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Gas Sensors and Gas Metering: Applications and Markets

  • August 2014
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 142 pages

This BCC Research report deals with gas metering and gas sensors/monitoring, including instrumentation, process control, and automation systems for different applications. It also describes and analyzes developments in the markets for commercial gas meters and gas sensors/monitors since 2010 and developing revised market projections that reflect these developments.

Use this report to:
- Learn about the current status and the future supply and demand issues for gas meters and sensors/monitors, providing consumers with insight into the dynamics of the business.
- Examine the applications enveloping various gas flow metering technologies.
- Gain information on design criteria and the importance of accuracy in gas sensors and metering technologies

Highlights
- BCC Research estimates the global market for gas flow meters, sensors, monitors, and secondary flow instrumentation totaed $4.5 billion in 2013 and $4.8 billion in 2014. Growing at a projected compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.9%, the market should exceed $6.4 billion by 2019.
- Gas flow sensors/monitors market accounted for nearly $2.2 billion in 2013. The market segment is predicted to increase to $2.3 billion by 2014, and with a CAGR of 6.7% from 2014 to 2019, it is expected that the market will reach $3.2 billion by 2019.
- BCC Research estimates that the gas flow meters segment of the market will reach nearly $2.4 billion by 2019 up from $1.9 billion in 2014, a CAGR of 5.1% from 2014 to 2019.

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
This report is an update of an earlier (2010) BCC Research study on gas metering and gas sensors/monitoring, including instrumentation, process control, and automation
systems for different applications. This updated report builds on the earlier work by describing and analyzing developments in the markets for commercial gas meters and
gas sensors/monitors since 2010 and developing revised market projections that reflect these developments. Specific objectives of this report thus include the following:

- Understanding metering requirements
- Appreciating design criteria and the importance of accuracy
- Understanding measurement concepts and types of error
- Understanding the basic concepts, principle of operation, and equipment used for gas metering, gas sensing/monitoring, secondary gas flow instrumentation, and sampling
- Understanding the typical operations, control functions and record keeping requirements
- Evaluating the application envelopes of the various gas flow metering technologies
- Providing a critical evaluation of the current status of gas meter and sensor/monitor commercial markets
- Analyzing the role of gas metering and sensing/monitoring in various applications segments, including custody transfer of natural gas, stack and flare systems, utilities, crude oil and natural gas production/ processing, and low gas flow rates (e.g., chemical manufacturing, and metal fabrication and processing)
- Discussing and analyzing the current status and future supply and demand issues for gas meters and sensors/monitors and thus providing consumers with an insight into
the dynamics of the business
- Identifying future business opportunities

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE
The market for gas flow meters and gas flow sensors and monitors has experienced considerable changes in the last four years, including internal changes (e.g., as a result
of technological developments) and external shifts, particularly the global economic weakness that has persisted since the 2008-2009 recession. This report provides information useful to anyone concerned with the manufacturing, marketing, operation, and maintenance of gas metering and gas sensing/monitoring systems, including the
following:

- Operations engineers
- Graduate engineers
- Supervisors
- Operators
- Metering specialists/technicians
- Project developers
- Government experts from developed and developing countries
- Technology providers
- Verifiers/certifiers and validators
- Financial intermediaries (banks, insurance companies)
- Brokers and traders interested in metering and sensing/monitoring market developments and regulatory trends
- Law firms
- Accounting and auditing firms
- Marketing managers
- Senior petrochemical executives

SCOPE OF REPORT
This report presents data on demand for gas metering and gas sensors/monitors for different applications in current U.S. dollars for the major global regions. Market share
is presented for all major products, applications, gases, players/regions, and at the global level. Profiles are included for leading suppliers worldwide. The report begins with an overview of gas sensing and monitoring technologies, including a brief history, major products, and a market summary. Subsequent sections describe major gas sensing and monitoring technologies in greater detail, identify key suppliers, and present comprehensive market estimates and projections. A separate chapter examines the geographical structure of the market.

METHODOLOGY
Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report. BCC Research conducted an extensive international user survey in preparing the previous edition of this report. Users in the following countries were interviewed:
North America
- U.S.
- Canada
Europe
- U.K.
- Germany
- France
Asia
- China
- Japan
- Singapore
Rest of the World
Central and South America
Africa and the Middle East

BCC Research supplemented the earlier survey’s findings with a literature review and key-informant interviews. The results of this process were combined with BCC Research’s analysis of historical trends in carbon dioxide (CO2) demand and projected trends in major market drivers to obtain the market estimates and projections
contained in this report.

INFORMATION SOURCES
Information sources include trade data (national and international), company publicity literature, conference reports, world trade technical journals, and interviews with
company representatives.

Table Of Contents

Gas Sensors and Gas Metering: Applications and Markets
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY AND INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
METHODOLOGY 3
INFORMATION SOURCES 4
ANALYSTS' CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERS, SENSORS/MONITORS,
AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS)
7
SUMMARY FIGURE TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERS,
SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 7
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10
HISTORY OF GAS FLOW METERING AND GAS SENSING/MONITORING 10
GAS FLOW METERS 10
GAS ANALYZERS 12
SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION 12
TECHNOLOGIES 12
APPLICATIONS 13
TABLE 1 OVERVIEW OF MAJOR APPLICATIONS FOR GAS FLOW METERING, GAS
SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION BY MARKET
SEGMENT
13
MARKET SUMMARY 17
PRODUCT CATEGORY 17
TABLE 2 MARKET FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY
FLOW INSTRUMENTATION BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2019 (%) 17
FIGURE 1 GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW
INSTRUMENTATION MARKET PRODUCT SEGMENTS, 2013-2019 (%) 17
APPLICATION SEGMENTS 18
TABLE 3 MARKET FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY
FLOW INSTRUMENTATION BY TYPE OF APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 18
FIGURE 2 GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW
INSTRUMENTATION MARKET APPLICATION SEGMENTS, 2013-2019 (%) 18
GEOGRAPHICAL SEGMENTS 19
TABLE 4 MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND
SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 19
FIGURE 3 GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW
INSTRUMENTATION MARKET GEOGRAPHICAL SEGMENTS, 2013-2019 (%) 19
CHAPTER 4 GAS SENSING AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES 22
DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES 22
EXTRACTIVE MANUAL TECHNIQUES 22
Nitrogen Oxides 22
CO 23
Oxygen 23
Sulfur Dioxide 23
VOCs 23
INSTRUMENTED TECHNIQUES 23
CEMS 24
FIGURE 4 TYPICAL SAMPLING SYSTEMS FOR AN ONSTREAM ANALYZER 24
Sample Transport and Conditioning 25
Sample Gas Analysis 26
Wet-Basis Gas Analysis 26
Dry-Basis Gas Analysis 26
Data Acquisition System 26
Cross-Duct (or Cross-Stack) Monitoring Technology 27
System Integration 27
CEMS Applications 28
TABLE 5 CEMENT INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS OF CEMS 28
TABLE 6 COAL FIRED POWER PLANT APPLICATIONS OF CEMS 28
TABLE 7 IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS OF CEMS 29
STACK GAS/SOURCE SAMPLING 29
Stack/Source Sampling Procedure 29
Selection of Sampling Position in the Stack/Source 30
TABLE 8 MINIMUM NUMBER OF TRAVERSE POINTS ACROSS THE STACK 30
Measurement of Gas Flow Rate (Pollutant Emission Rate) 30
Measurement of Stack Gas Velocity 30
Determination of Temperature of Gas 31
TABLE 9 PROBES USED FOR DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE RANGES 31
Determination of Pressure 31
Bourdon 31
Bellows 31
Diaphragm 32
Capacitive or Inductance 32
Resistive, Strain Gauge 32
Piezoelectric 32
Types of Temperature Transmitters 32
FIXED VS. PORTABLE GAS SENSORS AND MONITORS 33
The Basic Fixed System 33
Key Considerations 33
Intrinsically Safe 34
Explosion Proof 34
Fixed Systems Best Practice 34
Basic Portable Gas Detectors 34
Key Considerations 35
Portables Best Practice 36
Advanced Sensors for Multi-Sensor Instruments 36
Other Types of Direct Reading Sensors 36
MICRO- AND NANOSENSORS 37
MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SENSORS 37
MEMS Gas Sensing Technologies 37
Electrochemical Sensors 37
Mass Sensors 37
Applications 38
TABLE 10 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF MEMS CHEMICAL AND GAS SENSORS 38
Automotive 38
Life Sciences 39
Environmental Protection 39
Military/Public Safety 39
Industrial Leak Detection and Process Control 39
NANOSENSORS 39
Nano-Gas Sensing Technologies 39
Nanotubes 40
Carbon Nanotubes 40
Other Types of Nanotubes 40
Nanoribbons 41
Nanowires 41
Nano-Cantilevers 42
Nanoparticles 43
Nanoceramics 43
Graphene 44
CHAPTER 5 GAS FLOW METERING: TECHNOLOGIES AND MARKETS 47
TECHNOLOGIES 47
TABLE 11 FLOW METER TECHNOLOGIES 47
DP FLOW METERS 47
Orifice Plate 47
Flow Nozzles 48
Venturi Tube 48
FIGURE 5 VENTURI FLOW METER 48
Elbow Meter 49
FIGURE 6 ELBOW FLOW METER 49
PD FLOW METERS 49
Diaphragm Meters 49
Rotary Meters 50
TURBINE FLOW METERS 50
THERMAL MASS FLOW METERS 51
Direct-Heat Flow Meters 52
Externally Heated Flow Meters 52
Heated-Tube Design 52
Bypass-Type Design 53
Air Velocity Probes 53
VARIABLE AREA FLOW METERS 54
Slotted Tube Flow Meters 55
Vane and Piston Flow Meters 55
MFC 55
ANNUBAR 56
CORIOLIS FLOW METERS 57
Tube Designs 57
ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS 58
VORTEX FLOW METER 59
OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 60
Optical Flow Meters 60
Sonar-Based Flow Meters 60
SELECTING A FLOW METER 61
Performance Comparisons 61
TABLE 12 COMPARISON OF SELECTED GAS FLOW METER OPTIONS AND COSTS 61
Flow Meter Advantages and Disadvantages 62
TABLE 13 FLOW METER ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 62
The Importance of Accuracy 63
TABLE 14 IMPORTANCE OF DEGREE OF ACCURACY IN GAS FLOW METERING (%) 63
What is Reliability? 64
TABLE 15 IMPORTANCE OF RELIABILITY IN SPECIFYING/PURCHASING GAS FLOW
METERS (%) 64
Other Gas Flow Meter Selection Criteria 64
Installed Base 65
SUPPLIERS 65
TABLE 16 GAS FLOW METER VENDOR LEADERS AND PRODUCTS OFFERING 66
MARKETS 66
APPLICATION SEGMENTS 66
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 67
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GAS FLOW METERING BY MARKET SECTOR
APPLICATION, 2013-2019 (%) 67
TABLE 18 GAS FLOW METERING BY METER TYPE/APPLICATION CHART 68
Custody (Ownership) Transfer 68
TABLE 19 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CUSTODY TRANSFER GAS FLOW METERING BY
METER TYPE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 69
Stack Gas Monitoring 69
TABLE 20 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR STACK GAS FLOW METERING BY METER TYPE,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 70
Flare Gas Flow Metering and Monitoring 70
TABLE 21 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR FLARE GAS FLOW METERING BY METER TYPE,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 71
Utility Applications 71
TABLE 22 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR UTILITY GAS FLOW METERING BY METER TYPE,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 71
CNG 72
TABLE 23 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CNG FLOW METERING BY METER TYPE, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 72
Low Flow Gas Flow metering 73
TABLE 24 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LOW GAS FLOW RATE METERING BY METER TYPE,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 73
TECHNOLOGY SEGMENTS 74
TABLE 25 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GAS FLOW METERS BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 74
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GAS FLOW METERING BY TECHNOLOGY SEGMENT,
2013-2019 (%) 74
DP 75
TABLE 26 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR DP GAS FLOW METERING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 75
PD 75
TABLE 27 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PD GAS FLOW METERING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 76
Turbine 76
TABLE 28 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR TURBINE GAS FLOW METERING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 77
Thermal Mass 77
TABLE 29 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR THERMAL MASS GAS FLOW METERING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 77
MFCs 78
TABLE 30 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR MFCS GAS FLOW METERING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 78
Annubar 78
TABLE 31 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR ANNUBAR GAS FLOW METERING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 78
Ultrasonic 79
TABLE 32 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR ULTRASONIC GAS FLOW METERING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 79
Coriolis 79
TABLE 33 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CORIOLIS GAS FLOW METERING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 80
Doppler Vortex 80
TABLE 34 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR DOPPLER VORTEX GAS FLOW METERING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 80
CHAPTER 6 GAS SENSOR/MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES 82
TECHNOLOGIES 82
IR SENSING/MONITORING TECHNOLOGY 82
FTIR 82
NDIR Technology 83
SOLID-STATE SENSING/MONITORING TECHNOLOGY 83
CATALYTIC BEAD SENSING/MONITORING TECHNOLOGY 84
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY 84
Flame Ionization Detection Technology 84
TC Analyzers 85
Electron Capture Detector 85
PIDs 86
Flame Photometric Detector 86
UV Sensing/Monitoring Technology 87
Chemiluminescent Analyzers 87
ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSING/MONITORING TECHNOLOGY 87
PARAMAGNETIC ANALYZERS 87
OTHER TECHNOLOGIES 88
Mass Spectrometry 88
Hot-Wire Anemometers 89
Air Duct Traversing 89
MEMS Sensors 90
Nano-Gas Sensors 90
TABLE 35 NANO-GAS SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES 91
Nanotubes 91
Nanoribbons 91
Nanowires 92
Nano-Cantilevers 92
Nanoceramics 93
Graphene Sensors 93
SUPPLIERS 93
TABLE 36 GAS FLOW SENSORS/MONITORS SUPPLIER LEADERS AND PRODUCTS
OFFERING 94
MARKETS 94
APPLICATION SEGMENTS 95
TABLE 37 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GAS SENSING/MONITORING BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 95
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GAS SENSING/MONITORING BY MARKET SECTOR
APPLICATION, 2013-2019 (%) 95
Custody Transfer 96
TABLE 38 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CUSTODY TRANSFER SENSOR/MONITORING BY
PRODUCT SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 96
Stack Gas Monitoring 97
TABLE 39 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR STACK GAS SENSOR/MONITORING BY PRODUCT
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 97
Flare Gas Monitoring 98
TABLE 40 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR FLARE GAS SENSOR/MONITORING BY PRODUCT
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 98
Utility Applications 98
TABLE 41 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR UTILITY SENSOR/MONITORING BY PRODUCT
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 99
CNG 99
TABLE 42 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CNG SENSOR/MONITORING BY PRODUCT
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 100
Low Flow Rate Gas 100
TABLE 43 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LOW GAS FLOW RATE SENSOR/MONITORING BY
PRODUCT SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 100
TECHNOLOGY SEGMENTS 101
TABLE 44 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GAS SENSOR/MONITORING BY TYPE OF PF
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 101
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GAS SENSOR/MONITORING BY TECHNOLOGY
SEGMENT, 2013-2019 (%) 101
IR Gas Sensors/Monitors 102
TABLE 45 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR IR SENSOR/MONITORING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 103
Solid-State Gas Sensors 103
TABLE 46 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SOLID-STATE SENSOR/MONITORING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 103
Catalytic Gas Sensors 104
TABLE 47 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CATALYTIC SENSOR/MONITORING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 104
Gas Chromatography Sensors 104
TABLE 48 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GC SENSOR/MONITORING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 104
Electrochemical Gas Sensors 105
TABLE 49 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSOR/MONITORING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 105
Paramagnetic Gas Sensors 105
TABLE 50 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PARAMAGNETIC SENSOR/MONITORING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 106
Chemiluminescence Gas Sensors 106
TABLE 51 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CHEMILUMESCENCE SENSORS/MONITORING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 106
UV Gas Sensors 107
TABLE 52 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR ULTRA-VIOLET SENSOR/MONITORING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 107
CHAPTER 7 SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING TECHNOLOGIES 109
TECHNOLOGIES 109
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT 109
TABLE 53 OVERVIEW OF TEMPERATURE SENSORS 109
DENSITY MEASUREMENT 110
PRESSURE MEASUREMENT 111
TABLE 54 OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE SENSORS 111
SUPPLIERS 112
TABLE 55 SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION SUPPLIER/VENDOR 112
MARKETS 113
APPLICATION SEGMENTS 113
TABLE 56 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING
INSTRUMENTATION BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 113
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING
INSTRUMENTATION BY MARKET SECTOR APPLICATION, 2013-2019 (%) 113
Custody (Ownership) Transfer of Natural Gas 114
TABLE 57 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED
IN CUSTODY TRANSFER OF NATURAL GAS BY TYPE OF INSTRUMENT, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS)
115
Stack Gas Monitoring 115
TABLE 58 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY AS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION FOR
STACK GAS BY TYPE OF INSTRUMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 115
Flare Gas Monitoring 115
TABLE 59 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED
IN FLARE METERING BY TYPE OF INSTRUMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 116
Utility Applications 116
TABLE 60 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED
IN UTILITY APPLICATIONS BY TYPE OF INSTRUMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 117
CNG 117
TABLE 61 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED
IN CNG APPLICATIONS BY TYPE OF INSTRUMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 118
Low Gas Flow Rate Applications 118
TABLE 62 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED
IN LOW GAS FLOW RATE APPLICATIONS BY TYPE OF INSTRUMENT, THROUGH 2019
($ MILLIONS)
118
TECHNOLOGY SEGMENTS 118
TABLE 63 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING
INSTRUMENTATION BY TYPE OF INSTRUMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 119
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING
INSTRUMENTATION BY TECHNOLOGY SEGMENT, 2013-2019 (%) 119
Temperature Sensors 120
TABLE 64 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR TEMPERATURE SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION
BY APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 120
Pressure Sensors 120
TABLE 65 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PRESSURE SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 120
Density Measurement 121
TABLE 66 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR DENSITY SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 121
CHAPTER 8 MAJOR GEOGRAPHICAL MARKETS 123
TABLE 67 MARKET FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY
FLOW INSTRUMENTATION BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 123
CHAPTER 9 APPENDIX A: PURCHASING CRITERIA 125
FLOW METERS 125
TABLE 68 IMPORTANT FACTORS IN SPECIFICATION/PURCHASING OF FLOW METERS
(SCALE IS 1 TO 5) 125
GAS SENSORS/MONITORS 126
TABLE 69 IMPORTANT FACTORS IN SPECIFICATION/PURCHASING OF GAS
SENSORS/MONITORS (SCALE IS 1 TO 5) 126
CHAPTER 10 APPENDIX B: COMPANY PROFILES 128
THE ABB GROUP (ABB ANALYTICAL) 128
ACCULEX 128
ALICAT SCIENTIFIC INC. 128
ALTECH ENVIRONMENT USA 129
AMALGAMATED INSTRUMENTS CO. PTY, LTD. 129
AMETEK INC. 129
ASIA PACIFIC MICROSYSTEMS INC. (APM) 130
AUTOMATIC FLARE SYSTEMS, LTD. 131
BACHARACH INC. 131
BASELINE-MOCON INC. (BASELINE) 131
BROOKS INSTRUMENT 132
CASELLA USA 132
CIDRA 132
CIMTECHNIQUES INC. 133
CITY TECHNOLOGY, LTD. 133
COUNTRONICS 134
DAVIDSON INSTRUMENTS 134
DRAGER SAFETY AG 135
DRSCADA AUTOMATION 135
ELSTER-INSTROMET N.V. 135
EMERSON PROCESS MANAGEMENT 135
ENDRESS+HAUSER INC. 136
FIGARO ENGINEERING INC. 136
FLORITE INTERNATIONAL INC. 137
FREHNIG INSTRUMENTS and CONTROLS 137
GAS TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE (GTI) 137
GE SENSING 137
GENERAL MONITORS 138
HEDLAND IN-LINE FLOWMETERS 138
HONEYWELL INC. 138
HORIBA, LTD. 139
IFM EFECTOR INC. 140
IMPCO TECHNOLOGIES INC. 140
INNOVA AIRTECH INSTRUMENTS A/S 141
INSTRUMART 141
INTERNATIONAL SENSOR TECHNOLOGY 141
INVENSYS 142
J-TEC ASSOCIATES INC. 142
KEP-KESSLER-ELLIS PRODUCTS 142
LAND INSTRUMENTS INTERNATIONAL 143
MCCROMETER INC. 143
MICRO SYSTEMS and CONTROLS 143
MSA INSTRUMENTS DIVISION 143
QUEST TECHNOLOGIES 144
R2 CONTROLS INC. 144
SAGE METERING INC. 144
SERVOMEX CO. INC. 144
SIEMENS ENERGY and AUTOMATION INC. 145
SITRON USA INC. 145
SOUTH WEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE (SWRI) 145
SPINK CONTROLS 146
SYNECTIC DESIGN, LTD. 146
TELEDYNE ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS 146
TOKY ELECTRICAL CO., LTD. 147
VARIAN INC. 147
YOKOGAWA CORP. OF AMERICA 148
CHAPTER 11 APPENDIX C PATENT ANALYSIS 150
FIGURE 13 U.S. GAS SENSOR/MONITOR PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975, BY
PRODUCT TYPE (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 150
GAS FLOW METER PATENTS 150
FIGURE 14 U.S. GAS SENSOR FLOW METER PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975 BY
TECHNOLOGY TYPE (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 151
GAS SENSOR AND MONITOR PATENTS 151
FIGURE 15 U.S. GAS SENSOR AND MONITOR PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975 BY
TECHNOLOGY TYPE (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 151
SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION PATENTS 152
FIGURE 16 U.S. SECONDARY GAS INSTRUMENTATION PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975,
BY PARAMETER MEASURED (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 152
LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERS, SENSORS/MONITORS,
AND SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION BY PRODUCT TYPE, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS)
7
TABLE 1 OVERVIEW OF MAJOR APPLICATIONS FOR GAS FLOW METERING, GAS
SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION BY MARKET
SEGMENT
13
TABLE 2 MARKET FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY
FLOW INSTRUMENTATION BY PRODUCT CATEGORY, THROUGH 2019 (%) 17
TABLE 3 MARKET FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY
FLOW INSTRUMENTATION BY TYPE OF APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 18
TABLE 4 MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND
SECONDARY FLOW INSTRUMENTATION BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 19
TABLE 5 CEMENT INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS OF CEMS 28
TABLE 6 COAL FIRED POWER PLANT APPLICATIONS OF CEMS 28
TABLE 7 IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS OF CEMS 29
TABLE 8 MINIMUM NUMBER OF TRAVERSE POINTS ACROSS THE STACK 30
TABLE 9 PROBES USED FOR DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE RANGES 31
TABLE 10 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF MEMS CHEMICAL AND GAS SENSORS 38
TABLE 11 FLOW METER TECHNOLOGIES 47
TABLE 12 COMPARISON OF SELECTED GAS FLOW METER OPTIONS AND COSTS 61
TABLE 13 FLOW METER ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 62
TABLE 14 IMPORTANCE OF DEGREE OF ACCURACY IN GAS FLOW METERING (%) 63
TABLE 15 IMPORTANCE OF RELIABILITY IN SPECIFYING/PURCHASING GAS FLOW
METERS (%) 64
TABLE 16 GAS FLOW METER VENDOR LEADERS AND PRODUCTS OFFERING 66
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 67
TABLE 18 GAS FLOW METERING BY METER TYPE/APPLICATION CHART 68
TABLE 19 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CUSTODY TRANSFER GAS FLOW METERING BY
METER TYPE, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 69
TABLE 20 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR STACK GAS FLOW METERING BY METER TYPE,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 70
TABLE 21 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR FLARE GAS FLOW METERING BY METER TYPE,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 22 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR UTILITY GAS FLOW METERING BY METER TYPE,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 71
TABLE 23 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CNG FLOW METERING BY METER TYPE, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 72
TABLE 24 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LOW GAS FLOW RATE METERING BY METER TYPE,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 73
TABLE 25 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GAS FLOW METERS BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 74
TABLE 26 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR DP GAS FLOW METERING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 75
TABLE 27 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PD GAS FLOW METERING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 76
TABLE 28 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR TURBINE GAS FLOW METERING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 77
TABLE 29 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR THERMAL MASS GAS FLOW METERING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 77
TABLE 30 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR MFCS GAS FLOW METERING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 78
TABLE 31 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR ANNUBAR GAS FLOW METERING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 78
TABLE 32 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR ULTRASONIC GAS FLOW METERING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 79
TABLE 33 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CORIOLIS GAS FLOW METERING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 80
TABLE 34 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR DOPPLER VORTEX GAS FLOW METERING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 80
TABLE 35 NANO-GAS SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES 91
TABLE 36 GAS FLOW SENSORS/MONITORS SUPPLIER LEADERS AND PRODUCTS
OFFERING 94
TABLE 37 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GAS SENSING/MONITORING BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 95
TABLE 38 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CUSTODY TRANSFER SENSOR/MONITORING BY
PRODUCT SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 96
TABLE 39 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR STACK GAS SENSOR/MONITORING BY PRODUCT
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 97
TABLE 40 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR FLARE GAS SENSOR/MONITORING BY PRODUCT
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 98
TABLE 41 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR UTILITY SENSOR/MONITORING BY PRODUCT
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 99
TABLE 42 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CNG SENSOR/MONITORING BY PRODUCT SEGMENT,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 43 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR LOW GAS FLOW RATE SENSOR/MONITORING BY
PRODUCT SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 44 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GAS SENSOR/MONITORING BY TYPE OF PF
TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 45 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR IR SENSOR/MONITORING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 46 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SOLID-STATE SENSOR/MONITORING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 47 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CATALYTIC SENSOR/MONITORING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 48 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GC SENSOR/MONITORING BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 49 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSOR/MONITORING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 105
TABLE 50 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PARAMAGNETIC SENSOR/MONITORING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 51 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR CHEMILUMESCENCE SENSORS/MONITORING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 106
TABLE 52 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR ULTRA-VIOLET SENSOR/MONITORING BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 107
TABLE 53 OVERVIEW OF TEMPERATURE SENSORS 109
TABLE 54 OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE SENSORS 111
TABLE 55 SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION SUPPLIER/VENDOR 112
TABLE 56 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING
INSTRUMENTATION BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 113
TABLE 57 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED
IN CUSTODY TRANSFER OF NATURAL GAS BY TYPE OF INSTRUMENT, THROUGH 2019
($ MILLIONS)
115
TABLE 58 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY AS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION FOR
STACK GAS BY TYPE OF INSTRUMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 115
TABLE 59 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED
IN FLARE METERING BY TYPE OF INSTRUMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 116
TABLE 60 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED
IN UTILITY APPLICATIONS BY TYPE OF INSTRUMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 117
TABLE 61 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED
IN CNG APPLICATIONS BY TYPE OF INSTRUMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 118
TABLE 62 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW INSTRUMENTATION USED
IN LOW GAS FLOW RATE APPLICATIONS BY TYPE OF INSTRUMENT, THROUGH 2019
($ MILLIONS)
118
TABLE 63 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING
INSTRUMENTATION BY TYPE OF INSTRUMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 119
TABLE 64 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR TEMPERATURE SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 120
TABLE 65 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR PRESSURE SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 120
TABLE 66 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR DENSITY SECONDARY INSTRUMENTATION BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 121
TABLE 67 MARKET FOR GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY
FLOW INSTRUMENTATION BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 123
TABLE 68 IMPORTANT FACTORS IN SPECIFICATION/PURCHASING OF FLOW METERS
(SCALE IS 1 TO 5) 125
TABLE 69 IMPORTANT FACTORS IN SPECIFICATION/PURCHASING OF GAS
SENSORS/MONITORS (SCALE IS 1 TO 5) 126
LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR GAS FLOW METERS,
SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 7
FIGURE 1 GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW
INSTRUMENTATION MARKET PRODUCT SEGMENTS, 2013-2019 (%) 17
FIGURE 2 GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW
INSTRUMENTATION MARKET APPLICATION SEGMENTS, 2013-2019 (%) 18
FIGURE 3 GAS METERING, SENSORS/MONITORS, AND SECONDARY FLOW
INSTRUMENTATION MARKET GEOGRAPHICAL SEGMENTS, 2013-2019 (%) 19
FIGURE 4 TYPICAL SAMPLING SYSTEMS FOR AN ONSTREAM ANALYZER 24
FIGURE 5 VENTURI FLOW METER 48
FIGURE 6 ELBOW FLOW METER 49
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GAS FLOW METERING BY MARKET SECTOR
APPLICATION, 2013-2019 (%) 67
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GAS FLOW METERING BY TECHNOLOGY SEGMENT,
2013-2019 (%) 74
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GAS SENSING/MONITORING BY MARKET SECTOR
APPLICATION, 2013-2019 (%) 95
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR GAS SENSOR/MONITORING BY TECHNOLOGY
SEGMENT, 2013-2019 (%) 101
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING
INSTRUMENTATION BY MARKET SECTOR APPLICATION, 2013-2019 (%) 113
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL DEMAND FOR SECONDARY GAS FLOW METERING
INSTRUMENTATION BY TECHNOLOGY SEGMENT, 2013-2019 (%) 119
FIGURE 13 U.S. GAS SENSOR/MONITOR PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975, BY PRODUCT
TYPE (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 150
FIGURE 14 U.S. GAS SENSOR FLOW METER PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975 BY
TECHNOLOGY TYPE (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 151
FIGURE 15 U.S. GAS SENSOR AND MONITOR PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975 BY
TECHNOLOGY TYPE (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 151
FIGURE 16 U.S. SECONDARY GAS INSTRUMENTATION PATENTS ISSUED SINCE 1975,
BY PARAMETER MEASURED (% OF PATENTS IDENTIFIED) 152

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