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  4. > Transition to 5G Era: Technologies, Applications and Markets Assessment

Summary

This report addresses issues related to WICT transition to the 5G era. Though, currently, 4G networking penetrated only not more than 5%-7% of the market on a global scale, the industry is already actively looking for changes and additions necessary to enter the next WICT generation - 5G.

The report provides details on:

• Major 5G requirements
• Major characteristics of 5G systems
• Industry activity
• Time frame for 5G
• Associated issues
• Use cases.

The report shows that 5G communications will be using advances of 4G networking. The main goal of 5G – ubiquitous connectivity between people, machines, and devices based on smart utilization of limited amount of the spectrum – started to materialize already in our time. In connection with this process, the report details four forward-looking technologies. They are:

• Cognitive Radio/Software Defined Radio (CR/SDR)
• Massive MIMO
• 60 GHz Wi-Fi
• Visible Light Communications (VLC).

All these technologies have a common denominator:

• Their commercialization is still limited
• They will allow either economical use of the spectrum, or shift to spectrum windows that were not previously utilized
• They all are considered by the industry as 5G technologies.

-It is expected that CR/SDR technologies will prevail in mobile communications, making mobile networking much more efficient and economical. Self-adjusted to surrounding spectrum conditions, CR/SDR-based BSs will support multi-standards communications between users equipped with SDR-based mobile units. Major CR/SDR issues, such as excessive power consumption, bulkiness and high cost are expected to be resolved or softened in the 5G era.

The report analyzes the status of the CR/SDR development, technological and marketing features and vendors’ profiles.

-Massive MIMO is a cornerstone technology in reaching the 5G target: thousand fold capacity increase in Base Stations by 2020. The massive MIMO concept is based on equipping base stations with hundreds or thousands of antenna elements, which, unlike conventional cellular technology, are operated in a coherent fashion. This can provide unprecedented array gains and a spatial resolution that allows for multi-user MIMO communication to tens or hundreds of user equipment per cell, while maintaining robustness to inter-user interference.

The report addresses the current status of the MIMO technology, their types and benefits.

-60 GHz WI-Fi (802.11d) – One of the directions to extend useable spectrum in the 5G era for mobile and other types of communications will be utilization of huge mmWAVE spectrum, which until now was practically closed to commercial communications. 802.11ad is one of the first international standards that utilize 7- 9 GHz of mmWAVE spectrum. Though still immature, the 802.11ad industry shows all signs of success. The report analyzes this technology, its specifics, applications and markets. It shows that this technology development supports 5G requirements that based on densification and shrinkage of cells.

-VLC is being in development for several years, but is still immature. 5G planners are considering this technology belonging to the 5G era – it opens unutilized previously for communications visible light frequencies bringing unlimited capabilities of so-called attocell BSs and multi-gigabit-per-second transmission. VLC is also combined with lighting and that makes it very cost-attractive. The report details this technology standardization, applications, specific features, industry and market.

The report is written for WICT planners, developers and a wide audience of technical and managerial staff of communications equipment vendors and users.

Table Of Contents

Transition to 5G Era: Technologies, Applications and Markets Assessment
Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction 9
1.1 General 9
1.2 Planning Wireless Technologies: Generations 9
1.3 Goal 11
1.4 Structure 11
1.5 Research Methodology 11
1.6 Target Audience 11

2.0 Contributors 13
2.1 General 13
2.2 5G Timetable (3GPP-ITU) 15
2.2.1 Leaders: 5G Activity 18
2.3 Activity Survey 18
2.3.1 METIS 2020 18
2.3.2 EU Other 5G Projects 19
2.3.3 Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) Ltd 19
2.3.4 5G-PPP (5G Public Private Partnership) 21
2.3.5 4G Americas 22
2.3.6 GSMA 22

3.0 Current View: 5G Technologies 24
3.1 Look into the Future 24
3.2 Promising Directions 25
3.2.1 Requirements 25
3.2.2 Common Views 27
3.2.3 Future - Starts Today 27
3.3 Issues 28
3.4 Use Cases 29
3.4.1 General -Characteristics 29
3.4.2 Mobile Broadband 31
3.4.3 Automotive 31
3.4.4 Smart Society 32

4.0 Software Defined and Cognitive Radios 33
4.1 5G and CR/SDR 33
4.2 General 33
4.3 Purpose 34
4.4 Definition (WIF, FCC, ITU) 34
4.5 Versatility 36
4.6 Issues 37
4.7 Organizations and Regulations 37
4.7.1 Wireless Innovation Forum Position 37
4.7.2 FCC 40
4.7.3 Object Management Group - OMG 42
4.7.4 ETSI 44
4.8 Decisions 44
4.9 Features 45
4.10 Elements 46
4.11 Applications 48
4.11.1 Commercial 48
4.11.2 SDR and Military 49
4.12 STRS 50
4.13 SDR/CR: Applications Benefits 51
4.14 Impact 53
4.15 Differences 53
4.16 Market 54
4.16.1 Landscape 54
4.16.2 Components 55
4.16.3 Trends 55
4.16.4 Cost 56
4.16.5 Different Perspective 56
4.16.6 Drivers 58
4.16.7 Market Forecast 60
4.17 Industry 62
Aeronix (SDR Components) 62
AirNet Communications (SDR Base Stations) 63
Alcatel-Lucent (Base Station) 64
Analog Devices (Chipsets) 66
Array Systems Computing (DSP) 67
Cambridge Consultants (Phy, Base Station) 68
Carlson Wireless (Platform) 70
Cisco (802.11a) 71
CRT (CR SW) 71
DataSoft (SDR Design, SW) 72
Etherstack (Software) 74
Green Hills (Software) 74
Harris (SDR) 77
Huawei (Platform) 78
Intel-Infineon (Platform) 80
Mercury Systems (Toolsets) 81
Nokia Siemens Networks (Base Station) 81
Nutaq 82
PrismTech (SDR Development Environment) 83
Rockwell Collins (Radios) 84
Spectrum Signal Processing (Platforms) 87
Thales (Radio) 89
TI (Chips) 90
Wind River (Software) 92
xG Technology (Radio) 93
ZTE (Platforms) 94

5.0 MIMO and 5G 97
5.1 History 97
5.2 Concept: MIMO in Wireless Communications 97
5.2.1 Major Techniques 98
5.3 Types of MIMO 100
5.4 5G - MIMO Specifics 103
5.4.1 MMIMO - Massive MIMO 103
5.5 MIMO Benefits 104

6.0 Exploring mmWAVE - 802.11ad 106
6.1 5G and 802.11ad 106
6.1.1 5G Spectrum Extension 106
6.1.2 5G - Densification 107
6.2 Goal 107
6.3 General 108
6.4 60 GHz Band Spectrum Specifics 109
6.4.1 Frequencies Allocation 109
6.4.2 Oxygen Absorption 111
6.5 Antenna 113
6.6 Radiation Limiting at 60 GHz 113
6.7 Combined Effect 114
6.8 Progress in the Chip Technology 115
6.8.1 Challenges and Efforts 116
6.8.2 Modulation 117
6.8.3 Specifics 117
6.9 Summary 118
6.10 Prospectus: 60 GHz Wi-Fi 118
6.10.1 Benefits and Issues 118
6.10.2 WiGig Alliance 119
6.10.3 IEEE 802.11ad - 60 GHz Wi-Fi 122
6.11 Industry 129
Beam Networks 129
Blu Wireless 130
Intel 130
Nitero 131
Peraso 132
Samsung 133
Tensorcom 134
Wilocity (acquired by Qualcomm in 2014) 135
6.12 Market Considerations 137
6.12.1 Market Drivers 137
6.12.2 Usage Models 137
6.12.3 Preliminary Market Estimate 138
7.0 Visible Light Communications - 5G Technology 141
7.1 General 141
7.1.1 Drivers 142
7.1.2 Industry Activity 142
7.2 VLC Standards Development 144
7.2.1 The IEEE 802.15.7 144
7.2.2 Jeita (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association) 152
7.2.3 Visible Light Communications Consortium (VLCC) 154
7.2.4 Li-Fi Consortium 158
7.3 Details 158
7.3.1 Communications Channel 159
7.3.2 Transmitter 160
7.3.3 Receiver 161
7.3.4 Major Characteristics 162
7.3.5 Major Challenges 164
7.4 Companies and Organizations 165
ECMA 165
ByteLight 165
Casio 166
LVX 167
Nakagawa Laboratories 167
NEC 168
Oledcomm 169
Omega Project 170
Outstanding Technology 170
PureVLC-PureLi-Fi 171
Renesas 172
Siemens 172
Supreme Architecture 173
TCL 174
Tamura 175

7.5 Major Applications 176
7.5.1 ITS 176
7.5.2 Optical Wireless LAN 177
7.5.3 Healthcare 178
7.5.4 Localization 178
7.5.5 City Wide Wireless Network 178
7.5.6 Summary 179
7.6 5G View 181
7.6.1 Cell Structures 181
7.7 Market 182
8.0 Conclusions 185

List of Figures

Figure 1: Mobile Generations 9
Figure 2: Time - Mobile Generations 10
Figure 3: ITU-R Schedule for IMT-2020 16
Figure 4: 3GPP - Tentative Timeline - 5G Standardization 17
Figure 5: Current View 25
Figure 6: Spectrum 25
Figure 7: Technologies Directions 27
Figure 8: Use Cases-General 29
Figure 9: Use Cases - Rate of Transmission and Latency 30
Figure 10: SDR and OSI Reference Model 35
Figure 11: SDR - Structure 47
Figure 12: TAM: Global SDR Sales ($B) 61
Figure 13: SDR Market Geography (2015) 62
Figure 14: Major Antenna Configurations 98
Figure 15: MIMO Concept (2x2) 98
Figure 16: Illustration - Beamforming 99
Figure 17: MU-MIMO - Downlink 101
Figure 18: SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO 101
Figure 19: MMIMO 104
Figure 20: Exploring IMT Spectrum 106
Figure 21: 60 GHz Channels 109
Figure 22: 60 GHz Frequencies Plan 110
Figure 23: Spectrum Details 111
Figure 24: Signal Attenuation in 60 GHz Band 112
Figure 25: Absorption Details 112
Figure 26: Bands Features Comparison 114
Figure 27: Planes 121
Figure 28: Usage Cases 122
Figure 29: 802.11ad MAC 127
Figure 30: Summary 129
Figure 31: TAM: 802.11ad Chipsets Sales - Global (Bil. Units) 139
Figure 32: TAM: 802.11ad Chipsets Global Sales ($B) 140
Figure 33: VLC - Comparison 141
Figure 34: Illustration-VLC Channel 160
Figure 35: VLC Market Categories 183
Figure 36: TAM: Global - VLC Technology ($B) 184

List of Tables

Table 1: Major Characteristics 24
Table 2: 5G Use Case Families 30
Table 3: Tiers 39
Table 4: CR Features 40
Table 5: ETSI Documents 44
Table 6: SDR Market Drivers 59
Table 7: SDR Market Segments (Military vs. Commercial) 61
Table 8: MIMO - 3GPP Releases 102
Table 9: MIMO Benefits 104
Table 10: 60 GHz Radio Standardization 108
Table 11: Directivity 113
Table 12: 60 GHz Links Characteristics 114
Table 13: 802.11ad Major Features 125
Table 14: 60 GHz Wi-Fi Usage Cases 138
Table 15: Use Cases 147
Table 16: Devices and Characteristics 148
Table 17: Frequency Plan 150
Table 18: VLC Properties 164
Table 19: VLC, IR and RF Communications ITS Applications Comparison 180
Table 20: Locations Technologies-VLC Place 180



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