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  4. > Audiovisual industry going global – What options exist for European service publishers?

The audiovisual market has always been a traditionally multinational industry. Within the industry, content production, publishing and distribution activities have highly varying levels of internationalisation. There has been a marked escalation of transnational mergers over the recent period, indicating a new phase in globalisation of the industry.
There is now pressure coming from two main angles: producers are faced with constantly increasing production costs, and distributors are faced with continually high CAPEX levels and new competition from OTT players. European service publishers have to reinvent their strategies in this new globalised context, which is dominated by North American players.

This report aims to:

• establish the current state of globalisation and industry restructuring in the audiovisual sector by studying the corporate strategies of a selection of major players from the production, publishing and distribution segments
• assess the impact of globalisation on European players in the audiovisual sector by focusing on TV channels and networks
• describe the various coping strategies being pursued by these players.

Companies Mentioned

• Al Jazeera
• All3Media
• Altice
• Amazon Prime Instant Video
• AT&T
• BBC Worldwide
• BeIn Sport
• Canal+
• CanalPlay
• Channel 5
• Cinemax
• Comcast
• Digiturk
• DirecTV
• Dish Network
• Endemol
• Eyeworks
• Fremantle
• Hulu
• iTunes
• Kabel Deutschland
• Liberty Global
• Modern Time Group
• Naspers
• NBC Universal
• Netflix
• NLziet
• Ono
• Orange/OCS
• ProSiebenSat.1.
• Red Arrow
• RTL Group
• Shine Group
• Showtime
• Sky
• StarTimes
• Starz
• Talpa Media
• TDT Premium
• Telefónica
• Televisa
• TF1
• Time Warner Cable
• Time Warner Inc.
• Viacom
• Virgin Media
• Ziggo
• Zodiak Entertainment

Table Of Contents

Audiovisual industry going global - What options exist for European service publishers?
1. Executive Summary

2. Methodology and definitions
2.1. General methodology of IDATE's reports
2.2. Methodology specific to this report
2.2.1. Key objectives
2.2.2. Geographic scope and players studied
2.2.3. Definitions

3. Reasons behind globalisation
3.1. The need to find new growth drivers
3.1.1. The slowdown in Western markets
3.1.2. Emerging market dynamics
3.2. The search for economies of scale
3.2.1. Inflation of production costs
3.2.2. Erosion of distributors' profit margins
3.2.3. CAPEX and RandD
3.3. The globalisation of distribution
3.3.1. Time scales relating to access to content are being redefined
3.3.2. Easier overseas expansion for OTT players
3.4. Programme offering becoming more standardised?
3.4.1. The power of North American series
3.4.2. UK and Dutch companies dominate the TV format market

4. Globalisation models
4.1. Exporting programmes
4.1.1. Selling rights internationally
4.1.2. Growth of international co-productions
4.1.3. Programme formats proliferating
4.2. Exporting audiovisual content services
4.2.1. Transnational distribution
4.2.2. Broadcasting local versions
4.2.3. OTT services
4.3. International channel package providers
4.3.1. Internal growth strategies
4.3.2. External growth strategies

5. The impact of globalisation
5.1. A new phase of vertical integration
5.1.1. Integration of production functions by distributors
5.1.2. integration of distribution functions by TV channels/networks and content rights holders
5.1.3. OTT services investing in original content
5.2. Horizontal concentration of production and distribution industries
5.2.1. Concentration in the production sector
5.2.2. Concentration in the US distribution sector
5.2.3. Concentration in the European distribution sector
5.3. The emergence of oligopolistic situations in new services
5.3.1. iTunes is the global transactional VOD leader
5.3.2. North American services dominate the SVOD segment
5.4. Gains for English-speaking programming
5.5. How are European players adapting?
5.5.1. Programming and production investment strategies
5.5.2. European players' OTT strategies


Table 1: Major cable package prices in the United States, January 2012 - January 2013
Table 2: TV advertising revenues in the United States, 2012-2013
Table 3: Examples of international co-productions in Europe over the 2011-2013 period
Table 4: The top 5 programme formats in Europe in terms of hours broadcast, 2012 and 2013
Table 5: The top 5 programme formats in Europe in terms of revenue generated, 2012 and 2013
Table 6: Original series available on video services from Amazon, Netflix and Hulu
Table 7: European production company acquisitions by North American players, 2011-2014
Table 8: The most downloaded TV series on BitTorrent in the world, 2012-2014


Figure 1: Threats and opportunities from globalisation for the main player categories in the value chain
Figure 1: Pay-TV penetration in the United States and Canada, 2011-2015
Figure 2: Pay-TV penetration in Europe, end of 2014
Figure 3: Net subscriber bases for the channel packages of Canal+ and TDT Premium between 2008 and 2013
Figure 4: ARPU trends and forecasts for cable in Europe, 2012-2016
Figure 5: TV advertising revenues in the five main European markets
Figure 6: Pay-TV market breakdown by operator in terms of subscribers, Germany, as of 1 January 2014
Figure 8: TV penetration in homes of the Asia/Pacific region, end of 2014
Figure 9: Pay-TV penetration in homes of the Asia/Pacific region, end of 2014
Figure 10: TV penetration in homes of the Latin American region, end of 2014
Figure 11: Pay-TV penetration in homes of the Latin American region, end of 2014
Figure 12: TV penetration in homes of the Africa/Middle East region, end of 2014
Figure 13: Pay-TV penetration in homes of the Africa/Middle East region, end of 2014
Figure 14: TV advertising revenue growth forecasts for Asia Pacific, Europe, Latin America, Africa/Middle East and North America, 2014-2019
Figure 15: Average cost of producing audiovisual fiction in France, 1994-2013
Figure 16: Revenues and costs related to the production of a North American 52-minute TV series episode during the first six seasons
Figure 17: Comparison of video ARPU, programming costs per subscriber and margin rate in the cable sector, United States, 1995-2014
Figure 18: CAPEX trends and forecasts for cable in Europe, 2004-2016
Figure 19: Restructuring of the video sector value chain
Figure 20: Standard distribution timeline for a North American series during its first six years of exploitation
Figure 21: Global footprint of the OTT video services of Apple (iTunes), Netflix and Amazon as of 1 January 2015
Figure 22: Origin of fiction programmes broadcast on a sample of TV channels in 17 European countries in 2013
Figure 23: Breakdown of the top 100 TV fiction audiences by origin in France on TF1 and France 2 in 2009, 2011 and 2013
Figure 24: Breakdown of hourly volume and revenues generated by the sale of the top 100 TV formats in Europe in 2013
Figure 25: Availability of a selection of TV series by distribution channel in France, January 2015
Figure 26: International presence of the formats The Voice, X-Factor and Dancing with the Stars as of 31 December 2014
Figure 27: Brands operated by HBO in the United States (excluding HD channels)
Figure 28: Brands operated by HBO in Europe (excluding HD channels)
Figure 31: International presence of the channel brands HBO, RTL and CBS as of 31 December 2014
Figure 29: OTT service positioning of the three major US leagues, the NFL, NBA and MLS, based on the popularity of the sport, the market and the distribution channel
Figure 30: Individual premium channel packages from Dish Network in the United States
Figure 32: Global coverage provided by a selection of telecommunications satellites broadcasting TV channels
Figure 33: International presence of distributors DirecTV, Groupe Canal+, Sky and Modern Time Group as of 31 December 2014
Figure 34: International presence of distributors Liberty Global, Altice/Numericable and Telefónica/Movistar as of 31 December 2014
Figure 35: The main vertical integration movements
Figure 36: Simplified chart of the major North American media groups in 2014
Figure 37: Spending on programming for select video services in 2014
Figure 38: Quarterly growth in subscribers to Comcast and TWC pay-TV offerings, and expected level following merger and divestiture of 3.9 million subscribers
Figure 39: Number of distributors by network type in 37 European countries, 2010-2014
Figure 40: Market share of the major EST players in the United States by type of content, 2013
Figure 41: Market share of the major players in rental video on demand in the United States, movies, 2013
Figure 42: Breakdown of SVOD market in subscription volume by type of provider, mid-2014
Figure 43: Popularity of audiovisual content by category and country of origin
Figure 44: Fiction production strategies of a selection of European broadcasters
Figure 45: OTT positionings for a selection of European players

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