3 billion in 2021, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.1% through 2021.
- Replacement as a segment reached $26.8 billion in 2016 and should reach nearly $34.2 billion in 2021, with a CAGR of 4.9%.
- Rehabilitation as a segment reached $20.6 billion in 2016 and should reach $29.5 billion 2021, with a CAGR of 7.4%.

INTRODUCTION

This report, Water Infrastructure Repair Technologies: Global Markets, is an update of an earlier version published in 2014. Although the main trends and forecasts from the original report remain on track, this study includes new information and updated data pertinent to market size and direction of growth. In the last few years, some trends within the global water infrastructure repair technology (WIRT) market have moved forward at a rapid pace, whereas others have crawled. Still other factors that are just now emerging are having new effects on WIRT market growth.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This report provides a thorough analysis of the global WIRT market. The research is meant to give the reader a comprehensive overview of the size, growth and direction of the WIRT market, including an assessment of the factors directing it, technological hurdles and advances, dollar market value for 2015 and 2016 and projections through 2021, company involvement, and regional data to provide insight into successful and unsuccessful global WIRT-related programs and trends.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

The global WIRT market is thriving and evolving, as many factors work to spur market growth. Prominent factors include a need for water infrastructure repair that is exponentially becoming greater, global and regional population growth, increased drinking water distribution, increased focus on climate change and extreme weather events, a trend toward sustainable investing, continuing monetary support for WIRT projects in developing countries, and new technologies that are gaining track records and acquiring more trust. There are also some hurdles hindering growth, or at least growth within some WIRT market niches or regions. This report provides information and data for readers to understand the WIRT market and to make knowledgeable, informed decisions related to their WIRT involvement.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report will help:
- Managers to identify market opportunities and to develop solid implementation plans for WIRT activities.
- Research and development professionals to stay on top of competitor initiatives and to understand the developments and obstacles within the global WIRT market.
- Business development executives and entrepreneurs to work within the dynamics of the market and to identify possible opportunities and partnerships.
- Information and research center librarians to access vital information.
- Policymakers and government officials to understand the dynamics and scope of the markets they are working to affect.
- Advertising agencies working with clients involved in the WIRT industry to design appropriate messages and images.
- Investors and stakeholders to gain a well-rounded view of the WIRT market, including its strengths, weaknesses and likely future direction.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The scope of the market analyzed in this report includes water infrastructure repair technologies used in global drinking water distribution and wastewater collection (e.g., sewer, stormwater) piped infrastructure systems. Components of these piped systems include water distribution and wastewater collection pipes, along with the connectors, fittings, flanges, couplings, valves and adaptors connected to these pipes. The types of WIRT included in this report include assessment, spot repair, rehabilitation and replacement technologies.

WIRT market data is provided in dollar value for 2015 and 2016, with projections given through 2021. Regional data is presented for North America, Central America, South America, Caribbean, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, the Middle East, Africa, Australia and Oceania, and Greenland, as well as for the 20 countries most involved in the WIRT market.

This report does not include products, services or technology directly associated with water-processing or water-collection facilities; above ground, open-air water conveyance systems (e.g., aqueducts, ditches, culverts); water storage units (e.g., tanks); or pumps.

INFORMATION SOURCES

Both primary and secondary research sources were used in preparing this report. The information was compiled from numerous industry resources, including trade journals and associations, government agencies, business, technology, science and law journals, company literature and websites, interviews with industry-savvy individuals, and global research services and institutes.

The data in this report were calculated after a thorough analysis of the market, which included a review of historical market value; a determination and assessment of factors that affect market growth (i.e., political, economic, technological); research of umbrella, overlapping and niche markets; a consideration of regional differences; a study of company projects and revenue; and a collection and analysis of market-related data.

Information and data were collected from various government agencies, including the Census Bureau, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Federation of Canadian Municipalities, the World Bank, the Canadian Government and the U.S. Conference of Mayors, as well as other nongovernmental organizations, including the American Water Works Association, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and the Canadian Water and Wastewater Association.

Table Of Contents

Water Infrastructure Repair Technologies: Global Markets
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 4
DISCLAIMER 4

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6 SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL WIRT MARKET BY CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 6
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL WIRT MARKET BY CATEGORY, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 6
INCREASED WATER VALUE GOOD FOR WIRT 7
FOCUS ON NON-REVENUE WATER LOSS AND WIRT GROWTH 7
POPULATION GROWTH 7
INCREASING GLOBAL WATER CONSUMPTION 7
WATER POLLUTION 8
CLIMATE CHANGE 8

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10
WATER INFRASTRUCTURE REPAIR TECHNOLOGY BY CATEGORY 10
FIGURE 1 MAJOR ASSESSMENT CATEGORIES 10
FIGURE 2 MAJOR SPOT REPAIR CATEGORIES 11
FIGURE 3 MAJOR REHABILITATION CATEGORIES 11
FIGURE 4 MAJOR REPLACEMENT CATEGORIES 11
PIPE FAILURE TYPES 11
COMMON PIPE TYPES 12
ASBESTOS CEMENT 12
CAST IRON 12
COPPER 13
CROSS-LINKED POLYETHYLENE 13
DUCTILE IRON 13
GLASS-REINFORCED POLYMER 14
HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE PIPE 14
GALVANIZED STEEL PIPE 14
LEAD PIPE 14
POLYBUTYLENE PIPE 15
POLYETHELENE PIPE 15
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE CYLINDER PIPE 15
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE PIPE 15
STEEL PIPE 15
PIPE LIFE EXPECTANCIES 16
TABLE 1 PIPE LIFE EXPECTANCIES BY COMPOSITION TYPE AND THEIR MOST COMMON AILMENTS (YEARS) 16
DRINKING WATER AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS 17
ASTM INTERNATIONAL AND OTHER REGULATORY GUIDANCE FOR WIRT 17

CHAPTER 4 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FACTORS 20
GLOBAL MARKET 20
TABLE 2 GLOBAL WIRT MARKET, BY CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 20
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL WIRT MARKET, BY CATEGORY, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 21
WATER HIGHLY UNDER-VALUED 21
NON-REVENUE WATER LOSS DRAMATIC IN SOME AREAS 23
TABLE 13 FRESHWATER POLLUTION FOR COUNTRIES HIGHLIGHTED IN THIS REPORT, 2001 (METRIC TONS OF BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND EMISSIONS PER CUBIC KILOMETER OF WATER) 24
MORE PEOPLE TRANSLATES TO A HIGHER DEMAND FOR WIRT 27
TABLE 4 HISTORICAL GLOBAL POPULATION AND PERCENTAGE POPULATION GROWTH BY DECADE, 1950-2020 (THOUSANDS/%) 28
TABLE 5 PROJECTED GLOBAL POPULATION AND PERCENTAGE POPULATION GROWTH, BY DECADE, 2020-2100 (THOUSANDS/%) 28
POPULATION SHIFTS GUIDE WIRT MARKET 29
TABLE 6 URBAN POPULATION AND RATE OF URBANIZATION, BY COUNTRY, 2014 (% OF TOTAL/% GROWTH) 30
TABLE 7 TEN LARGEST CITIES IN THE WORLD AND THEIR POPULATIONS, 2015 (THOUSANDS) 31
INCREASING GLOBAL WATER CONSUMPTION AND WIRT DEMAND 32
TABLE 8 WATER USE BY COUNTRY, 2000-2010 (KILOMETERS CUBED PER YEAR) 33
FRESHWATER DEPLETION AND THE INCREASED NEED FOR WIRT 34
WATER SCARCITY AND STRESS AFFECTING WIRT MARKET NEED 34
TABLE 9 TOP 20 COUNTRIES UNDER WATER STRESS, 2000 (% OF LAND AREA) 36
TABLE 10 WATER STRESS OF SELECTED COUNTRIES, 2000 (% OF LAND AREA) 37
FIGURE 6 FRESHWATER STRESS, 1995 AND 2025 38
TABLE 11 WATER WITHDRAWAL AND RENEWAL BY COUNTRY, 2014 (BILLION CUBIC METERS/%) 39
POLLUTION MAKES WATER MORE PRECIOUS 40
TABLE 12 FRESHWATER POLLUTION FOR 20 MOST-POLLUTED COUNTRIES, 2001 (METRIC TONS OF BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND EMISSIONS PER CUBIC KILOMETER OF WATER) 42
TABLE 13 FRESHWATER POLLUTION FOR COUNTRIES HIGHLIGHTED IN THIS REPORT, 2001 (METRIC TONS OF BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND EMISSIONS PER CUBIC KILOMETER OF WATER) 43
CLIMATE CHANGE UNDENIABLE AS WEATHER GETS DRAMATIC 44
ACTION TAKEN TO ADJUST TO CLIMATE CHANGE 47
UTILITIES RESPOND TO CLIMATE CHANGE 48
MASS MIGRATIONS AND THEIR IMPACT ON INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS 50
NEED FOR WIRT INCREASES AS PIPES CONTINUE TO AGE 51
EUROPE 51
NEW ZEALAND 51
U.S. 52
MEXICO CITY 53
CANADA 53
TABLE 14 CANADIAN POTABLE, WASTEWATER AND STORM WATER PIPES BY AGE 54
REPORT CARDS FOR WATER INFRASTRUCTURE HEALTH 54
U.S.' INFRASTRUCTURE REPORT CARD 55
CANADIAN INFRASTRUCTURE REPORT CARD 55
TABLE 15 PIPE CONDITION BY TYPE AND COMBINED AVERAGE (%) 55
SOUTH AFRICA'S INFRASTRUCTURE REPORT CARD 56
AUSTRALIA'S INFRASTRUCTURE REPORT CARD 56
LEAD SCARE PROMOTES PIPE REPLACEMENT PROJECTS 57
IMPACT INVESTING AND SUSTAINABILITY 59
FUNDING FOR WIRT OFTEN AN ISSUE 60
RURAL AND URBAN UTILITIES BOTH STRUGGLE FOR FUNDING 63
PIPE INSURANCE 65
AFFECT OF WAR ON WIRT PROJECTS AND OPPORTUNITIES 66
LEAKS AND THEIR EFFECT ON WIRT INVESTMENT 67
ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FUEL WIRT MARKET GROWTH 70
TABLE 16 TECHNOLOGY USED FOR UNDERGROUND ASSET ASSESSMENT, 2016 (% PREFERRED BY CANADIAN MUNICIPALITIES) 72
SMART METERS EVERYWHERE 73
TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES SPUR WIRT MARKET GROWTH 75
TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES MORE GREEN 76
TRENCHLESS ADVOCATES HELP GROW THE MARKET 76
WIRT ENTHUSIASTS MUST COMPETE FOR ATTENTION 77
TABLE 17 LIFE SPAN OF DRINKING WATER SYSTEM COMPONENTS (YEARS) 78
TABLE 18 LIFE SPAN OF WASTEWATER SYSTEM COMPONENTS (YEARS) 79
PIPE INSTALLATION AND REPAIR AVOIDANCE 79
REGULATION IMPROVEMENTS SUPPORTING GROWTH IN SOME REGIONS 80
EUROPEAN UNION 81
U.S. 81
CHINA 81
MEXICO 82
CANADA 82
AUSTRALIA 83
U.K. 83
PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP INVOLVEMENT IN WIRT 83
GOVERNMENT PUSH FOR PPPS 84
PUBLIC/PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS AND PRIVATE VENTURES BENEFIT DEVELOPING REGIONS 86
DIFFERING OPINIONS REGARDING PUBLIC/PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS 86
PRIVATE UTILITY COMPANIES ON THE RISE 87
PUSH TO SEPARATE COMBINED SEWER SYSTEMS PROMOTES WIRT 87
HIDDEN TROUBLES EASY TO IGNORE 89
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS FUELING THE WIRT MARKET 90
PUBLIC EDUCATION SUPPORTING THE WIRT MARKET 91
PROACTIVE REPAIR OUTSHINING EMERGENCY REPAIR 93
NATURAL DISASTERS FUELING THE WIRT MARKET 95
AID TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES BOOSTING THE WIRT MARKET 96
AID NOT ALWAYS WELCOME 100
IMPROVED SANITATION AND DRINKING WATER COVERAGE GOOD FOR WIRT 101
TABLE 19 POPULATION WITHOUT ACCESS TO DRINKING WATER BY COUNTRY, 2012 (MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 20 POPULATION WITHOUT ACCESS TO IMPROVED SANITATION BY COUNTRY, 2012 (MILLIONS) 105
FIGURE 7 TOP COUNTRIES WITHOUT SANITATION, 2014 105
WATER DISTRIBUTION DOESN'T ALWAYS MEAN QUALITY 106
MAINTENANCE JUST AS IMPORTANT AS BUILDING 107
THE WORLD IS BECOMING RICHER: WIRT TO BENEFIT 107
GOVERNMENTS SUPPORTING WIRT PROJECTS 108
U.S. 108
MEXICO 110
CANADA 110
CHINA 111
HONG KONG 111
NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS' ROLES IN SUPPORTING THE WIRT MARKET 111
WORLD WORKS TO ERADICATE OPEN DEFECATION 112
TABLE 21 POPULATIONS PRACTICING OPEN DEFECATION, BY COUNTRY, 2012 (MILLIONS) 113
POOP: NOT A SAVORY SUBJECT 114
CYBERSECURITY BECOMING MORE OF AN ISSUE 115
WATER RATE INCREASES AND WIRT GROWTH 116
DANGER OF FREE OR INEXPENSIVE SERVICES 118
SO MANY QUESTIONS: DIFFICULT TO CHOOSE WIRT TECHNOLOGY 119
SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS PROMOTE WIRT 120
RELIABLE DATA ELUSIVE IN POORER REGIONS 124
FOOD, WATER AND ENERGY PACKAGED 124
CONCERNS OVER STYRENE IN CIPP SUPPORTS SOME WIRT PRODUCTS 126
HAZARDS OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE PIPE 126
PIPE BURSTS BRING ATTENTION TO BURIED INFRASTRUCTURE 128
MORE LONG-DISTANCE PIPELINES, MORE PIPE AND MORE WIRT 129
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES AND CAREER OPTIONS IN THE WIRT MARKET 130
ASSOCIATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS PROPEL MARKET GROWTH 133
UNITED KINGDOM WATER INDUSTRY RESEARCH 133
AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION 133
CANADIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION 134
SUSTAINABLE WATER INFRASTRUCTURE COALITION 134
WATER WORLD 134
ANJOU RECHERCHE 134
ASSOCIATION OF STATE DRINKING WATER ADMINISTRATORS 134
WATER ENVIRONMENT FEDERATION 135
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM 135
UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATION 135
SMART WATER4EUROPE 135
ALLIANCE FOR WATER EFFICIENCY 136
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SEWER SERVICE COMPANIES 136
WATER RESEARCH FOUNDATION 136
WATER SERVICES ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA 136
WATER FINANCE RESEARCH FOUNDATION 136
WATER ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH FOUNDATION 137
FOUNDATION FOR APPLIED WATER RESEARCH 137
CIRSEE 137
GLOBAL WATER RESEARCH COALITION 137
SOUTH AFRICA WATER RESEARCH COMMISSION 137
INTERNATIONAL WATER ASSOCIATION 138
WATER/WASTEWATER AGENCY RESPONSE NETWORK 138
DUCTILE IRON SOCIETY 138
UNI-BELL PVC PIPE ASSOCIATION 138
ALLIANCE FOR PE PIPE 139
JAPAN SEWAGE WORKS ASSOCIATION 139
WATER AND SEWER DISTRIBUTORS OF AMERICA 139
WORLD WATER COUNCIL 139
JOHNSON FOUNDATION AT WINGSPREAD 139
UNIVERSITY-BASED RESEARCH GROUPS 140
CONFERENCES, CONVENTIONS, EXHIBITIONS, SHOWS AND OTHER EVENTS 140

CHAPTER 5 WIRT MARKET GROWTH BY SEGMENT 145
MARKET BY SYSTEM TYPE 145
TABLE 22 GLOBAL WIRT MARKET, BY SYSTEM TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 145
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL WIRT MARKET, BY SYSTEM TYPE, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 146
DRINKING WATER AND WASTEWATER MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE 146
TABLE 23 GLOBAL DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE REPAIR TECHNOLOGY MARKET, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 147
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE REPAIR TECHNOLOGY MARKET, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 147
TABLE 24 GLOBAL WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE REPAIR TECHNOLOGY MARKET, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 148
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE REPAIR TECHNOLOGY MARKET, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 148
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF DRINKING WATER AND WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE REPAIR TECHNOLOGY, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015 AND 2021 (%) 148
MARKET BY CATEGORY 149
ASSESSMENT 149
TABLE 25 GLOBAL WIRT ASSESSMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 150
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL WIRT ASSESSMENT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 150
Visual Assessment 150
TABLE 26 GLOBAL WIRT VISUAL ASSESSMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 151
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL WIRT VISUAL ASSESSMENT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 151
Acoustic Assessment 151
TABLE 27 GLOBAL WIRT ACOUSTIC ASSESSMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 152
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL WIRT ACOUSTIC ASSESSMENT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 152
Electromagnetic Assessment WIRT 152
TABLE 28 GLOBAL WIRT ELECTROMAGNETIC ASSESSMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 153
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL WIRT ELECTROMAGNETIC ASSESSMENT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 153
Ultrasonic Assessment WIRT 153
TABLE 29 GLOBAL WIRT ULTRASONIC ASSESSMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 154
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL WIRT ULTRASONIC ASSESSMENT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 154
SPOT REPAIR 154
TABLE 30 GLOBAL WIRT SPOT REPAIR MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 155
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL WIRT SPOT REPAIR MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 155
Pipe Wrapping Spot Repair 155
TABLE 31 GLOBAL WIRT PIPE WRAPPING SPOT REPAIR MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 156
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL WIRT PIPE WRAPPING SPOT REPAIR MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 156
Spray Spot Repair 156
TABLE 32 GLOBAL WIRT SPRAY SPOT REPAIR MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 157
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL WIRT SPRAY SPOT REPAIR MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 157
REHABILITATION 157
TABLE 33 GLOBAL WIRT REHABILITATION MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 158
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL WIRT REHABILITATION MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 158
Cured-in-Place Pipe Rehabilitation 158
TABLE 34 GLOBAL WIRT CURED-IN-PLACE PIPE REHABILITATION MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 159
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL WIRT CURED-IN-PLACE PIPE REHABILITATION MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 159
Cured-in-Place Pipe Market by Curing Methods 159
FIGURE 22 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF WIRT CURED-IN-PLACE PIPE, BY CURING METHODS, 2015 (%) 159
Sliplining Rehabilitation 160
TABLE 35 GLOBAL WIRT SLIPLINING REHABILITATION MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 160
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL WIRT SLIPLINING REHABILITATION MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 160
Spray Liner Rehabilitation 161
TABLE 36 GLOBAL WIRT SPRAY LINER REHABILITATION MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 161
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL WIRT SPRAY LINER REHABILITATION MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 161
Close-Fit Lining Rehabilitation 162
TABLE 37 GLOBAL WIRT CLOSE-FIT LINING REHABILITATION MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 162
FIGURE 25 GLOBAL WIRT CLOSE-FIT LINING REHABILITATION MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 162
REPLACEMENT 163
TABLE 38 GLOBAL WIRT REPLACEMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 163
FIGURE 26 GLOBAL WIRT REPLACEMENT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 163
Pipe Bursting Replacement 164
TABLE 39 GLOBAL WIRT PIPE BURSTING REPLACEMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 164
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL WIRT PIPE BURSTING REPLACEMENT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 164

CHAPTER 6 WIRT MARKET BY REGION AND COUNTRY 167
POPULATION SIZE AND GROWTH 167
NORTH AMERICA 167
TABLE 40 NORTH AMERICAN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 167
CENTRAL AMERICA 167
TABLE 41 CENTRAL AMERICAN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 168
CARIBBEAN 168
TABLE 42 CARIBBEAN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 168
SOUTH AMERICA 169
TABLE 43 SOUTH AMERICAN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 169
EUROPE 170
TABLE 44 EUROPEAN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 170
ASIA-PACIFIC 171
TABLE 45 ASIA-PACIFIC POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 171
MIDDLE EAST 172
TABLE 46 MIDDLE EASTERN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 172
AFRICA 173
TABLE 47 AFRICAN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 173
AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA 174
TABLE 48 AUSTRALIAN AND OCEANIAN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 174
GREENLAND 175
TABLE 49 GREENLAND POPULATION, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 175
WIRT MARKET BY REGION 175
FIGURE 28 GLOBAL WIRT MARKET SHARE, BY REGION, 2015 (%) 175
FIGURE 29 GLOBAL WIRT MARKET SHARE, BY REGION, 2021 (%) 176
NORTH AMERICAN MARKET 177
TABLE 50 NORTH AMERICAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 177
FIGURE 30 NORTH AMERICAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 177
CENTRAL AMERICAN MARKET 178
TABLE 51 CENTRAL AMERICAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 178
FIGURE 31 CENTRAL AMERICAN WIRT, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 178
CARIBBEAN MARKET 179
TABLE 52 CARIBBEAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 179
FIGURE 32 CARIBBEAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 179
SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET 180
TABLE 53 SOUTH AMERICAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 180
FIGURE 33 SOUTH AMERICAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 180
EUROPEAN MARKET 181
TABLE 54 EUROPEAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 181
FIGURE 34 EUROPEAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 181
ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET 182
TABLE 55 ASIA-PACIFIC WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 182
FIGURE 35 ASIA-PACIFIC WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 182
MIDDLE EASTERN MARKET 183
TABLE 56 MIDDLE EASTERN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 183
FIGURE 36 MIDDLE EASTERN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 183
AFRICAN MARKET 184
TABLE 57 AFRICAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 184
FIGURE 37 AFRICAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 184
AUSTRALIAN AND OCEANIAN MARKET 185
TABLE 58 AUSTRALIAN AND OCEANIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 185
FIGURE 38 AUSTRALIAN AND OCEANIAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 185
GREENLAND'S MARKET 186
TABLE 59 GREENLAND'S WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 186
FIGURE 39 GREENLAND'S WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 186
COUNTRY INVOLVEMENT IN WIRT MARKET 187
FIGURE 40 WIRT MARKET SHARE FOR TOP 20 COUNTRIES, 2015 (%) 188
U.S. 188
TABLE 60 U.S. WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 189
FIGURE 41 U.S. WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 189
CHINA 189
TABLE 61 CHINESE WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 190
FIGURE 42 CHINESE WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 190
INDIA 190
TABLE 62 INDIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 191
FIGURE 43 INDIAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 191
JAPAN 191
TABLE 63 JAPANESE WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 192
FIGURE 44 JAPANESE WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 192
BRAZIL 192
TABLE 64 BRAZILIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 193
FIGURE 45 BRAZILIAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 193
RUSSIA 193
TABLE 65 RUSSIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 194
FIGURE 46 RUSSIAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 194
GERMANY 194
TABLE 66 GERMAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 195
FIGURE 47 GERMAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 195
FRANCE 195
TABLE 67 FRENCH WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 196
FIGURE 48 FRENCH WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 196
U.K. 196
TABLE 68 U.K. WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 197
FIGURE 49 U.K. WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 197
ITALY 197
TABLE 69 ITALIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 198
FIGURE 50 ITALIAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 198
MEXICO 198
TABLE 70 MEXICAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 199
FIGURE 51 MEXICAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 199
TURKEY 199
TABLE 71 TURKISH WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 200
FIGURE 52 TURKISH WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 200
IRAN 200
TABLE 72 IRANIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 201
FIGURE 53 IRANIAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 201
SPAIN 201
TABLE 73 SPANISH WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 202
FIGURE 54 SPANISH WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 202
EGYPT 202
TABLE 74 EGYPTIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 203
FIGURE 55 EGYPTIAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 203
CANADA 203
TABLE 75 CANADIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 204
FIGURE 56 CANADIAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 204
AUSTRALIA 204
TABLE 76 AUSTRALIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 205
FIGURE 57 AUSTRALIAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 205
PAKISTAN 205
TABLE 77 PAKISTANI WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 206
FIGURE 58 PAKISTANI WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 206
POLAND 206
TABLE 78 POLISH WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 207
FIGURE 59 POLISH WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 207
ARGENTINA 207
TABLE 79 ARGENTINIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 208
FIGURE 60 ARGENTINA WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 208

CHAPTER 7 WIRT TECHNOLOGIES 210
WATER INFRASTRUCTURE REPAIR TECHNOLOGIES 210
OPEN CUT PIPE REPAIR VERSUS TRENCHLESS PIPE REPAIR 210
ASSESSMENT 210
VISUAL INSPECTION 211
Man-Entry Inspection and External Inspection 211
Closed-Circuit Television 211
Videoscopes 212
Three-Dimensional Optical Scanning 212
Laser Pipe Surface Profiling 212
ACOUSTIC LEAK DETECTION 212
Acoustic Emission Monitoring 212
Listening Rod 212
Geophone 213
Hydrophone 213
Leak Noise Logger 213
Leak Noise Correlator 213
Streaming Cable Inline Detectors 213
Sonar 214
Impact Echo 214
ELECTROMAGNETIC INSPECTION 214
Electromagnetic Field Detection 214
Broadband Electromagnetic 214
Remote Field Eddy Current 215
Pulsed Eddy Current System 215
Magnetic Flux Leakage 215
Ground Penetrating Radar 215
ULTRASONIC 216
Ultrasonic Inspection 216
Guided Wave Ultrasonic Testing 216
Ultrasonic Phased Array 216
OTHER ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES 216
Meters 216
Infrared Thermography 217
Tracer Gas Injection 217
Hydrostatic Testing 217
Seismic Pulse Echo 217
Coupon Sampling or Destructive Testing 218
Radiographic Testing 218
SPOT REPAIR 218
PIPE WRAPPING 218
PIPE SLEEVES 218
SPRAYS 219
PIPE CLAMPS 219
JOINT REPAIR 219
REHABILITATION 219
PIPE LINING 220
SLIPLINING 220
CLOSE-FIT LINING 221
SPRAY LINERS 221
CURED-IN-PLACE PIPE LINING 221
SPIRAL WOUND LINING 222
REPLACEMENT 222
PIPE BURSTING 222
PIPE SPLITTING 223
PIPE REAMING 223
PIPE EXTRACTION 223
NEW AND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES AND PRODUCT TRENDS 223
PICOTE'S SMART CUTTER WINS PRODUCT OF THE YEAR AWARD 223
DIPRA MANUFACTURES SMART CERTIFIED PIPES 224
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY LOOKS AT INFOSENSE'S SEWER LINE RAPID ASSESSMENT TOOL 224
GUTERMANN'S NEC WATER LEAKAGE DETECTION SOLUTION 224
ECHOLOGICS' EPULSE ENGINEER 225
GENERAL PIPE CLEANERS' GEN-EYE PRISM 225
ENVIROLOGICS' TOMAHAWK WATERLESS SYSTEM 225
CUES' ADDS PAN-AND-TILT FEATURE 225
AQUARIUS LEAK-DETECTION SYSTEM USES ANDROID APPLICATION 225
ARIES' PATHFINDER WITH DUAL-JOYSTICK XBOX CONTROLLER 226
ARIES' NEW LETS HIGH-TECH 6.0 CAMERA 226
DEEP TREKKER'S BATTERY-RUN PIPE CRAWLER 226
VISION CAMERA'S IRIS FEATURES FEED-ASSIST CABLE DRUM 226
RAPIDVIEW'S LISY 3.2 WITH FRONT ARTICULATION ARM 227
RAPIDVIEW'S IBAK NORTH AMERICA 3-D GEOSENSE 227
RAUSCH'S M-SERIES PIPE INSPECTION HIGHLY MODULAR 227
BENJAMIN A. HILL GOES FOR SIMPLE 228
MATCHPOINT'S ENIGMA3M EFFICIENT LEAK-DETECTION SYSTEM 228
R.S.' FORD TRANSIT AVAILABLE IN DIESEL OR GAS 228
ELECTRIC EEL'S ECAM PRO 2 FOR PIPE INSPECTING 228
MYTANA'S VIDEO INSPECTION SYSTEM FEATURES MYTANA APPLICATION 228
VIVAX-METROTECH OFFERS REAL-TIME MAPPING SYSTEM 229
FULCRUM'S DATA COLLECTION SOFTWARE FEATURES CUSTOM APPLICATIONS 229
SIMPON'S RPSINJECT AVAILABLE IN FOUR FORMULAS 229
FLUID CONSERVATION'S WIRELESS ACOUSTIC LEAK NOISE SENSOR 229
ELECTRO SCAN'S LOW-VOLTAGE CONDUCTIVITY TECHNOLOGY 229
SENSUS IPERL SMART METER WITH NO MOVING PARTS 230
NEPTUNE'S MANAGED SERVICES AND CLOUD-BASED HOSTING 230
KALENBORN'S ADHESIVES FOR HIGH-PRESSURE PIPELINES 230
PURE TECHNOLOGIES' FREE ROLLING BALL 231

CHAPTER 8 WIRT COMPANY PROFILES 233
3M COMPANY 233
ACLARA TECHNOLOGIES LLC 233
ACTION PRODUCTS MARKETING CORP. 233
ADVANCED TRENCHLESS INC. 234
AEGION CORP. 235
AFFORDABLE TRENCHLESS and PIPE LINING 235
AGRU KUNSTOFFTECHNIK GMBH 236
AMERICAN CAST IRON PIPE CO. 237
AMEX GMBH 237
APPLIED FELTS INC. 238
AQUARIUS SPECTRUM LTD. 238
ARIES INDUSTRIES INC. 239
ATLANTIS PLUMBING 239
BLACK and VEATCH 239
BRANDENBURGER LINER GMBH and CO. KG 240
BRAWOLINER 241
CONTECH ENGINEERED SOLUTIONS LLC 241
CRAFTSMAN PIPE LINING INC. 242
CUES PIPE INC. 242
DALCO SERVICES INC. 243
ECHOLOGICS 244
ECOLINER INC. 244
EEG LTD. 245
ELECTRO SCAN INC. 245
FERRATEX INC. 246
FERRO MONK SYSTEMS LTD. 246
HAMMERHEAD TRENCHLESS EQUIPMENT 247
HERMES TECHNOLOGIE GMBH and CO KG 247
HOBAS ENGINEERING GMBH 248
HYDRATECH ENGINEERED PRODUCTS LLC 249
INFOSENSE INC. 250
INLAND PIPE REHABILITATION LLC 250
INLINER TECHNOLOGIES LLC 251
INTERGRAPH CORP. 251
KMB PIPE REHABILITATION EMIRATES L.L.C. 252
KRAUSZ LTD. 252
LANZO TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES 253
LEAKS IRELAND 253
LINK-PIPE INC. 254
LMK TECHNOLOGIES INC. 254
MICHELS CORP. 255
MINI-CAM LTD. 256
MIYA ARISON GROUP 256
MUELLER WATER PRODUCTS INC. 257
NATIONAL LINER LLC 257
NEPTUNE TECHNOLOGY GROUP INC. 258
NEW YORK LEAK DETECTION INC. 258
NU FLOW AMERICA INC. 259
OPTIMATICS LLC 260
PERMA-LINER INDUSTRIES LLC 260
PICA PIPELINE INSPECTION AND CONDITIONS ANALYSIS CORP 261
PICOTE OY LTD. 262
PIPE ROBOTEC USA 262
PIPELINE ANALYTICS CO. 263
PIPELINE PIGGING PRODUCTS INC. 263
PIPELINING TECHNOLOGIES INC. 264
PIPELOGIX INC. 264
PROFORM PIPE LINING INC. 266
PURE TECHNOLOGIES LTD. 266
QINGDAO VTOP INTERNATIONAL CO. LTD. 267
QUAKEWRAP INC. 268
RAUSCH ELECTRONICS USA LLC 268
RAVEN LINING SYSTEMS INC. 269
ROMACON PIPELINE PRODUCTS BV 269
RS TECHNIK AG 270
SAERTEX GMBH and CO. KG 271
SANEXEN ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES INC. 271
SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC INC. 272
SHONAN PLASTIC MFG. CO. LTD. 272
SPRAYROQ INC. 272
STEVE VICK INTERNATIONAL LTD. 273
TRELLEBORG PIPE SEALS LELYSTAD B.V. 273 TROLINING GMBH 274 TT TECHNOLOGIES INC. 275 UMWELTTECHNIK FRANZ JANSSEN GMBH 276 UNDERGROUND SOLUTIONS INC. 276 WATER SYSTEMS OPTIMIZATION INC. 276

LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL WIRT MARKET BY CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 6
TABLE 1 PIPE LIFE EXPECTANCIES BY COMPOSITION TYPE AND THEIR MOST COMMON AILMENTS (YEARS) 16
TABLE 2 GLOBAL WIRT MARKET, BY CATEGORY, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 20
TABLE 13 FRESHWATER POLLUTION FOR COUNTRIES HIGHLIGHTED IN THIS REPORT, 2001 (METRIC TONS OF BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND EMISSIONS PER CUBIC KILOMETER OF WATER) 24
TABLE 4 HISTORICAL GLOBAL POPULATION AND PERCENTAGE POPULATION GROWTH BY DECADE, 1950-2020 (THOUSANDS/%) 28
TABLE 5 PROJECTED GLOBAL POPULATION AND PERCENTAGE POPULATION GROWTH, BY DECADE, 2020-2100 (THOUSANDS/%) 28
TABLE 6 URBAN POPULATION AND RATE OF URBANIZATION, BY COUNTRY, 2014 (% OF TOTAL/% GROWTH) 30
TABLE 7 TEN LARGEST CITIES IN THE WORLD AND THEIR POPULATIONS, 2015 (THOUSANDS) 31
TABLE 8 WATER USE BY COUNTRY, 2000-2010 (KILOMETERS CUBED PER YEAR) 33
TABLE 9 TOP 20 COUNTRIES UNDER WATER STRESS, 2000 (% OF LAND AREA) 36
TABLE 10 WATER STRESS OF SELECTED COUNTRIES, 2000 (% OF LAND AREA) 37
TABLE 11 WATER WITHDRAWAL AND RENEWAL BY COUNTRY, 2014 (BILLION CUBIC METERS/%) 39
TABLE 12 FRESHWATER POLLUTION FOR 20 MOST-POLLUTED COUNTRIES, 2001 (METRIC TONS OF BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND EMISSIONS PER CUBIC KILOMETER OF WATER) 42
TABLE 13 FRESHWATER POLLUTION FOR COUNTRIES HIGHLIGHTED IN THIS REPORT, 2001 (METRIC TONS OF BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND EMISSIONS PER CUBIC KILOMETER OF WATER) 43
TABLE 14 CANADIAN POTABLE, WASTEWATER AND STORM WATER PIPES BY AGE 54
TABLE 15 PIPE CONDITION BY TYPE AND COMBINED AVERAGE (%) 55
TABLE 16 TECHNOLOGY USED FOR UNDERGROUND ASSET ASSESSMENT, 2016 (% PREFERRED BY CANADIAN MUNICIPALITIES) 72
TABLE 17 LIFE SPAN OF DRINKING WATER SYSTEM COMPONENTS (YEARS) 78
TABLE 18 LIFE SPAN OF WASTEWATER SYSTEM COMPONENTS (YEARS) 79
TABLE 19 POPULATION WITHOUT ACCESS TO DRINKING WATER BY COUNTRY, 2012 (MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 20 POPULATION WITHOUT ACCESS TO IMPROVED SANITATION BY COUNTRY, 2012 (MILLIONS) 105
TABLE 21 POPULATIONS PRACTICING OPEN DEFECATION, BY COUNTRY, 2012 (MILLIONS) 113
TABLE 22 GLOBAL WIRT MARKET, BY SYSTEM TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 145
TABLE 23 GLOBAL DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE REPAIR TECHNOLOGY MARKET, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 147
TABLE 24 GLOBAL WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE REPAIR TECHNOLOGY MARKET, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 148
TABLE 25 GLOBAL WIRT ASSESSMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 150
TABLE 26 GLOBAL WIRT VISUAL ASSESSMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 151
TABLE 27 GLOBAL WIRT ACOUSTIC ASSESSMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 152
TABLE 28 GLOBAL WIRT ELECTROMAGNETIC ASSESSMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 153
TABLE 29 GLOBAL WIRT ULTRASONIC ASSESSMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 154
TABLE 30 GLOBAL WIRT SPOT REPAIR MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 155
TABLE 31 GLOBAL WIRT PIPE WRAPPING SPOT REPAIR MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 156
TABLE 32 GLOBAL WIRT SPRAY SPOT REPAIR MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 157
TABLE 33 GLOBAL WIRT REHABILITATION MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 158
TABLE 34 GLOBAL WIRT CURED-IN-PLACE PIPE REHABILITATION MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 159
TABLE 35 GLOBAL WIRT SLIPLINING REHABILITATION MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 160
TABLE 36 GLOBAL WIRT SPRAY LINER REHABILITATION MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 161
TABLE 37 GLOBAL WIRT CLOSE-FIT LINING REHABILITATION MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 162
TABLE 38 GLOBAL WIRT REPLACEMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 163
TABLE 39 GLOBAL WIRT PIPE BURSTING REPLACEMENT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 164
TABLE 40 NORTH AMERICAN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 167
TABLE 41 CENTRAL AMERICAN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 168
TABLE 42 CARIBBEAN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 168
TABLE 43 SOUTH AMERICAN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 169
TABLE 44 EUROPEAN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 170
TABLE 45 ASIA-PACIFIC POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 171
TABLE 46 MIDDLE EASTERN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 172
TABLE 47 AFRICAN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 173
TABLE 48 AUSTRALIAN AND OCEANIAN POPULATION, BY COUNTRY, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 174
TABLE 49 GREENLAND POPULATION, 2016 (NUMBER/%) 175
TABLE 50 NORTH AMERICAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 177
TABLE 51 CENTRAL AMERICAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 178
TABLE 52 CARIBBEAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 179
TABLE 53 SOUTH AMERICAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 180
TABLE 54 EUROPEAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 181
TABLE 55 ASIA-PACIFIC WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 182
TABLE 56 MIDDLE EASTERN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 183
TABLE 57 AFRICAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 184
TABLE 58 AUSTRALIAN AND OCEANIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 185
TABLE 59 GREENLAND'S WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 186
TABLE 60 U.S. WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 189
TABLE 61 CHINESE WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 190
TABLE 62 INDIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 191
TABLE 63 JAPANESE WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 192
TABLE 64 BRAZILIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 193
TABLE 65 RUSSIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 194
TABLE 66 GERMAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 195
TABLE 67 FRENCH WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 196
TABLE 68 U.K. WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 197
TABLE 69 ITALIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 198
TABLE 70 MEXICAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 199
TABLE 71 TURKISH WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 200
TABLE 72 IRANIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 201
TABLE 73 SPANISH WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 202
TABLE 74 EGYPTIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 203
TABLE 75 CANADIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS) 204
TABLE 76 AUSTRALIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 205
TABLE 77 PAKISTANI WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 206
TABLE 78 POLISH WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 207
TABLE 79 ARGENTINIAN WIRT MARKET, THROUGH 2021 ($ MILLIONS/%) 208

LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL WIRT MARKET BY CATEGORY, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 6
FIGURE 1 MAJOR ASSESSMENT CATEGORIES 10
FIGURE 2 MAJOR SPOT REPAIR CATEGORIES 11
FIGURE 3 MAJOR REHABILITATION CATEGORIES 11
FIGURE 4 MAJOR REPLACEMENT CATEGORIES 11
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL WIRT MARKET, BY CATEGORY, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 21
FIGURE 6 FRESHWATER STRESS, 1995 AND 2025 38
FIGURE 7 TOP COUNTRIES WITHOUT SANITATION, 2014 105
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL WIRT MARKET, BY SYSTEM TYPE, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 146
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE REPAIR TECHNOLOGY MARKET, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 147
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE REPAIR TECHNOLOGY MARKET, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 148
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF DRINKING WATER AND WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE REPAIR TECHNOLOGY, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2015 AND 2021 (%) 148
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL WIRT ASSESSMENT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 150
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL WIRT VISUAL ASSESSMENT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 151
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL WIRT ACOUSTIC ASSESSMENT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 152
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL WIRT ELECTROMAGNETIC ASSESSMENT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 153
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL WIRT ULTRASONIC ASSESSMENT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 154
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL WIRT SPOT REPAIR MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 155
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL WIRT PIPE WRAPPING SPOT REPAIR MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 156
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL WIRT SPRAY SPOT REPAIR MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 157
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL WIRT REHABILITATION MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 158
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL WIRT CURED-IN-PLACE PIPE REHABILITATION MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 159
FIGURE 22 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF WIRT CURED-IN-PLACE PIPE, BY CURING METHODS, 2015 (%) 159
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL WIRT SLIPLINING REHABILITATION MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 160
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL WIRT SPRAY LINER REHABILITATION MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 161
FIGURE 25 GLOBAL WIRT CLOSE-FIT LINING REHABILITATION MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 162
FIGURE 26 GLOBAL WIRT REPLACEMENT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 163
FIGURE 27 GLOBAL WIRT PIPE BURSTING REPLACEMENT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 164
FIGURE 28 GLOBAL WIRT MARKET SHARE, BY REGION, 2015 (%) 175
FIGURE 29 GLOBAL WIRT MARKET SHARE, BY REGION, 2021 (%) 176
FIGURE 30 NORTH AMERICAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 177
FIGURE 31 CENTRAL AMERICAN WIRT, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 178
FIGURE 32 CARIBBEAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 179
FIGURE 33 SOUTH AMERICAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 180
FIGURE 34 EUROPEAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 181
FIGURE 35 ASIA-PACIFIC WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 182
FIGURE 36 MIDDLE EASTERN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 183
FIGURE 37 AFRICAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 184
FIGURE 38 AUSTRALIAN AND OCEANIAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 185
FIGURE 39 GREENLAND'S WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 186
FIGURE 40 WIRT MARKET SHARE FOR TOP 20 COUNTRIES, 2015 (%) 188
FIGURE 41 U.S. WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 189
FIGURE 42 CHINESE WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 190
FIGURE 43 INDIAN WIRT MARKET, 2015-2021 ($ MILLIONS) 191

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