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Geosynthetics: Materials, Applications and Markets

  • May 2015
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 153 pages

This BCC Research report provides a detailed understanding of the U.S. market for geosynthetic materials Includes US market forecasts through 2020.

Use this report to:
- Receive information about the market for all types of geosynthetics between 2014 and 2020.
- Learn about the size, segmentation, and growth trends of the U.S. geosynthetics market along with general perspectives on the international geosynthetics market.
- Identify the current and potential applications for each type of geosynthetics material, and quantify the baseline (2014) market for geosynthetics in each of these applications.
- Receive information about the technological issues including the latest trends and patent analysis.

Highlights
- The U.S. market for geosynthetics will reach nearly $2.4 billion in 2015 and nearly $2.8 billion by 2020, demonstrating a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 2.6% between 2015 and 2020.
- Geomembranes as a segment should total $938 million in 2015 and nearly $1.1 billion by 2020, with a CAGR of 2.4% for the period of 2015-2020.
- Geotextiles as a segment should total $849 million in 2015 and $965 million by 2020, registering a five year CAGR of 2.6% through 2020.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION

STUDY BACKGROUND
?Geosynthetics? is the term coined to describe a class of synthetic materials that has been developed for geotechnical applications, that is, applications relating to
geological materials, earth structures and foundations. Geotextiles made from natural fibers have been used for thousands of years. For example, they were used to stabilize
roadways in ancient Egypt, where the dryness of the climate offset natural fibers? tendency to deteriorate when submerged in the soil. However, more widespread use of geotextiles had to await the development of suitable synthetic fibers that resisted deterioration in the ground. The development of polymer-based geosynthetics provided the needed stimulus, and acceptance and use of geosynthetics has expanded rapidly since the early 1980s.

Today, geosynthetics are used in a growing range of applications, including roads and railways, construction, flood and erosion control, waste containment, mining, and
agriculture. The U.S. is the world's largest market for geosynthetics, consuming nearly $2.4 billion of geosynthetics in 2014. In the U.S., geosynthetics are the object of increased interest as a tool in the rebuilding and expansion of the U.S. infrastructure. Geosynthetics are especially useful in an environment of increasing land scarcity, increased awareness of seismic hazards, and more stringent environmental regulations.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
The primary goal of this report is to develop a detailed understanding of the U.S. market for geosynthetic materials. While not ignoring other geographical markets, the
market for geosynthetics outside the U.S. receives less detailed attention. Specific objectives of the report include the following:
- Characterizing the main types of geosynthetics that are on the market today, and highlighting recent technical developments as the basis for anticipating new
geosynthetics product introductions and applications over the next five years.
- Identifying the current and potential applications for each type of geosynthetics material, and quantifying the baseline (2014) market for geosynthetics in each of
these applications.
- Analyzing and predicting trends in geosynthetic applications, as the basis for projecting the probable market for each type of geosynthetics material through 2020.
- Analyzing the structure of the U.S. geosynthetics industry, including numbers and size of firms, market shares, financial strength, and intellectual property (IP)
portfolios.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report is intended especially for executives, entrepreneurs, investors, venture capitalists and other readers with a need to know where the market for geosynthetic
materials is headed in the next five years. The report's findings and conclusions should also be of interest to readers in government and private companies that operate public infrastructure, as well as the engineering and construction community.

SCOPE OF REPORT
The scope of report covers the U.S. market for all types of geosynthetics between 2014 and 2020, including:
- Geotextiles.
- Geogrids and geonets.
- Geomembranes.
- Geocomposites.
- Other types (e.g., geocells, geofoams, geo-others).

The report also includes a general discussion of developments in the geosynthetics market outside the U.S. The study format includes the following major elements:
- Executive summary.
- Types of geosynthetics, their respective properties, advantages and disadvantages, and applications.
- Conditions and trends in major markets (e.g., road construction) that affect the demand for advanced materials and technologies.
- Size, segmentation, and growth trends of the U.S. geosynthetics market.
- General perspectives on the international geosynthetics market.
- Industry structure and market shares.
- Appendices (vendor profiles, key patents).

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
The report's findings and conclusions are based on information gathered from a wide range of sources, including geosynthetics vendors, users, engineering and consulting
firms. Interview data were combined with information gathered through an extensive review of secondary sources such as trade publications, trade associations, company
literature, and on-line databases to produce the projections contained in this report. The base-year for analysis and projection is 2014. With 2014 as a baseline, market
projections were developed for 2015 to 2020. These projections are based on a combination of a consensus among the primary contacts combined with our understanding of the key market drivers and their impact from a historical and analytical perspective.

The methodologies and assumptions used to develop the market projections in this report are discussed at length under the various segments addressed. The report
carefully documents data sources and assumptions. This way, readers can see how the market estimates were developed and, if they so desire, test the impact on the final
numbers of changing assumptions such as price.

Table Of Contents

Geosynthetics: Materials, Applications and Markets
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY BACKGROUND 2
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE OF REPORT 3
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 4
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE U.S. GEOSYNTHETICS MARKET BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. GEOSYNTHETICS MARKET BY SEGMENT, 2014-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 7
CHAPTER 3 GEOSYNTHETICS OVERVIEW 10
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF GEOSYNTHETICS 10
DEFINITIONS 10
Geosynthetics 10
Geotechnical Structures 10
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT 10
TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS 11
Geotextiles 11
Geonets/Geogrids 12
Geomembranes 12
Geocomposites 13
Other Types of Geosynthetics 13
Geocells 13
Geofoams 13
Geocombs 14
Geopipes 14
FUNCTIONS 15
TABLE 1 GEOSYNTHETICS FUNCTIONS 15
Soil Reinforcement 15
Soil Separation 16
Filtration 16
Drainage 17
Fluid/Gas Containment 17
Erosion Control 17
GENERAL ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF GEOSYNTHETICS 18
GEOSYNTHETICS MARKETS 18
TABLE 2 U.S. GEOSYNTHETICS MARKET BY TYPE OF MATERIAL, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 19
FIGURE 1 U.S. GEOSYNTHETICS MARKET TRENDS, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 19
FIGURE 2 TRENDS IN MARKET SHARES OF DIFFERENT GEOSYNTHETICS, 2014-2020
(% OF TOTAL SALES) 19
TABLE 3 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOSYNTHETICS BY END USE, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 21
FIGURE 3 TRENDS IN GEOSYNTHETIC MARKET BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2014-2020
(%) 22
CHAPTER 4 TRENDS IN MAJOR GEOSYNTHETIC END-USER MARKETS 24
TRANSPORT 24
ROADS AND HIGHWAYS 24
Geosynthetics Applications 24
Reinforcement 24
Separation 25
Filtration 25
Drainage 25
Erosion Control 26
Tunnel Liners 26
Current Situation 26
TABLE 4 U.S. HIGHWAY EXPENDITURES, THROUGH 2010 ($ BILLIONS) 27
TABLE 5 EXTENT OF U.S. ROAD AND HIGHWAY NETWORK, 2008-2013 (MILES) 27
Market Prospects 28
TABLE 6 U.S. HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION EXPENDITURES, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 28
FIGURE 4 TRENDS IN TOTAL U.S. HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION EXPENDITURES,
2014-2020 ($ BILLIONS) 28
RAILROADS 29
Geosynthetics Applications in Railroads 29
Reinforcement 29
Embankment Reinforcement 29
Separation 30
Ballast Stabilization 30
Current Status 31
FIGURE 5 OWNERSHIP OF U.S. RAILWAY TRACKS, 2014 (% OF TOTAL TRACK
MILEAGE) 31
FIGURE 6 TRENDS IN TRACK-RELATED RAILROAD INCIDENTS/ACCIDENTS,
2000-2010 (NUMBER AND RATE PER MILLION TRAIN MILES) 32
Market Prospects 32
FIGURE 7 U.S. RAILROAD AND RAIL TRANSIT SYSTEM EXPENDITURES ON TRACK
AND RELATED STRUCTURES, 2013 (%) 32
TABLE 7 EXPENDITURES ON RAILWAY TRACK NEW CONSTRUCTION AND
REHABILITATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 33
FIGURE 8 U.S. RAILROAD AND RAIL TRANSIT SYSTEM EXPENDITURES ON TRACK
AND RELATED STRUCTURES, 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 34
AIRPORTS 35
Potential Geosynthetics Applications 35
Reinforcement 35
Runways and Taxiways 35
Runway Embankments 35
Drainage 36
De-Icing Facilities 36
Current Status 36
Markets Prospects 37
TABLE 8 RUNWAY CONSTRUCTION EXPENDITURES, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 37
FIGURE 9 TRENDS IN EXPENDITURES ON AIRPORT RUNWAY CONSTRUCTION,
2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 37
FLOOD CONTROL 38
POTENTIAL GEOSYNTHETICS APPLICATIONS 38
Reinforcement 38
Levee Strengthening 38
Containment 39
Waterproofing Dams 39
CURRENT STATUS 39
Levees 39
Dams 40
FIGURE 10 OWNERSHIP OF U.S. DAMS, 2013 (%) 40
Market Prospects 41
TABLE 9 TOTAL U.S. SPENDING ON FLOOD CONTROL DAMS AND LEVEES,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 42
Levees 42
TABLE 10 PUBLIC SPENDING ON LEVEE REHABILITATION AND CONSTRUCTION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 42
Dams 42
TABLE 11 TOTAL PUBLIC SPENDING ON DAM SAFETY, REHABILITATION, AND
CONSTRUCTION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 43
WASTE MANAGEMENT 43
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE 44
Geosynthetics Applications 44
Reinforcement 45
Separation 45
Filtration 45
Drainage 45
Containment 46
Erosion Control 46
Other Contributions of Geosynthetics to Landfills 46
Current Status 47
FIGURE 11 TRENDS IN DISCARDS TO U.S. LANDFILLS, 1980-2012 (TONS) 47
Market Prospects 48
FIGURE 12 ANNUAL LANDFILL CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY, 1996-2014 (AVERAGE
NUMBER OF LANDFILLS CLOSED, OPENED, OR MODIFIED) 48
FIGURE 13 TRENDS IN TOTAL AND AVERAGE LANDFILL CAPACITY, 1990-2013
(BILLION TONS/MILLION TONS) 50
WASTEWATER 50
Geosynthetics Applications 52
Containment 52
Anaerobic Lagoon Cover Systems 52
Lagoon Liner Systems 52
Drainage 53
Current Conditions 53
Market Prospects 54
TABLE 12 U.S. INVESTMENTS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITIES, THROUGH
FY 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 54
FIGURE 14 TRENDS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT INVESTMENTS, FY
2014-FY 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 54
INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT 55
Geosynthetics Applications 55
Current Status 56
FIGURE 15 INDUSTRY SEGMENTS' SHARES OF WATER POLLUTION ABATEMENT
EXPENDITURES (% OF TOTAL INDUSTRY EXPENDITURES) 56
Market Prospects 57
FIGURE 16 TRENDS IN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT EXPENDITURES,
2014-2020 ($ BILLIONS) 57
HAZARDOUS WASTES 57
Geosynthetic Applications 58
Containment 58
Drainage 59
Surface Water 59
Leachate 59
Current Status 59
FIGURE 17 TRENDS IN HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL IN LANDFILLS/SURFACE
IMPOUNDMENTS, 2001-2011 (THOUSAND TONS/% OF TOTAL HAZARDOUS WASTES) 59
Market Prospects 60
TABLE 13 U.S. HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTAINMENT CAPITAL COSTS, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 61
MINING 61
GEOSYNTHETICS APPLICATIONS 61
Containment 61
Heap Leach Pads 61
Evaporation Ponds 62
Tailings Dams 62
Reinforcement 62
Mine Supports 62
Access Roads 62
Stockpiles 63
Remediation and Reclamation 63
Remediation 63
Reclamation 63
CURRENT STATUS 64
FIGURE 18 TRENDS IN U.S. PRODUCTION OF METAL ORES, 2007-2014 (2007=100) 64
FIGURE 19 COMPOSITION OF U.S. MINING WASTES, 2014 (% OF TOTAL) 65
FIGURE 20 TRENDS IN MINE RECLAMATION BOND RELEASES, 2002-2010 (NUMBER
OF ACRES RELEASED) 66
MARKET PROSPECTS 66
FIGURE 21 TRENDS IN NUMBER OF NEW FEDERAL MINING PERMITS ISSUED,
2003-2013 66
AGRICULTURE 67
LIVESTOCK 67
Geosynthetics Applications 68
Drainage 68
Fluid/Gas Containment 68
Livestock Waste Systems 68
Industry Conditions 69
TABLE 14 U.S. LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY POPULATION TRENDS, THROUGH 2014
(MILLION ANIMALS) 70
Market Prospects 70
IRRIGATION 71
Geosynthetic Applications 71
TABLE 15 IRRIGATION CANAL LINER PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS 71
Current Status 72
FIGURE 22 TRENDS IN ACRES OF U.S. FARMLAND IRRIGATED BY OPEN SURFACE
CANALS AND DITCHES, 2003 AND 2013 (THOUSAND ACRES) 72
TABLE 16 MILES OF OPEN SURFACE IRRIGATION CANALS AND DITCHES, THROUGH
2013 73
TABLE 17 U.S. EXPENDITURES ON MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF IRRIGATION
FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2013 ($ MILLIONS) 73
Market Prospects 73
AQUACULTURE 74
Geosynthetics Applications 74
Current Status 74
FIGURE 23 TRENDS IN SALES OF U.S. AQUACULTURE PRODUCTS, 2005 AND 2013
($ MILLIONS) 74
FIGURE 24 TRENDS IN NUMBER OF U.S. AQUACULTURE FARMS AND AVERAGE
SALES PER FARM, 2005 AND 2013 (UNITS/$) 75
FIGURE 25 TRENDS IN USE OF PONDS AND RACEWAYS IN U.S. AQUACULTURE,
2005 AND 2013 (NUMBER OF FARMS) 76
Market Prospects 77
PRIVATE CONSTRUCTION 77
GEOSYNTHETIC APPLICATIONS 77
Reinforcement 78
Retaining Walls 78
Seismic Protection 78
Separation 78
Below Grade Enclosures 78
Drainage/Filtration 79
Turf Drainage 79
Foundation Drainage 79
Containment 79
Gas Barriers 79
Erosion Control 79
Erosion Control Blankets 80
Turf Reinforcement Mats 80
CURRENT STATUS 80
FIGURE 26 TRENDS IN U.S. PRIVATE CONSTRUCTION SPENDING, 2007-2014 ($
BILLIONS) 80
MARKET PROSPECTS 81
CHAPTER 5 MARKET FOR GEOTEXTILES 83
TYPES OF GEOTEXTILE 83
WOVEN GEOTEXTILES 83
NONWOVEN GEOTEXTILES 83
GEOTEXTILE MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES 84
SYNTHETICS 84
TABLE 18 GEOTEXTILE POLYMER CHARACTERISTICS 84
NATURAL MATERIALS 84
TABLE 19 TYPES OF BIODEGRADABLE GEOTEXTILES 85
GEOTEXTILE APPLICATIONS 85
ROADS AND HIGHWAYS 85
Reinforcement 85
Separation 86
Drainage/Filtration 86
Erosion Control 86
RAILROAD TRACK CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE 86
Separation 87
Reinforcement 87
Drainage/Filtration 87
Airport Runways 87
FLOOD CONTROL AND COASTLINE PROTECTION 88
Reinforcement 88
Coastline Restoration and Protection 88
WASTE MANAGEMENT 88
Separation 89
Geomembrane Liner Cushion 89
Filtration 89
Leachate Filtration 89
Sludge De-watering 89
Erosion Control 90
Landfill Reclamation 90
MINING 90
Separation 90
Reinforcement 90
Erosion Control 90
Capping and Sealing Waste Storage Facilities 90
Mine Site Reclamation 91
AGRICULTURE 91
Drainage 91
Cow Carpets 91
PRIVATE CONSTRUCTION 91
Reinforcement 91
Retaining Walls 91
Separation 92
Driveway Fabric 92
Below Grade Structures 92
Drainage/Filtration 92
Drain Filters 92
Erosion Control 93
Temporary Silt Fences 93
Erosion Control Blankets 93
Turf Reinforcement Mats 93
GEOTEXTILE MARKETS 94
TABLE 20 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOTEXTILES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 94
TABLE 21 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOTEXTILES BY END USE, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 94
FIGURE 27 U.S. GEOTEXTILES MARKET SHARES BY END-USER SEGMENT,
2014-2020 (% OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION IN $) 95
FIGURE 28 U.S. GEOTEXTILES MARKET SHARES BY FUNCTION, 2014-2020 (% OF
TOTAL CONSUMPTION) 97
CHAPTER 6 MARKET FOR GEOMEMBRANES 99
TYPES OF GEOMEMBRANES 99
GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS 99
REINFORCED GEOMEMBRANES 99
PROPERTIES 99
TABLE 22 GEOMEMBRANE PROPERTIES 100
GEOMEMBRANE APPLICATIONS 100
ROADS AND HIGHWAYS 100
Tunnel Liners 100
AIRPORTS 101
De-icing Pads and Ponds 101
FLOOD CONTROL 101
Containment 101
Waterproofing Dams 101
Storm Water Runoff Retention 101
WASTE MANAGEMENT 102
Municipal Solid Waste 102
Containment 102
Wastewater 102
Containment 102
Anaerobic Lagoon Cover Systems 102
Lagoon Liner Systems 103
Hazardous Wastes 103
MINING 103
Containment 103
Heap Leach Pads 103
Evaporation Ponds 104
Tailings Dams 104
AGRICULTURE 104
Fluid/Gas Containment 104
Livestock Waste Systems 104
Irrigation 105
Containment 105
GEOMEMBRANE MARKETS 105
TABLE 23 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOMEMBRANES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 105
FIGURE 29 U.S. GEOMEMBRANE MARKET SHARES BY TYPE OF MATERIAL,
2014-2020 (% OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION IN $) 107
TABLE 24 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOMEMBRANES BY END USE, THROUGH 2020
(MILLION SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 107
FIGURE 30 U.S. GEOMEMBRANE MARKET SHARES BY END-USER SEGMENT,
2014-2020 (% OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION IN $) 108
CHAPTER 7 MARKET FOR GEONETS AND GEOGRIDS 111
TYPES OF GEONETS AND GEOGRIDS 111
BIAXIAL GEONETS AND GEOGRIDS 111
UNIAXIAL GEONETS AND GEOGRIDS 111
MATERIALS/FABRICATION 111
PROPERTIES 111
TABLE 25 KEY PROPERTIES OF GEOGRIDS 112
APPLICATIONS 112
ROADS AND HIGHWAYS 112
RAILROADS 113
AIRPORTS 113
Runways 113
Runway Embankments 113
FLOOD CONTROL 113
WASTE MANAGEMENT 114
MINING 114
Mine Roads 114
Mine Wall and Ceiling Supports 114
PRIVATE CONSTRUCTION 114
GEOGRID MARKETS 114
TABLE 26 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOGRIDS AND GEONETS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
(MILLION SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 115
TABLE 27 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOGRIDS AND GEONETS BY END USE, THROUGH
2020 (MILLION SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 115
FIGURE 31 U.S. GEOGRID MARKET SHARES BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2014-2020 (%
OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION IN $) 116
CHAPTER 8 MARKET FOR GEOCOMPOSITES 119
TYPES OF GEOCOMPOSITES 119
MATERIALS 119
PROPERTIES 119
TABLE 28 PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT GEOCOMPOSITE TYPES 120
APPLICATIONS 121
ROADS AND HIGHWAYS 121
RAILWAYS 121
WASTE MANAGEMENT 122
MINING 122
PRIVATE CONSTRUCTION 122
MARKETS 123
TABLE 29 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOCOMPOSITES, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
SQ(MILLION SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 123
TABLE 30 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOCOMPOSITES BY END USE, THROUGH 2020
(MILLION SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 123
FIGURE 32 U.S. GEOCOMPOSITE MARKET SHARES BY END-USER SEGMENT,
2014-2020 (% OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION) 124
CHAPTER 9 MARKET FOR OTHER TYPES OF GEOSYNTHETICS 127
TYPES 127
GEOCELLS 127
GEOFOAMS AND GEOCOMBS 127
GEOPIPES 127
MATERIALS 127
PROPERTIES 128
APPLICATIONS 128
SOIL REINFORCEMENT 128
DRAINAGE 128
MARKETS 128
TABLE 31 ANNUAL SALES OF OTHER GEOSYNTHETICS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
(MILLION SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 129
TABLE 32 ANNUAL SALES OF OTHER GEOSYNTHETICS BY END USE, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 129
FIGURE 33 U.S. GEOGRID MARKET SHARES BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2014-2020 (%
OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION IN $) 130
FIGURE 34 U.S. OTHER GEOSYNTHETICS MARKET SHARES BY FUNCTION,
2014-2020 (% OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION IN $) 130
CHAPTER 10 GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVES 133
FIGURE 35 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR GEOSYNTHETICS, 2014 (% OF TOTAL GLOBAL
MARKET) 133
FIGURE 36 PROJECTED TRENDS IN GLOBAL GEOSYNTHETICS MARKET, 2014-2020
($ BILLIONS) 134
TABLE 33 PROJECTED SALES OF GEOSYNTHETICS IN MAJOR GLOBAL MARKETS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 134
FIGURE 37 PROJECTED TRENDS IN REGIONAL GEOSYNTHETICS MARKET SHARES,
2014-2020 (%) 135
CHAPTER 11 INDUSTRY CHARACTERISTICS 137
FIRMS 137
FIGURE 38 GEOSYNTHETICS MANUFACTURERS PRODUCING FOR THE U.S. MARKET
BY PRINCIPAL PRODUCT, 2014 (%) 137
MARKET SHARES 138
GEOTEXTILES 138
FIGURE 39 U.S. GEOTEXTILE MARKET SHARES, 2013 (% OF TOTAL GEOTEXTILES
CONSUMPTION) 138
GEOMEMBRANES 139
FIGURE 40 U.S. GEOMEMBRANE MARKET SHARES, 2013 (% OF TOTAL
GEOTEXTILES CONSUMPTION) 140
GEONETS AND GEOGRIDS 140
FIGURE 41 U.S. GEOGRID MARKET SHARES, 2013 (% OF TOTAL GEOGRID
CONSUMPTION) 141
GEOCOMPOSITES 141
FIGURE 42 U.S. GEOGRID MARKET SHARES, 2013 (% OF TOTAL GEOGRID
CONSUMPTION) 142
CHAPTER 12 COMPANY PROFILES 144
GEOTEXTILES 144
BELTON INDUSTRIES INC. 144
CONTECH CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS INC. 144
E.I. DUPONT DE NEMOURS AND CO, 144
FLINT INDUSTRIES 145
LUN-DRAIN 145
POLYMER GROUP INC. 145
PROPEX INC. 145
RODEWISCH INC. 146
SOLENO TEXTILES 146
TENCATE GEOSYNTHETICS AMERICAS 146
THRACE-LINQ CO. 146
WATERSOLVE LLC 147
GEOGRIDS 147
STRATA SYSTEMS INC. 147
SYNTEEN TECHNICAL FABRICS INC. 147
TENSAR INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION 148
GEOMEMBRANES 148
ACCUGEO 148
AGRU AMERICA INC. 148
BURKE INDUSTRIES INC. 149
CETCO LINING TECHNOLOGIES 149
ENVIRONMENTAL FABRICS INC. 149
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION INC. 149
FIRESTONE SPECIALTY PRODUCTS 150
GSE HOLDING INC. 150
FIGURE 43 GUNDLESLT ENVIRONMENTAL REVENUES BY MARKET SEGMENT, 2013
(% OF TOTAL REVENUES) 150
MPC CONTAINMENT INC. 151
POLY-AMERICA LP. 151
RAVEN INDUSTRIES INC. 152
REEF INDUSTRIES INC. 152
SOLMAX INTERNATIONAL INC. 152
WATERSAVER COMPANY INC. 152
GEOCELLS 153
PRESTO GEOSYSTEMS 153
GEOCELL SYSTEMS 153
GEOPRODUCTS 153
GEOFOAMS/GEOCOMBS 154
AFM CORP. 154
BEAVER PLASTICS LTD. 154
BENCHMARK FOAM INC. 154
BRANCH RIVER PLASTICS INC. 154
CARPENTER CO. 155
CELLOFOAM NORTH AMERICA INC. 155
DYPLAST PRODUCTS LLC 155
FALCON FOAM 155
GEOTECH SYSTEMS CORP. 156
HANES GEO COMPONENTS 156
INSULATION CORP. OF AMERICA 156
INSULATION TECHNOLOGY INC. 156
INSULFOAM 157
NORTHWEST FOAM PRODUCTS INC. 157
PLYMOUTH FOAM BUILDING MATERIALS 157
ROYAL FOAM INC. 157
STYROTECH INC. 158
THERMAL FOAMS INC. 158
GEOPIPES 158
ADVANCED DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 158
CRUMPLER PLASTIC PIPE INC. 158
PRINSCO INC. 159
DIVERSIFIED MANUFACTURERS 159
CARTHAGE MILLS EROSION CONTROL CO. 159
CHECKMATE GEOSYNTHETICS 159
COLBOND INC. 160
HANES GEO COMPONENTS 160
HUESKER INC. 160
LAYFIELD ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS CORPORATION 161
MACCAFERRI INC. 161
NILEX INC. 161
SHANDONG TAIFENG GEOSYNTHETICS CORP. 161
TENAX CORP. 162
TERRAFIX GEOSYNTHETICS 162
U.S. FABRICS INC. 162
CHAPTER 13 PATENT ANALYSIS 164
INTRODUCTION 164
PATENTS BY TYPE OF MATERIAL 164
FIGURE 44 PATENT SHARES BY TYPE OF MATERIAL (% OF ALL PATENTS ISSUED
THROUGH MARCH 15, 2015) 164
PATENTS BY APPLICATION 165
FIGURE 45 PATENTS ISSUED FOR GEOSYNTHETIC FABRICATION TECHNOLOGIES VS.
APPLICATIONS (% OF ALL PATENTS ISSUED THROUGH MARCH 15, 2015) 165
PATENT ASSIGNEES 166
TABLE 34 MAJOR GEOSYNTHETICS PATENT HOLDERS (AS OF MARCH 15, 2015) 166

LIST OF TABLES
SUMMARY TABLE U.S. GEOSYNTHETICS MARKET BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 7
TABLE 1 GEOSYNTHETICS FUNCTIONS 15
TABLE 2 U.S. GEOSYNTHETICS MARKET BY TYPE OF MATERIAL, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 19
TABLE 3 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOSYNTHETICS BY END USE, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 21
TABLE 4 U.S. HIGHWAY EXPENDITURES, THROUGH 2010 ($ BILLIONS) 27
TABLE 5 EXTENT OF U.S. ROAD AND HIGHWAY NETWORK, 2008-2013 (MILES) 27
TABLE 6 U.S. HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION EXPENDITURES, THROUGH 2020 ($
BILLIONS) 28
TABLE 7 EXPENDITURES ON RAILWAY TRACK NEW CONSTRUCTION AND
REHABILITATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 33
TABLE 8 RUNWAY CONSTRUCTION EXPENDITURES, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 37
TABLE 9 TOTAL U.S. SPENDING ON FLOOD CONTROL DAMS AND LEVEES, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 42
TABLE 10 PUBLIC SPENDING ON LEVEE REHABILITATION AND CONSTRUCTION,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 42
TABLE 11 TOTAL PUBLIC SPENDING ON DAM SAFETY, REHABILITATION, AND
CONSTRUCTION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 43
TABLE 12 U.S. INVESTMENTS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITIES, THROUGH
FY 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 54
TABLE 13 U.S. HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTAINMENT CAPITAL COSTS, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 61
TABLE 14 U.S. LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY POPULATION TRENDS, THROUGH 2014
(MILLION ANIMALS) 70
TABLE 15 IRRIGATION CANAL LINER PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS 71
TABLE 16 MILES OF OPEN SURFACE IRRIGATION CANALS AND DITCHES, THROUGH
2013 73
TABLE 17 U.S. EXPENDITURES ON MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF IRRIGATION
FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2013 ($ MILLIONS) 73
TABLE 18 GEOTEXTILE POLYMER CHARACTERISTICS 84
TABLE 19 TYPES OF BIODEGRADABLE GEOTEXTILES 85
TABLE 20 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOTEXTILES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 94
TABLE 21 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOTEXTILES BY END USE, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 94
TABLE 22 GEOMEMBRANE PROPERTIES 100
TABLE 23 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOMEMBRANES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 105
TABLE 24 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOMEMBRANES BY END USE, THROUGH 2020
(MILLION SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 107
TABLE 25 KEY PROPERTIES OF GEOGRIDS 112
TABLE 26 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOGRIDS AND GEONETS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
(MILLION SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 115
TABLE 27 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOGRIDS AND GEONETS BY END USE, THROUGH
2020 (MILLION SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 115
TABLE 28 PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT GEOCOMPOSITE TYPES 120
TABLE 29 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOCOMPOSITES, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
SQ(MILLION SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 123
TABLE 30 ANNUAL SALES OF GEOCOMPOSITES BY END USE, THROUGH 2020
(MILLION SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 123
TABLE 31 ANNUAL SALES OF OTHER GEOSYNTHETICS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020
(MILLION SQUARE YARDS/$ MILLIONS) 129
TABLE 32 ANNUAL SALES OF OTHER GEOSYNTHETICS BY END USE, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 129
TABLE 33 PROJECTED SALES OF GEOSYNTHETICS IN MAJOR GLOBAL MARKETS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ BILLIONS) 134
TABLE 34 MAJOR GEOSYNTHETICS PATENT HOLDERS (AS OF MARCH 15, 2015) 166

LIST OF FIGURES
SUMMARY FIGURE U.S. GEOSYNTHETICS MARKET BY SEGMENT, 2014-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 7
FIGURE 1 U.S. GEOSYNTHETICS MARKET TRENDS, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 19
FIGURE 2 TRENDS IN MARKET SHARES OF DIFFERENT GEOSYNTHETICS, 2014-2020
(% OF TOTAL SALES) 19
FIGURE 3 TRENDS IN GEOSYNTHETIC MARKET BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2014-2020
(%) 22
FIGURE 4 TRENDS IN TOTAL U.S. HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION EXPENDITURES,
2014-2020 ($ BILLIONS) 28
FIGURE 5 OWNERSHIP OF U.S. RAILWAY TRACKS, 2014 (% OF TOTAL TRACK
MILEAGE) 31
FIGURE 6 TRENDS IN TRACK-RELATED RAILROAD INCIDENTS/ACCIDENTS, 2000-2010
(NUMBER AND RATE PER MILLION TRAIN MILES) 32
FIGURE 7 U.S. RAILROAD AND RAIL TRANSIT SYSTEM EXPENDITURES ON TRACK AND
RELATED STRUCTURES, 2013 (%) 32
FIGURE 8 U.S. RAILROAD AND RAIL TRANSIT SYSTEM EXPENDITURES ON TRACK AND
RELATED STRUCTURES, 2020 ($ MILLIONS/%) 34
FIGURE 9 TRENDS IN EXPENDITURES ON AIRPORT RUNWAY CONSTRUCTION,
2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 37
FIGURE 10 OWNERSHIP OF U.S. DAMS, 2013 (%) 40
FIGURE 11 TRENDS IN DISCARDS TO U.S. LANDFILLS, 1980-2012 (TONS) 47
FIGURE 12 ANNUAL LANDFILL CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY, 1996-2014 (AVERAGE
NUMBER OF LANDFILLS CLOSED, OPENED, OR MODIFIED) 48
FIGURE 13 TRENDS IN TOTAL AND AVERAGE LANDFILL CAPACITY, 1990-2013
(BILLION TONS/MILLION TONS) 50
FIGURE 14 TRENDS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT INVESTMENTS, FY 2014-FY
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 54
FIGURE 15 INDUSTRY SEGMENTS' SHARES OF WATER POLLUTION ABATEMENT
EXPENDITURES (% OF TOTAL INDUSTRY EXPENDITURES) 56
FIGURE 16 TRENDS IN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT EXPENDITURES,
2014-2020 ($ BILLIONS) 57
FIGURE 17 TRENDS IN HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL IN LANDFILLS/SURFACE
IMPOUNDMENTS, 2001-2011 (THOUSAND TONS/% OF TOTAL HAZARDOUS WASTES) 59
FIGURE 18 TRENDS IN U.S. PRODUCTION OF METAL ORES, 2007-2014 (2007=100) 64
FIGURE 19 COMPOSITION OF U.S. MINING WASTES, 2014 (% OF TOTAL) 65
FIGURE 20 TRENDS IN MINE RECLAMATION BOND RELEASES, 2002-2010 (NUMBER
OF ACRES RELEASED) 66
FIGURE 21 TRENDS IN NUMBER OF NEW FEDERAL MINING PERMITS ISSUED,
2003-2013 66
FIGURE 22 TRENDS IN ACRES OF U.S. FARMLAND IRRIGATED BY OPEN SURFACE
CANALS AND DITCHES, 2003 AND 2013 (THOUSAND ACRES) 72
FIGURE 23 TRENDS IN SALES OF U.S. AQUACULTURE PRODUCTS, 2005 AND 2013 ($
MILLIONS) 74
FIGURE 24 TRENDS IN NUMBER OF U.S. AQUACULTURE FARMS AND AVERAGE SALES
PER FARM, 2005 AND 2013 (UNITS/$) 75
FIGURE 25 TRENDS IN USE OF PONDS AND RACEWAYS IN U.S. AQUACULTURE, 2005
AND 2013 (NUMBER OF FARMS) 76
FIGURE 26 TRENDS IN U.S. PRIVATE CONSTRUCTION SPENDING, 2007-2014 ($
BILLIONS) 80
FIGURE 27 U.S. GEOTEXTILES MARKET SHARES BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2014-2020
(% OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION IN $) 95
FIGURE 28 U.S. GEOTEXTILES MARKET SHARES BY FUNCTION, 2014-2020 (% OF
TOTAL CONSUMPTION) 97
FIGURE 29 U.S. GEOMEMBRANE MARKET SHARES BY TYPE OF MATERIAL, 2014-2020
(% OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION IN $) 107
FIGURE 30 U.S. GEOMEMBRANE MARKET SHARES BY END-USER SEGMENT,
2014-2020 (% OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION IN $) 108
FIGURE 31 U.S. GEOGRID MARKET SHARES BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2014-2020 (%
OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION IN $) 116
FIGURE 32 U.S. GEOCOMPOSITE MARKET SHARES BY END-USER SEGMENT,
2014-2020 (% OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION) 124
FIGURE 33 U.S. GEOGRID MARKET SHARES BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2014-2020 (%
OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION IN $) 130
FIGURE 34 U.S. OTHER GEOSYNTHETICS MARKET SHARES BY FUNCTION, 2014-2020
(% OF TOTAL CONSUMPTION IN $) 130
FIGURE 35 GLOBAL MARKETS FOR GEOSYNTHETICS, 2014 (% OF TOTAL GLOBAL
MARKET) 133
FIGURE 36 PROJECTED TRENDS IN GLOBAL GEOSYNTHETICS MARKET, 2014-2020 ($
BILLIONS) 134
FIGURE 37 PROJECTED TRENDS IN REGIONAL GEOSYNTHETICS MARKET SHARES,
2014-2020 (%) 135
FIGURE 38 GEOSYNTHETICS MANUFACTURERS PRODUCING FOR THE U.S. MARKET
BY PRINCIPAL PRODUCT, 2014 (%) 137
FIGURE 39 U.S. GEOTEXTILE MARKET SHARES, 2013 (% OF TOTAL GEOTEXTILES
CONSUMPTION) 138
FIGURE 40 U.S. GEOMEMBRANE MARKET SHARES, 2013 (% OF TOTAL GEOTEXTILES
CONSUMPTION) 140
FIGURE 41 U.S. GEOGRID MARKET SHARES, 2013 (% OF TOTAL GEOGRID
CONSUMPTION) 141
FIGURE 42 U.S. GEOGRID MARKET SHARES, 2013 (% OF TOTAL GEOGRID
CONSUMPTION) 142
FIGURE 43 GUNDLESLT ENVIRONMENTAL REVENUES BY MARKET SEGMENT, 2013 (%
OF TOTAL REVENUES) 150
FIGURE 44 PATENT SHARES BY TYPE OF MATERIAL (% OF ALL PATENTS ISSUED
THROUGH MARCH 15, 2015) 164
FIGURE 45 PATENTS ISSUED FOR GEOSYNTHETIC FABRICATION TECHNOLOGIES VS.
APPLICATIONS (% OF ALL PATENTS ISSUED THROUGH MARCH 15, 2015) 165

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