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BRIEF

This report reviews, updates and extends the Practel M2M/IoT project that was launched a couple years ago. In particular, it concentrates on the fast-growing healthcare and related segments of M2M/IoT.

Ambient Intelligence is a vision where environment becomes smart, friendly, context-aware and responsive to any type of human needs. In such a world, computing and networking technology coexist with people in a ubiquitous, friendly and pervasive way. Numerous miniature and interconnected smart devices create a new intelligence and interact with each other seamlessly. For healthcare, this translates into proliferation of remote monitoring and telemedicine supported by M2M/IoT networking.

The report addresses recent advances in wireless communications technologies for medical/fitness applications. Particular, it analyzes the following related developments:

-Status of M2M standardization, market and development in general and specifically for medical/wellness applications
-Development and standardization of the Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) and Medical Body Area Network (WMBAN), including their markets specifics

-Underlying technologies:
Bluetooth and its Medical Profile
ZigBee and its Medical Profile
Wi-Fi low-power consumption technology
Z-Wave, Ant and other technologies
Self-powered wireless sensors

-Continua Health Care Alliance activities in the selection of WICT for healthcare and their integration

-Survey of related industries.

The report emphasizes the necessity of further proliferation standardized wireless communications in medicine and wellness to reduce the cost and enhance quality of services.

The report is written for service providers, IT departments of hospitals and other medical organizations, retail operators, vendors, network operators and managers, investors and end users seeking to gain a deeper understanding of new trends in the wireless communications medical/wellness applications.

For systems integrators, the report provides an analysis and assessment of competing products currently available as well as an estimation of the overall opportunities in the coming years.

Table Of Contents

Healthcare and Wireless ICT: M2M, WBAN and Underlying Technologies: Standardization, Trends and Markets

1.0 Introduction 10
1.1 General 10
1.2 Scope 11
1.2.1 Choices 11
1.3 Status 12
1.4 Requirements 12
1.5 WBAN - WMBAN 13
1.6 Bluetooth 13
1.7 ZigBee 13
1.8 Wi-Fi 14
1.9 Demand 14
1.10 Crisis 14
1.11 Continua 15
1.12 Focus 15
1.13 Research Methodology 16
1.14 Target Audience 16
2.0 WBAN/WMBAN - Features and Standardization 17
2.1 General 17
2.2 Reasons 17
2.3 Definition 17
2.3.1 Structure 18
2.4 Overview 19
2.4.1 WBAN Requirements 19
2.5 Groups 22
2.5.1 By Application 22
2.5.2 By Transmission Medium 22
2.5.3 By Number of Nodes 22
2.5.4 By Environment 23
2.5.5 By Radio Type 23
2.5.6 By Source 23
2.5.7 By Response 24
2.5.8 By Condition 24
2.5.9 By Spectrum 24
2.6 FCC Regulations 24
2.7 Standardization 26
2.7.1 General 26
2.7.2 IEEE 802.15.6 27
2.7.2.1 Scope 27
2.7.2.2 Status 27
2.7.2.3 Structure 28
2.7.2.4 Major Characteristics 29
2.7.2.4.1 Specifics 29
2.7.2.4.2 Overview 29
2.7.2.5 IEEE 802.15.6: Major Points 30
2.7.2.5.1 Areas of Applications 30
2.7.2.5.2 Physical Layers 31
2.7.2.5.2.1 Narrow Band 31
2.7.2.5.2.2 UWB PHY 32
2.7.2.5.2.3 HBC PHY 33
2.7.2.5.3 MAC 33
2.7.2.5.4 Security 34
2.7.2.5.5 Power Savings 35
2.7.2.6 Summary 35
2.7.3 IEEE 802.15.4j - Medical BAN (MBAN) 36
2.7.3.1 Scope 36
2.7.3.2 Differences 37
2.7.3.3 Timeline 37
2.7.3.4 Characteristics 37
2.7.3.4.1 Spectrum and Channel Plan 37
2.7.3.4.2 Major Parameters 38
2.7.3.5 Benefits 39
2.7.4 Market Considerations 39
2.7.5 ISO/IEEE 11073 - Personal Health Data 42
2.7.5.1 Family 42
2.7.5.2 IEEE 11073 Requirements 44
2.7.6 ETSI eHealth 45
2.7.6.1 General 45
2.7.6.2 ETSI TR 101 557 V1.1.1 (2012-02) - MBANS 45
2.7.6.2.1 General 46
2.7.6.2.2 ETSI - MBANS 46
2.7.6.2.3 Market Characteristics 46
2.7.6.2.4 Technical Details 47
2.8 WBAN Applications 49
2.8.1 Healthcare 49
2.8.2 Wellness 50
2.8.3 First Responders and Military 50
2.9 Industry 52
AirStrip Technologies 52
GE 53
Intelesens 53
Intel 55
Medtronic 56
Motorola 56
Microcemi 56
Nokia 57
Siemens 58
Sotera Wireless 58
Toumaz 59
Vivago 61
VitaMove 61
2.10 Current and Future Trends-Getting Closer to WBAN 63
3.0 Underlying Technologies 64
3.1 IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth-BT) 64
3.1.1 BT Protocol Stack 64
3.1.1.1 Transport layer 65
3.1.1.2 Radio Layer 65
3.1.1.3 Baseband and Link Manager Layers 66
3.1.1.4 Middleware Layer 67
3.1.2 Profiles 67
3.1.3 Power Consumption - ULP/BLE 69
3.1.4 Health Device Profile 71
3.1.4.1 IEEE 11073 and BT 73
3.1.5 Highlights 74
3.1.5.1 The Standard: 74
3.1.5.2 The Technology: 75
3.1.6 Evolution 75
3.1.6.1 BT v2.1 75
3.1.6.2 BT v3.0 76
3.1.6.3 BT v4.0 and Further Development 76
3.1.7 Market Estimate 77
3.1.8 BT Industry-HDP 80
Bluegiga (Silicon Labs Company) 80
Cambridge Consultants 82
Continua - BMD 83
iFoundry-Nestronics 83
Laird Technologies 84
Nonin 85
Omron 86
Nordic Semiconductor 86
Stollmann 88
3.2 ZigBee 89
3.2.1 General 89
3.2.2 Technology 89
3.2.2.1 Major Features 89
3.2.3 Device Types 90
3.2.4 Protocol Stack 92
3.2.4.1 Physical and MAC Layers - IEEE802.15.4 92
3.2.4.1.1 Frame 94
3.2.4.2 Upper Layers 94
3.2.5 Interoperability 95
3.2.6 Security 96
3.2.7 Platform Considerations 97
3.2.7.1 Battery Life 98
3.2.8 ZigBee Technology Benefits and Limitations 98
3.2.9 Standardization Process 99
3.2.9.1 ZigBee Alliance 99
3.2.9.1.1 Objectives 99
3.2.9.2 IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee 100
3.2.9.2.1 IEEE 802.15.4 Radio 100
3.2.10 Applications Specifics 101
3.2.10.1 Personal, Home and Hospital Care (PHHC) Profile -ZigBee Healthcare 102
3.2.10.1.1 Objectives 103
3.2.10.1.2 Details 103
3.2.10.1.3 Use Cases 104
3.2.11 Market 105
3.2.11.1 Segments 105
3.2.11.2 Forecast 105
3.2.12 Industry 108
Amber (RF Systems) 108
Atmel (Chipsets) 110
CEL (modules) 111
Digi (Radio, Medical Application) 112
GreenPeak (WSN) 114
Freescale (Chipsets, Health Care Applications) 115
Philips Applied Technologies (Healthcare) 117
Renesas (Platforms) 117
Silicon Laboratories (Chipsets, Modules, Medical) 118
Synapse (Module, Protocols) 120
Telegesis (Integrator) 121
TI (Chipsets) 122
3.3 Low-power Consumption Wi-Fi 123
3.3.1 General 123
3.3.2 Marketing Data 124
3.3.3 Industry 124
Atmel 124
Atech 125
eConais 126
GainSpan 127
Microchip 129
Redpine Signals 129
3.4 Z-Wave 131
3.4.1 General 131
3.4.2 Z-Wave Alliance 132
3.4.3 Benefits 133
3.4.4 Selected Vendors 134
Aeon Labs 134
Mi Casa Verde 135
Sigma Designs 135
There 136
3.5 Toumaz 137
3.6 Sensium Healthcare 138
3.7 Ant 139
3.8 BodyLAN 143
3.9 FitLinxx 143
3.10 Selection - Continua Health Alliance 145
3.10.1 General 145
3.10.2 Guidelines 145
4.0 Self-powered Wireless Sensors 147
4.1 Methods 147
4.2 Batteries 148
4.3 Power Harvesting Technologies 149
4.3.1 Nodes 149
4.3.2 Energy Sources 150
4.3.2.1 General 150
4.3.2.1.1 Solar Energy 150
4.3.2.1.2 Thermoelectric 151
4.3.2.1.3 Mechanical 151
4.3.2.1.4 RF Power 151
4.3.2.2 Summary 152
4.4 Green Technologies Features and Requirements 154
5.0 Medical WICT and M2M Communications 156
5.1 M2M Specifics 156
5.1.1 Definition 156
5.1.2 Statistics 157
5.1.3 Properties 158
5.1.4 P2P and M2M 158
5.1.5 Choices 159
5.1.5.1 Cellular 159
5.1.5.2 Short-range 159
5.1.5.3 Open Standard 160
5.1.6 Challenges 160
5.1.7 Advances 161
5.2 M2M Standardization 163
5.2.1 Health Care Specifics 163
5.2.2 OneM2M Alliance 163
5.2.2.1 Varieties 163
5.2.2.2 Service Layer Architecture 164
5.2.2.3 Benefits 165
5.2.2.4 oneM2M Standards 166
5.2.3 Telefonica multi-Operators Alliance-M2M World Alliance and GSMA 166
5.2.4 M2M Alliance 167
5.2.5 Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) 168
5.2.6 ETSI 169
5.2.6.1 Efforts 169
5.2.6.2 Architecture 170
5.2.6.3 Use Cases 171
5.2.7 GSC MSTF 171
5.2.8 ITU 171
5.2.8.1 ITU-T Focus Group - Healthcare 172
5.2.9 Global M2M Association (GMA) 172
5.2.10 WAVE2m 172
5.2.10.1 Goals 172
5.2.10.2 Platform 173
5.2.10.3 Characteristics 173
5.2.11 IPSO Alliance 174
5.2.12 IETF and IP/WSN 175
5.2.12.1 Major Projects 175
5.2.12.1.1 6LoWPAN WG 175
5.2.12.1.2 ROLL WG 176
5.2.13 Summary 177
5.3 Healthcare-M2M Specifics 178
5.3.1 Role 178
5.3.2 Monitoring 178
5.3.3 Cost 178
5.3.4 Advantages 179
5.3.4.1 General 179
5.3.4.2 Savings 179
5.3.4.3 Categories and Benefits Details 180
5.3.5 Components 182
5.3.6 Examples 182
5.3.7 Issues 184
5.4 M2M Industry 185
Aeris 185
Axeda 186
Arqiva/Sensus 186
Coronis 187
Gemalto 188
InterDigital/Lamprey Networks 189
Jasper Wireless 190
Kore Telematics 191
Libelium 192
M2M Spectrum Networks 193
Numerex 193
Neul (acquired by Huawei in 2014) 194
On-Ramp 195
Raco Wireless (Kore Group Company) 196
Sigfox 197
Telensa/Plextek 198
Wireless Logic 199
Whizcomm 200
5.5 M2M Markets and Applications 200
5.5.1 Situation 200
5.5.2 Structure 201
5.5.3 Statistics 201
6.0 Conclusions 206
Attachment: IEEE 802.15.4a-2007 207
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List of Figures

Figure 1: WBAN Illustration 18
Figure 2: Intelligent Sensor 19
Figure 3: WBAN Characteristics 22
Figure 4: IEEE 802.15.6: Process 28
Figure 5: 802.15.6 - PHY and MAC 30
Figure 6: IEEE 802.15.6 Areas of Applicability 31
Figure 7: Network Topology 36
Figure 8: Estimate: U.S. Healthcare Expenditures ($T) 40
Figure 9: Estimate: U.S. WBAN Equipment Sales - Medical Applications ($B) 41
Figure 10: Estimate - U.S. First Responders WBAN Equipment Sales ($B) 42
Figure 11: Estimate: Global - Medical Device Connectivity Market ($B) 42
Figure 12: ISO/IEEE 11073 Protocol Family 43
Figure 13: TAM: Patient Wireless Monitoring Devices - Europe ($M) 47
Figure 14: Bluetooth Protocol Stack 65
Figure 15: Piconets Illustration 66
Figure 16: BT ULP Layers 71
Figure 17: BT HDP Building Blocks 74
Figure 18: TAM: Global Sales of BT Modules (Bil. Units) 77
Figure 19: TAM: Global Seles of BT Modules ($B) 78
Figure 20: BT Market Geographical Segmentation 79
Figure 21: TAM: BT- HDP Modules Global Sales (Bil. Units) 79
Figure 22: TAM: BT- HDP Modules Global Sales ($B) 80
Figure 23: Market Estimate: BLE-enable Devices Shipping - Global (Mil. Units) 80
Figure 24: ZigBee Channels 90
Figure 25: ZigBee Protocol Stack 92
Figure 26: Applications-Illustration 102
Figure 27: TAM: Worldwide ZigBee Modules Sales ($B) 106
Figure 28: TAM: Worldwide ZigBee Modules Sales (Bil. Units) 107
Figure 29: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2015) 107
Figure 30: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2019) 107
Figure 31: TAM: Worldwide ZigBee PHHC Modules Sales ($B) 108
Figure 32: TAM: Low Power Consumption Wi-Fi Modules Sales - Global ($B) 124
Figure 33: M2M Process-Illustration 157
Figure 34: Major Layers 165
Figure 35: ETSI Activity 170
Figure 36: Healthcare Expenses - Percent of GDP 179
Figure 37: Annual Savings - Adoption of Remote Monitoring 180
Figure 38: Details 182
Figure 39: M2M Applications 202
Figure 40: Projections: M2M Traffic Growth (PB/Month) 203
Figure 41: Estimate- Global Wireless M2M Market Revenue ($B) 204
Figure 42: TAM: Mobile Operators Revenue-M2M Communications ($B) 204
Figure 43: Estimate: Global-Health Care Sector-M2M Communications Market ($B) 205
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List of Tables

Table 1: ZigBee and 802.15.6 Radios 12
Table 2: Sensors Classification 23
Table 3: Allowable Power Density 29
Table 4: NB PHY Characteristics 32
Table 5: HBC 33
Table 6: Summary - 802.15.6 35
Table 7: Modulation Parameters 39
Table 8: Transports 44
Table 9: WBAN Medical Applications 49
Table 10: Bluetooth Profiles 69
Table 11: ZigBee Parameters 93
Table 12: Power Sources 153
Table 13: Data - Illustration 153
Table 14: Components 204
Table 15: Standard Bands 208

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