Table of Contents
This report addresses issues related to WICT transition to the 5G era. Though, currently, 4G networking penetrated only not more than 5%-7% of the market on a global scale, the industry is already actively looking for changes and additions necessary to enter the next WICT generation - 5G.
The report provides details on:
• Major 5G requirements
• Major characteristics of 5G systems
• Industry activity
• Time frame for 5G
• Associated issues
• Use cases.
The report shows that 5G communications will be using advances of 4G networking. The main goal of 5G – ubiquitous connectivity between people, machines, and devices based on smart utilization of limited amount of the spectrum – started to materialize already in our time. In connection with this process, the report details four forward-looking technologies. They are:
• Cognitive Radio/Software Defined Radio (CR/SDR)
• Massive MIMO
• 60 GHz Wi-Fi
• Visible Light Communications (VLC).
All these technologies have a common denominator:
• Their commercialization is still limited
• They will allow either economical use of the spectrum, or shift to spectrum windows that were not previously utilized
• They all are considered by the industry as 5G technologies.
-It is expected that CR/SDR technologies will prevail in mobile communications, making mobile networking much more efficient and economical. Self-adjusted to surrounding spectrum conditions, CR/SDR-based BSs will support multi-standards communications between users equipped with SDR-based mobile units. Major CR/SDR issues, such as excessive power consumption, bulkiness and high cost are expected to be resolved or softened in the 5G era.
The report analyzes the status of the CR/SDR development, technological and marketing features and vendors’ profiles.
-Massive MIMO is a cornerstone technology in reaching the 5G target: thousand fold capacity increase in Base Stations by 2020. The massive MIMO concept is based on equipping base stations with hundreds or thousands of antenna elements, which, unlike conventional cellular technology, are operated in a coherent fashion. This can provide unprecedented array gains and a spatial resolution that allows for multi-user MIMO communication to tens or hundreds of user equipment per cell, while maintaining robustness to inter-user interference.
The report addresses the current status of the MIMO technology, their types and benefits.
-60 GHz WI-Fi (802.11d) – One of the directions to extend useable spectrum in the 5G era for mobile and other types of communications will be utilization of huge mmWAVE spectrum, which until now was practically closed to commercial communications. 802.11ad is one of the first international standards that utilize 7- 9 GHz of mmWAVE spectrum. Though still immature, the 802.11ad industry shows all signs of success. The report analyzes this technology, its specifics, applications and markets. It shows that this technology development supports 5G requirements that based on densification and shrinkage of cells.
-VLC is being in development for several years, but is still immature. 5G planners are considering this technology belonging to the 5G era – it opens unutilized previously for communications visible light frequencies bringing unlimited capabilities of so-called attocell BSs and multi-gigabit-per-second transmission. VLC is also combined with lighting and that makes it very cost-attractive. The report details this technology standardization, applications, specific features, industry and market.
The report is written for WICT planners, developers and a wide audience of technical and managerial staff of communications equipment vendors and users.
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