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  5. > Global Markets for Catalysts: Focus on Catalyst Regeneration

The main objective of this report is to understand the current market scenario, the growth in the past few years, potential future growth and the changes that are taking place in the catalyst regeneration marketplace.

Use this report to:
- Learn more about four catalyst market segments: environmental, refinery, polymer and chemical catalysts.
- Analyze catalysts and catalyst regeneration technologies.
- Receive information about intellectual property (IP) data on catalyst regeneration.
- Gather information about profiles of major players in the catalyst regeneration industries.

Highlights
- The global market for catalysts and catalyst regeneration reached nearly $23.2 billion and nearly $24.6 billion in 2013 and 2014, respectively. This market is forecast to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.0% to reach $29.9 billion in 2019.
- Fresh catalysts as a segment is projected to grow from $20.5 billion in 2014 to $25.0 billion in 2019 at a CAGR of 4.0% for the period 2014-2019.
- Regenerated catalysts as a segment is expected to grow from nearly $4.1 billion in 2014 to nearly $4.9 billion by 2019, increasing at a CAGR of 3.7% for the period 2014-2019.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
BCC Research previously published two reports on the catalyst regeneration market, first in 2006 and again in 2012. Further, BCC Research also published reports on catalysts for the environmental and energy markets in 2010 and on catalysts for the U.S. petrochemicals market in 2011. This report is the third update to the catalyst regeneration market, and includes updated market data. Further, we have included a more detailed analysis of the catalyst market than that in the previous reports. The global catalyst market is estimated to have been valued at nearly $23.2 billion in 2013, and is expected to grow further to $29.9 billion market by 2019 for a five-year CAGR of 4%.

The catalyst regeneration market is expected to cross the $4 billion barrier in 2014 and to grow further to nearly $4.9 billion by 2019, at a CAGR of 3.7%. This represents a
potential growth of nearly $1 billion from 2014 to 2019. The main objective of this report is to understand the current market scenario, the growth in the past few years, potential future growth and the changes that are taking place in the catalyst regeneration marketplace.

The catalyst regeneration market is closely tied to the catalyst market itself, with companies that are heavily focused on R&D growing significantly faster than those that
are not. New advances in catalyst technology development also drive the regeneration market. In this report, a detailed analysis of the four catalyst market segments (environmental, refinery, polymer and chemical catalysts) is undertaken. Market trends in the last few years are studied, and eight major industry trends are reported in Chapter Three. Another objective of the report is to understand more about catalysts and catalyst regeneration technologies. Twenty-one specific processes are addressed and thoroughly reviewed, including the details of each process, types of catalysts used, mechanisms of deactivation of the catalysts and how these catalysts can be
regenerated. This chapter should give further thought to companies in the regeneration market as to which process segments of the market they can grow into.

While catalyst regeneration is a growing market, the numerous experts we consulted with felt that a primary reason for growth not occurring as fast as expected is the lack
of faith users have in the regeneration process. Often, refinery operators are not convinced that the regeneration process is reliable or will provide them material that
has activity on a par with fresh catalysts. Nor do they believe that the use of a regeneration process will result in cost-effective savings. In order to educate the end user, BCC Research has studied regeneration process technology in detail, as to how the process works, what kind of monitoring is possible for the process, how the regenerated catalysts are evaluated as suitable for customer use and how such data can be presented to customers. We believe that the details presented in Chapter Five will be helpful to end users of catalyst regeneration, enabling them to ask the right questions and get the correct answers that could minimize the risk in the choice of regenerated catalysts.

Analysis of the market and an estimation of various segments of the catalyst regeneration market as well as potential growth rates are presented in the report, with this being the core focus of the report. One key driver for catalyst market growth is changes in regulations. Regulations affecting various market segments are reviewed in Chapter Seven of the report, and this summary will be useful for catalyst manufacturers, end users and companies focused on regeneration. An analysis of intellectual property (IP) data on catalyst regeneration is another facet of the report. This data is presented in Chapter Seven, with the objective of understanding both the technologies that have been developed, the pace of technology development and the major companies that are focused on developing IP for catalyst regeneration. The study also points out the monopolistic nature of the IP field, showing that for specific processes and catalysts used there is most likely just a single company that has been developing intellectual property. Data is presented by chronology, company, application field and technology.

The final objective of the report is to convey in-depth information about companies active in the marketplace. In the previous versions of this report, an overview of the
companies was offered; in this report, further details of the companies are provided, including sales data, production facility information and market segments of operation
where such data is available. Merger and acquisition data is also presented.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
The catalyst regeneration market has further consolidated since BCC Research’s previous report. Eurecat, the market’s largest player, acquired Tricat in 2013, leaving Porocel as the second largest player. These two companies now lead the regeneration market for refinery catalysts. In the environmental catalyst arena, recent years have seen ownership changes for several companies. The segment is not as consolidated as the refinery regeneration market. The other two markets, polymer and chemical catalysts, are largely fragmented and relatively small compared with the catalyst regeneration market. Regulatory changes are expected to significantly affect the catalyst market in the
coming years, especially in automotive catalysts and other environmental applications, which are the two largest markets for catalysts. In this report, BCC Research has
compiled in detail the regulatory changes that are affecting various market segments.

Since the automotive and environmental market segments are vital customers for the catalyst regeneration market, BCC Research also has studied a number of refineries
worldwide and has included data on production quantity and capacity of refineries worldwide by country. Also presented is data on gas-, oil- and coal-based power plants
worldwide, again segmented by the number of plants and capacity by country. These are important target markets for the catalyst industry. While market data on catalysts was presented in earlier versions of this report, detailed trade data was not included. In the current report, in-depth data is provided for the U.S., European and Japanese catalyst markets, including trade data by each state in the U.S. and catalyst price data by segment for Europe and Japan.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report is aimed at five major audience groups. Companies that are active in new catalyst development and manufacturing will find the information in the report useful to compare their operations with others in the field, and also to understand their markets and customers. Specifically, the financials of several companies are presented. There is also a separate chapter discussing the regulations in various countries and market segments that affect catalyst usage. The report will be highly useful for professionals in the financial marketplace such as private equity companies, investment managers, owners and C-level executives of companies, and investors and fund managers focused on the energy and petrochemical markets. Catalysts, while a relatively smaller cost component in the petrochemical industry, are vital in the value they add to the market, and regeneration has proven to reduce catalyst costs in half or more in various applications. With the regeneration market now consolidated in the refinery segment, consolidation in other markets, especially environmental catalysts, can be expected in the next decade.

Refineries worldwide are the single largest users of catalyst regeneration; however, market penetration of regeneration technologies in this industry has not even reached
half its full potential. BCC Research estimates that technological understanding of the regeneration process and its benefits by this industry are crucial to ensure continued
growth for the industry, and that the technical details included in this report will be highly useful to technologists in the refining industry. The report is nontechnical in its
approach and is written in a manner that makes it easy for readers to understand the market.

A detailed description of regeneration technologies is an excellent source of ideas for technologists and researchers working in the catalyst industry. Comparison of current
processes used in one market may be directly applicable to other market segments, and the review of a wide range of processes presented in Chapter Four is directly
useful for R&D leaders to understand and appreciate potential markets for growth for their companies. A detailed analysis of U.S. patents is presented that should evoke
discussions that could open new application markets for companies. Specifically, BCC Research has proposed two potential ideas for technologists to consider that have not
been considered previously. Various related industry personnel will also benefit from the report for its broad coverage of the industry. Suppliers to the catalyst manufacturers are a market segment that will find this report useful as a reference guide. Equipment manufacturers that cater to the industry will also find the contents useful.

Environmental regulatory personnel will find the report useful, as it provides the basic technology background available from the industry and details the trends in the
marketplace.

SCOPE AND FORMAT
Meeting rising energy requirements and protecting the environment are among the most important applications of catalyst technology. Broadly speaking, a catalyst is a
substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by reducing the required activation energy, but is left unchanged by the reaction. As was the case in the previous review on this topic, the refinery industry remains the largest single user of regenerated catalysts, especially in hydroprocessing to produce refined products such as gasoline and low-sulfur diesel fuel. Regenerated catalysts find use in many types of environmental remediation, from power plant emissions control systems to industrial effluent and municipal waste treatment. Regenerated catalysts lower costs, since they can be significantly cheaper than fresh catalysts and nearly as active.

This report provides an understanding of how the regenerated catalyst business contributes to meeting the energy needs of the world economies, while at the same time helping reduce the costs associated with preventing environmental degradation and remediation of adverse environmental impacts as they occur. While the core focus of the report is catalyst regeneration, we also review the global catalyst market and provide forecasts for various segments, as the catalyst marb>ket trends strongly drive the regeneration market trends. The study is divided into a number of sections and covers the following aspects, each covered in separate chapters:

- Catalysts, the catalyst market scenario and projections.
- Catalyst regeneration technology by application.
- Elements involved in the processes in catalyst regeneration.
- Regulatory aspects affecting the catalyst regeneration marketplace.
- Catalyst regeneration market scenarios and projections.
- Analysis of patents in catalyst regeneration.
- Company profiles for market participants.

METHODOLOGIES AND INFORMATION SOURCES
Information presented in this report was collected and categorized from both primary and secondary information sources. Primary information sources are thought leaders in the industry, who were contacted by E-mail, phone calls or personal visits and interviews. The author acknowledges the strong and open communication provided by several company representatives in this regard. A detailed online survey was also conducted by BCC Research that provided responses from industry personnel about the specifics of the market. The support provided by these contacts is acknowledged with appreciation. Secondary information sources include the Internet, market publications, the U.S.
Patent and Trademarks Office (USPTO), the U.S. Census Bureau, trade statistics, other specific data sources as well as books, technical journal articles, Master’s and Doctoral
thesis documents, and company literature and regulatory filings.

The data collected were analyzed and extrapolated where required, and assumptions were made at several instances based on specific information that was available. The
best possible attempts have been made to accurately portray the market size and trends based on the data that is available from the above-mentioned sources.

Table Of Contents

Global Markets for Catalysts: Focus on Catalyst Regeneration
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 3
INTENDED AUDIENCE 4
SCOPE AND FORMAT 5
METHODOLOGIES AND INFORMATION SOURCES 5
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 6
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 6
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 7
DISCLAIMER 7
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL CATALYST AND CATALYST REGENERATION MARKETS,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 10
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL CATALYST AND CATALYST REGENERATION MARKETS,
2011-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 10
CHAPTER 3 CATALYSTS AND CATALYST MARKETS 12
TABLE 1 IMPORTANT CATALYTIC PROCESSES DEVELOPED SINCE 1940 12
TYPES OF CATALYSTS 14
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET SHARES BY TECHNOLOGY, 2014 (%) 14
SOLID CATALYSTS 15
TABLE 2 EXAMPLES OF SOLID CATALYSTS BY TYPE 16
TABLE 3 IMPORTANT PROPERTIES FOR SUPPORTS 16
TABLE 4 SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA FOR VARIOUS SUPPORTS 17
FIGURE 2 VARIOUS CATALYST SHAPES 17
TABLE 5 CATALYST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES 18
CATALYST APPLICATION MARKETS 18
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET SHARES BY SEGMENT, 2014 (%) 19
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET GROWTH PROJECTION BY SEGMENTS,
2011-2017 ($ BILLIONS) 20
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET: ATTRACTIVENESS BY SEGMENT 21
TABLE 6 CATALYST MATERIAL AND APPLICATION MARKETS SUMMARY 22
ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYSTS MARKET 22
Automotive Emission Catalysts: Platinum, Palladium, Rhodium 22
FIGURE 6 LIGHT VEHICLE PRODUCTION TRENDS, 2013-2020 (MILLION UNITS) 23
FIGURE 7 HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE PRODUCTION TRENDS, 2013-2020 (THOUSAND
UNITS) 24
FIGURE 8 FUEL EMISSIONS REGULATORY TRENDS BY COUNTRY, 2010-2020 25
FIGURE 9 GASOLINE ENGINE, REGULATORY CONTROLS, TRENDS 26
FIGURE 10 DIESEL ENGINE, REGULATORY CONTROLS AND TRENDS 26
Platinum Group Metals Market and Its Influence 27
TABLE 7 PLATINUM GROUP METALS: CATALYST APPLICATIONS 28
TABLE 8 GLOBAL PGM DEMAND FOR AUTOMOTIVE CATALYSTS, THROUGH 2019
(THOUSAND OZ) 30
TABLE 9 GLOBAL PLATINUM DEMAND WITHIN THE AUTOCATALYTIC MARKET BY
REGION, THROUGH 2019 (DATA IN THOUSAND OZ) 30
FIGURE 11 DISTRIBUTION OF PLATINUM DEMAND WITHIN THE AUTOMOTIVE
CATALYST MARKET BY REGION, 2013 (%) 31
Palladium Market for Autocatalysts 31
TABLE 10 GLOBAL PALLADIUM DEMAND WITHIN THE AUTOCATALYTIC MARKET BY
REGION, THROUGH 2019 (DATA IN THOUSAND OZ.) 32
FIGURE 12 DISTRIBUTION OF PALLADIUM DEMAND WITHIN THE AUTOMOTIVE
CATALYST MARKET BY REGION, 2013 (%) 32
FIGURE 13 FLEET AVERAGE WEIGHT AND CO2 EMISSIONS BY CAR MAKER AND EU
TARGETS FOR 2020 33
TABLE 11 LIST OF COMPANIES IN THE EMISSION CONTROL MARKET FOR
AUTOMOBILES 35
NOx Reduction Catalysts 35
FIGURE 14 NOX REDUCTION CATALYSTS FOR MOBILE AND FIXED SOURCES 35
Fuels: Sulfur Content Control 36
FIGURE 15 SULFUR CONTENT IN CRUDE FROM VARIOUS GLOBAL LOCATIONS 36
FIGURE 16 SULFUR STANDARDS WORLDWIDE BY REGION, 2015 (PPM) 37
TABLE 12 REGIONAL GASOLINE SULFUR CONTENT REQUIREMENTS, 2012-2020 38
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL SULFUR STANDARDS FOR FUELS, 2012-2025 (PPM) 38
FIGURE 18 DESULFURIZATION CAPACITY ADDITIONS AND PROJECTIONS,
2012-2035 (MILLION BARRELS/DAY) 38
Bunker Fuel 39
FIGURE 19 WORLD FUEL OIL MARKETS: INLAND AND BUNKER, 2000-2020 39
FIGURE 20 IMO TIMELINE FOR SULFUR CONTENT REDUCTIONS, 2008-2025 40
Not All Sulfur is the Same 41
TABLE 13 SULFUR CONTENT IN VARIOUS FUELS AND THEIR CHEMISTRY 41
Options for Desulfurization 42
Odor Removal Technologies 42
FIGURE 21 DEODORIZATION BY HONEYCOMB CATALYSTS 43
REFINING: THE CATALYST MARKET 43
FIGURE 22 PROVEN OIL RESERVES BY COUNTRY, 2014 (MILLION BARRELS) 44
FIGURE 23 OIL PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY, 2013 ('000 BARRELS OF OIL PER DAY) 45
FIGURE 24 TOP PETROLEUM COMPANIES BY CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION,2012 (‘000
BARRELS PER DAY) 45
FIGURE 25 PROVEN NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY COUNTRY, 2014 (TRILLION CUBIC
FEET) 47
FIGURE 26 NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY, 2013 (BILLION CUBIC FEET) 48
FIGURE 27 TOP COMPANIES FOR NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, 2012 (MILLION
CUBIC FEET/DAY) 49
FIGURE 28 TOP PETROLEUM COMPANIES BY REVENUE, 2012 ($ BILLIONS) 50
Catalysts in the Refining Industry 51
FIGURE 29 SCHEMATIC OF A TYPICAL REFINERY OPERATIONS 51
FIGURE 30 GLOBAL REFINERY CATALYST MARKET SHARES BY SUBSEGMENT, 2013
(%) 52
FIGURE 31 REFINERY CATALYST MARKET GROWTH PROJECTION BY SUBSEGMENT,
2013 AND 2019 ($ BILLIONS) 53
FIGURE 32 GLOBAL REFINERY CATALYST MARKET SHARES BY REGION, 2012 (%) 54
Competitive Landscape for Hydroprocessing Catalysts 54
FIGURE 33 GLOBAL HYDROPROCESSING CATALYST MARKET STRUCTURE CHANGE,
1985 VS. 2012 (%) 55
Shale Gas: How the Boom Affects the Catalyst Industry 56
FIGURE 34 GLOBAL SHALE GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION, 1990-2035 (BCF/D, %) 56
FIGURE 35 UNITED STATES NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY SOURCE, 1990-2040
(TRILLION CUBIC FEET/%) 57
POLYMER CATALYSTS MARKET 59
FIGURE 36 GLOBAL POLYMER CATALYST MARKET SHARES BY SUBSEGMENT, 2013
(%) 59
FIGURE 37 POLYMER CATALYST MARKET GROWTH PROJECTION BY SUBSEGMENT,
2013 AND 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 59
TABLE 14 MULTIPLE GENERATIONS OF PP ZN CATALYSTS 61
FIGURE 38 POLYPROPYLENE ZIEGLER-NATTA CATALYST MARKET SHARES BY
COMPANY, 2013 (%) 61
FIGURE 39 LINEAR POLYETHYLENE CATALYSTS MARKET SHARES BY COMPANY,
2013 (%) 62
CHEMICAL CATALYSTS MARKET 63
TABLE 15 GLOBAL CHEMICAL CATALYST MARKET, 2011 ($ MILLIONS) 63
TABLE 16 SKILL SETS REQUIRED FOR CATALYST TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 64
GLOBAL CATALYSIS MARKET TRENDS 65
TREND 1: TOWARD HIGHER ACTIVITY AND SELECTIVITY OF CATALYSTS 65
FIGURE 40 TRENDS IN CATALYST DEVELOPMENT IN HYDROCRACKING 65
TABLE 17 CHANGE IN HYDROCRACKING OVER THE LAST 50 YEARS 66
TREND 2: CHANGES IN FEEDSTOCK AND MORE EFFICIENT USE OF
FEEDSTOCK 66
Heavy Crudes Market 66
Technological Challenges 67
TABLE 18 GASIFICATION POTENTIAL FOR VARIOUS FUELS (%) 67
TREND 3: LOWER OPERATING TEMPERATURES 68
TREND 4: ENERGY EFFICIENCY 68
TREND 5: CREATING PROCESSES AROUND CATALYST TECHNOLOGIES 68
TREND 6: COAL IN CHINA 69
FIGURE 41 MARKET DRIVERS FOR COAL-BASED PROCESSES IN CHINA 69
TREND 7: GTL AS EMERGING TECHNOLOGY 70
FIGURE 42 CHEMICALS AND INDUSTRIES SUPPORTED BY NATURAL GAS 70
FIGURE 43 COST CURVE FOR NEW GTL PLANT INSTALLATIONS 71
TREND 8: OLEFINS MARKET GROWTH 72
TABLE 19 LARGEST ETHYLENE STEAM CRACKING PRODUCTION PLANTS
WORLDWIDE AS OF JAN. 1, 2013 73
FIGURE 44 PROPYLENE DEMAND AND SUPPLY, 2001-2021 73
FIGURE 45 PROPYLENE YIELDS FROM VARIOUS PRODUCTION PROCESSES 75
FIGURE 46 PROPYLENE END-USE MARKETS: HISTORIC CHANGES, 1970 VS. 2004 (%) 75
FIGURE 47 POLYOLEFINS PRODUCTION CAPACITIES OF TOP PLAYERS, 2013 76
FIGURE 48 GLOBAL POLYOLEFIN MARKET BY REGION, 2005-2020 (MILLION MT/YR.) 77
INDUSTRY ORGANIZATIONS 79
CATALYST INDUSTRY IN NORTH AMERICA 79
FIGURE 49 U.S. CATALYST IMPORTS BY TYPE, 2010-2013 ($ MILLIONS) 80
TABLE 20 U.S. CATALYST IMPORTS BY TYPE AND COUNTRY, 2013 ($ MILLIONS) 81
FIGURE 50 U.S. CATALYST EXPORTS BY TYPE, 2010-2013 ($ MILLIONS) 82
TABLE 21 U.S. CATALYST EXPORTS BY TYPE AND STATE OF ORIGIN, 2013 ($
MILLIONS) 83
TABLE 22 U.S. CATALYST EXPORTS BY TYPE AND COUNTRY, 2013 ($ MILLIONS) 84
CATALYST INDUSTRY IN EUROPE 85
TABLE 23 MEMBER COMPANIES OF EUROPEAN CATALYST MANUFACTURERS
ASSOCIATION 85
FIGURE 51 EUROPEAN CATALYST IMPORTS BY TYPE, 2010-2013 (MILLION EUROS) 86
TABLE 24 EUROPEAN CATALYST IMPORTS BY TYPE, 2010-2013 (MILLION EUROS
AND THOUSAND MTS) 87
FIGURE 52 EUROPEAN CATALYST EXPORTS BY TYPE, 2010-2013 (MILLION EUROS) 88
TABLE 25 EUROPEAN CATALYST EXPORTS BY TYPE, 2010-2013 (MILLION EUROS
AND THOUSAND MTS) 89
TABLE 26 AVERAGE PRICES FOR CATALYSTS BY TYPE IN EUROPE, 2010-2013 ($/KG) 90
FIGURE 53 AVERAGE PRICES FOR CATALYSTS BY TYPE IN EUROPE, 2010-2013
($/KG) 90
FIGURE 54 NON-PGM CATALYST MARKET SHARES IN EUROPE BY METAL TYPE, 2012
(%) 91
CATALYST INDUSTRY IN JAPAN 92
TABLE 27 MEMBER COMPANIES OF CATALYST ASSOCIATION IN JAPAN 92
TABLE 28 AVERAGE PRICES FOR CATALYSTS BY SEGMENT, 2010-2013 ($/KG) 93
FIGURE 55 AVERAGE PRICES FOR CATALYSTS BY SEGMENT, 2010-2013 ($/KG) 93
FIGURE 56 JAPANESE CATALYST PRODUCTION BY MARKET SEGMENT, 2010-2013
(MT) 94
FIGURE 57 JAPANESE CATALYST MARKET BY SEGMENT, 2010-2013 (MILLION YEN) 94
FIGURE 58 JAPANESE CATALYST MARKET SHARES BY SEGMENT, 2013 (%) 95
GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET 96
TABLE 29 GLOBAL CATALYST TRADE EXPORTS BY COUNTRY, 2010-2012 ($
MILLIONS) 97
FIGURE 59 MARKET SHARES OF CATALYST EXPORTS BY COUNTRY, 2012 (%) 97
TABLE 30 GLOBAL CATALYST TRADE IMPORTS BY COUNTRY, 2010-2012 ($
MILLIONS) 99
FIGURE 60 MARKET SHARES OF CATALYST IMPORTS BY COUNTRY, 2012 (%) 100
CHAPTER 4 TECHNOLOGIES IN CATALYST REGENERATION 103
TECHNOLOGIES IN CATALYST REGENERATION 103
ALKYLATION OF LIGHT AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS 103
CATALYST USED 104
CATALYST ACTIVITY, PARTICLE SIZE AND PROCESS CHOICE 105
FIGURE 61 CATALYST ACTIVITY WITH PARTICLE SIZE AND PROCESS 105
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 105
REGENERATION METHODS 106
FIGURE 62 ESTIMATED GLOBAL LINEAR ALKYL BENZENE (LAB) DEMAND BY
REGION/COUNTRY, 2015 (%) 106
ALKYLATION OF PARAFFINS AND OLEFINS 107
TABLE 31 LIST OF ALKYLATION REACTIONS 108
CATALYST USED 108
TABLE 32 LIST OF SULFURIC ACID REGENERATION FACILITIES 109
FIGURE 63 COMPARISON OF EFFICIENCIES OF SOLID-STATE CATALYSTS USED IN
ALKYLATION REACTIONS 110
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 111
CHM046C - Global Markets for Catalysts: Focus on Catalyst Regeneration
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
REGENERATION METHODS 111
Chlorided Alumina 111
Hydrogen Fluoride 112
Sulfone + Hydrogen Halide + Water 112
CAPROLACTAM PRODUCTION 113
CATALYST USED 113
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 113
REGENERATION METHODS 113
CYCLIC ALDOL CONDENSATION 113
CATALYST USED 113
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 114
REGENERATION METHODS 114
DEHYDROGENATION 114
TABLE 33 DEHYDROGENATION PROCESSES IN COMMERCIAL OPERATION 115
CATALYST USED 115
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 116
REGENERATION METHODS 116
TABLE 34 COMPARISON OF ISOBUTANE DEHYDROGENATION PROCESSES 117
FIGURE 64 COMPARISON OF ISOBUTANE DEHYDROGENATION PROCESSES 117
DENITRIFICATION (EXHAUST GAS PURIFICATION) 117
TABLE 35 EMISSIONS FROM VARIOUS FOSSIL FUELS (G/KWH) 118
TABLE 36 PROPERTIES OF ORIMULSION COMPARED WITH ORINOCO OIL AND FUEL
OIL C 118
CATALYST USED 119
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 119
FIGURE 65 PROCESS CONDITIONS FOR AMMONIUM SULFATE AND HYDROSULFATE
FORMATION AND DEPOSITION ON SCR CATALYSTS 120
REGENERATION METHODS 121
FIGURE 66 GLOBAL GROWTH ESTIMATE FOR DIESEL EXHAUST FLUID, 2010-2020 121
FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS 122
FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS CONDITIONS 122
TABLE 37 FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS CONDITIONS, CATALYSTS AND
REGENERATION TECHNIQUES 123
TABLE 38 COMPATIBILITY AND COMPARISON OF REFINING TECHNOLOGIES WITH
FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS 125
CATALYSTS USED 126
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 126
REGENERATION METHODS 126
FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING 127
FIGURE 67 FCC SCHEMATIC 127
CATALYST USED 129
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 130
REGENERATION METHODS 130
Full Conversion of CO to CO2 131
TABLE 39 GUIDE FOR THE AMOUNT OF MANGANESE AND ANTIMONY TO BE USED
IN THE CATALYST FOR FCC REACTIONS 131
Removal of Nitrogen Oxides 132
Removal of Sulfur 132
FCC ALLIANCE 133
FLUORINATION 133
TABLE 40 LIST OF FLUORINATION REACTIONS 134
TABLE 41 UNIQUE PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC FLUORINE COMPOUNDS AND
APPLICATION MARKETS 134
TABLE 42 FLUORINE CHEMICALS AND MARKET APPLICATIONS 135
CATALYST USED 135
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 136
REGENERATION METHODS 136
FRIEDEL-CRAFTS REACTION 137
CATALYST USED 137
TABLE 43 COMPARISON OF ANISOLE CONVERSION BY FRIEDEL-CRAFTS REACTION
UNDER 12 DIFFERENT CATALYSIS CONDITIONS 138
TABLE 44 COMPARISON OF FRIEDEL-CRAFTS CONVERSION OF ANISOLE WITH
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS WITH MULTIPLE CATALYSTS 139
Ionic Liquids 139
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 140
Ionic Liquids 140
REGENERATION METHODS 141
Ionic Liquids 141
TABLE 45 IONIC LIQUID CATALYST REUSABILITY FOR THE FRIEDEL-CRAFTS
REACTION OF PHENOL 141
FUEL CELL REACTIONS (PEM) 142
CATALYST USED 143
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 143
REGENERATION METHODS 143
GLYCOL PRODUCTION 144
CATALYST USED 144
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 144
REGENERATION METHODS 144
HYDROCARBON CONVERSION WITH IRIDIUM CATALYST 145
CATALYST USED 145
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 145
REGENERATION METHODS 145
HYDROCARBON CRACKING WITH A MIX OF ISOMERIZATION AND METATHESIS
CATALYSTS 146
CATALYST USED 146
METATHESIS CATALYSTS: NOBEL PRIZE-WINNING CHEMISTRY 146
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 147
REGENERATION METHODS 147
KOCH PROCESS 148
CATALYST USED 149
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 149
REGENERATION METHODS 149
METHANOL PRODUCTION 149
CATALYST USED 150
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 150
REGENERATION METHODS 150
MOTOR VEHICLE EXHAUST PURIFICATION 151
CATALYST USED 151
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 151
REGENERATION METHODS 152
OLEFIN EPOXIDATION 152
CATALYST USED 153
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 154
REGENERATION METHODS 154
TABLE 46 REACTIVITY OF CATALYST USED IN OLEFIN EPOXIDATION UNDER
VARIOUS REGENERATION CONDITIONS 154
OLIGOMERIZATION OF LOWER OLEFINS WITH SPA CATALYST 155
CATALYST USED 155
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 156
REGENERATION METHODS 156
OLIGOMERIZATION OF LOWER OLEFINS WITH ZEOLITE CATALYST 157
CATALYST USED 157
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 158
REGENERATION METHODS 158
TABLE 47 ILLUSTRATIVE STEPS FOR A SEQUENTIAL REACTOR ROTATION TO
OPTIMALLY USE ZEOLITE CATALYST IN OLEFIN OLIGOMERIZATION 159
OXYGEN REMOVAL 160
CATALYST USED 160
DEACTIVATION OF THE CATALYST 160
REGENERATION METHODS 160
CHAPTER 5 CATALYST REGENERATION PROCESSES 162
CATALYST REGENERATION: WHY AND HOW 162
DEFINING END OF PROCESSING CYCLE 162
CONTAMINATIONS/POISONS 162
TABLE 48 PROCESSES, CATALYSTS AND POISONS 163
Case 1-Partial Batch Savings by Bin Analysis 164
FIGURE 68 ANALYSIS OF UNLOADED CATALYST FOR REGENERATION DECISION,
CASE 1 164
Case 2-Partial Batch Savings by Bin Analysis 165
FIGURE 69 ANALYSIS OF UNLOADED CATALYST FOR REGENERATION DECISION,
CASE 2 165
Case 3-Analysis Also Providing Carbon Profiling within the Reactor 165
FIGURE 70 ANALYSIS OF CATALYST FOR CARBON PROFILING OF THE REACTOR,
CASE 3 165
Case 4-Catalyst Regeneration Not Recommended 166
FIGURE 71 ANALYSIS OF CATALYST CONFIRMING REGENERATION AS NOT
POSSIBLE, CASE 4 166
NATURE AND CHEMISTRY OF COKE DEPOSITS ON THE CATALYST 167
TABLE 49 COKE DEPOSIT CONSTITUENTS 167
TESTS FOR CONFIRMING CATALYST REGENERATION AS SUCCESSFUL 168
TABLE 50 PROPERTY TARGETS FOR REGENERATED CATALYSTS 168
MONITORING OF CATALYST REGENERATION 169
FIGURE 72 CATALYST REGENERATION MONITORING BY MASS SPECTROSCOPY 169
HYDROTREATING CATALYST REGENERATION 170
TABLE 51 HYDROTREATING CATALYSTS AND MANUFACTURERS 171
TABLE 52 REGENERATION OF HYDROTREATING CATALYST 171
AUTOMOTIVE EMISSION CATALYSTS AND REGENERATION 171
TABLE 53 COMPONENTS OF EXHAUST FROM GASOLINE AND DIESEL ENGINES 172
FIGURE 73 OPERATIONAL WINDOW FOR A THREE-WAY CATALYST 172
FIGURE 74 OXYGEN SENSOR DATA FROM A THREE-WAY CATALYST IN OPERATION 173
FIGURE 75 REGENERATION MONITORING FOR A PT-BAO-AL2O3 CATALYST 173
Deactivation 175
Passive Regeneration 175
Active Regeneration 175
REGENERATION OF RH/PT CATALYST FOR E85 REFINING 176
FIGURE 76 CATALYST REGENERATION OF RHODIUM/PLATINUM CATALYST USED
FOR E-85 REFORMING 176
INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS AND CONTROL 177
TABLE 54 INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AND EMISSIONS 177
DENOX TECHNOLOGIES: SCR 178
FIGURE 77 SCHEMATIC OF A TYPICAL SCR REACTOR 178
SCR CATALYST REGENERATION: COST ANALYSIS 180
TABLE 55 FINANCIAL ANALYSIS FOR CATALYST REGENERATION: SCR UNIT 181
SCR CATALYST MANAGEMENT 181
FIGURE 78 CATALYST MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR AN SCR REACTOR 181
EFFECT OF CARRIERS ON REGENERATION 182
TABLE 56 ALUMINA SUPPORT PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS 182
TABLE 57 ZEOLITE CARRIERS USED IN CATALYSIS 183
USAGE OF REGENERATED CATALYST 183
TABLE 58 USES OF REGENERATED CATALYSTS BY APPLICATION 183
CATALYST RECOVERY 184
TABLE 59 COMPARISON OF METAL RECOVERY BY VARIOUS LEACHING AND
ROASTING METHODS 185
CHAPTER 6 CATALYST REGENERATION MARKET 187
FIGURE 79 BUSINESS MODEL OF CATALYST MANUFACTURERS: INTEGRATED
PLAYERS 187
FIGURE 80 BUSINESS MODEL OF CATALYST MANUFACTURERS: INDEPENDENT
PLAYERS 187
HISTORY OF THE CATALYST REGENERATION MARKETPLACE 188
CATALYST MARKET 189
TABLE 60 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 189
FIGURE 81 GLOBAL CATALYST MARKET, 2011-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 189
CATALYST REGENERATION MARKET 190
TABLE 61 GLOBAL CATALYST REGENERATION MARKET, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 190
FIGURE 82 GLOBAL CATALYST REGENERATION MARKET, 2011-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 190
TABLE 62 SHARES OF FRESH AND REGENERATED CATALYSTS IN THE GLOBAL
CATALYST MARKET, 2011-2019 (%) 191
FIGURE 83 SHARES OF FRESH AND REGENERATED CATALYSTS IN THE GLOBAL
CATALYST MARKET, 2011-2019 (%) 191
OFF-SITE AND ON-SITE REGENERATION 192
TABLE 63 ON-SITE AND OFF-SITE CATALYST REGENERATION, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 193
FIGURE 84 ON-SITE AND OFF-SITE CATALYST REGENERATIONS, 2011-2019 ($
MILLIONS) 193
TABLE 64 ON-SITE AND OFF-SITE CATALYST REGENERATION, 2011-2019 (%) 194
MARKET SEGMENTS 194
ENVIRONMENTAL MARKET 194
REFINERY MARKET 195
TABLE 65 LARGEST REFINERIES IN THE WORLD 196
POLYMER MARKET 197
CHEMICAL MARKET 197
TABLE 66 CATALYST REGENERATION MARKET SHARES BY SEGMENT, 2013 (%) 198
FIGURE 85 CATALYST REGENERATION MARKET SHARES BY SEGMENT, 2013 (%) 198
TABLE 67 CATALYST REGENERATION MARKET BY SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 199
FIGURE 86 CATALYST REGENERATION MARKET BY SEGMENT, 2011-2019 ($
MILLIONS) 199
TABLE 68 CATALYST REGENERATION MARKET SHARES BY SEGMENT, 2011-2019
(%) 200
REGIONAL MARKETS 200
ENVIRONMENTAL MARKET BY REGION 200
TABLE 69 COMPARISON OF EMISSIONS FROM COAL AND NATURAL GAS POWER
PLANTS 201
Coal-Powered Utilities 201
TABLE 70 COAL POWER PLANTS WORLDWIDE BY COUNTRY, NUMBER OF PLANTS
AND TOTAL CAPACITY, 2014 202
Oil-Powered Utilities 203
TABLE 71 OIL-POWERED PLANTS WORLDWIDE BY COUNTRY, NUMBER OF PLANTS
AND TOTAL CAPACITY, 2014 204
Gas-Powered Utilities 206
TABLE 72 GAS-POWERED PLANTS WORLDWIDE BY COUNTRY, NUMBER OF PLANTS
AND TOTAL CAPACITY, 2014 206
FIGURE 87 GLOBAL POTENTIAL SCR CATALYST MARKET SHARES BY REGION, 2014
(%) 209
REFINERY MARKET BY GEOGRAPHICAL REGION 210
FIGURE 88 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF REFINING CAPACITY BY REGION, 2013 (%) 210
TABLE 73 GLOBAL REFINING CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (MILLION
BARRELS/DAY) 211
FIGURE 89 GLOBAL CATALYST REGENERATION MARKET SHARES BY REGION, 2013
(%) 211
COMPANIES ACTIVE IN CATALYST REGENERATION 212
TABLE 74 COMPANIES ACTIVE IN CATALYST REGENERATION 212
GLOBAL CAPACITY FOR CATALYST REGENERATION 213
TABLE 75 GLOBAL CATALYST REGENERATION CAPACITY, THROUGH 2019 (MT) 214
FIGURE 90 GLOBAL CATALYST REGENERATION CAPACITY, 2011-2019 (MT) 214
CHAPTER 7 REGULATIONS 216
INTRODUCTION 216
INFORMATION SOURCES 217
TABLE 76 INFORMATION SOURCES FOR REGULATIONS AND POLICIES AFFECTING
THE CATALYST REGENERATION INDUSTRY 217
U.S. FEDERAL REGULATIONS FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS 219
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) 219
Catalyst Recycling and Regeneration and CDR Reporting 220
Scenario 1 220
Clarification Provided by EPA 220
Scenario 2 220
Clarification Provided by EPA 220
MERCURY EMISSION REGULATIONS 221
RICE-NESHAP REGULATIONS 222
Spark-Ignited Engines 222
Diesel Compression-Ignited Engines 222
REACH: REGULATIONS IN EUROPE 223
TABLE 77 HISTORY OF REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS UNDER REACH 223
TABLE 78 CHEMICALS REGISTERED UNDER REACH BY EURECAT AND TRICAT 224
REGULATIONS IN CHINA 225
TWO-WHEELER REGULATIONS BY COUNTRY 227
TABLE 79 TWO-WHEELER EMISSION REGULATIONS BY COUNTRY 228
TABLE 80 COMPANIES ACTIVE IN ORGANIZATIONS RELATED TO EMISSION
CONTROLS IN VARIOUS REGIONAL MARKETS 230
TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENT OF WASTE 231
CHAPTER 8 PATENT ANALYSIS 234
PATENT ANALYSIS 234
FIGURE 91 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS ISSUED ON CATALYST REGENERATION
TECHNOLOGIES SINCE 1976* 234
PATENT ANALYSIS BY YEAR 235
FIGURE 92 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS ISSUED ON CATALYST REGENERATION
TECHNOLOGIES SINCE 1976 BY YEAR, FIRST METHOD* 236
FIGURE 93 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS ISSUED ON CATALYST REGENERATION
TECHNOLOGIES SINCE 1976 BY YEAR, SECOND METHOD* 236
CORE PATENTS IN CATALYST REGENERATION TECHNOLOGY 237
TABLE 81 U.S. PATENTS SPECIFIC TO CATALYST REGENERATION TECHNOLOGIES,
1976 TO APRIL 2015 237
PATENT ANALYSIS BY COMPANY 244
TABLE 82 NUMBER OF U.S. CATALYST REGENERATION PATENTS BY COMPANY 244
FIGURE 94 COMPANY MARKET SHARES OF U.S. PATENTS ISSUED ON CATALYST
REGENERATION (%) 246
PATENT ANALYSIS BY TECHNOLOGY 247
PATENT ANALYSIS BY CATALYST USED 247
TABLE 83 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS BY CATALYST TYPE AND ASSIGNEE
COMPANIES FOR CATALYST REGENERATION TECHNOLOGIES 247
MONOPOLIES FOR TECHNOLOGIES 248
PATENT ANALYSIS BY CARRIERS USED 249
TABLE 84 CATALYSTS MENTIONED IN PATENTS BY CARRIER TYPE 250
TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND UNEXPLORED AREAS 250
UNEXPLORED AREA 1 250
TABLE 85 LIST OF COUNTRIES WITH CATALYST IMPORTS EXCEEDING $50 MILLION,
2012 ($ MILLIONS) 251
UNEXPLORED AREA 2 253
CHAPTER 9 COMPANY PROFILES 256
TABLE 86 MAJOR COMPANIES IN THE GLOBAL CATALYST MARKETPLACE 256
ACCELRYS INC. 257
ADVANCED CATALYST SYSTEMS LLC 259
PRODUCTS 259
LICENSES AND TECHNOLOGIES 260
REGENERATION AND RECYCLING 260
ADVANCED METALLURGIC GROUP NV 260
AMG VANADIUM 260
FIGURE 95 SPENT CATALYST RECYCLING CAPACITY AT AMG, 2000-2014 (MT) 260
AL BILAD CATALYST CO. LTD. (ABC) 262
TABLE 87 LIST OF AL BILAD CUSTOMERS WORLDWIDE BY COUNTRY 263
ALBEMARLE CORP. 264
CATALYST PRODUCTS 265
TOTAL CATALYST MANAGEMENT 266
REACT TECHNOLOGY 267
HYDROPROCESSING CATALYSTS 267
SULFICAT: TOTSUCAT STAX TECHNOLOGIES 267
FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING CATALYSTS 268
ALKYCLEAN TECHNOLOGY 268
CUSTOMERS 268
COMPETITORS 268
LOCATIONS OF CATALYST REGENERATION 269
PARTNERSHIPS AND JOINT VENTURES 269
TABLE 88 ALBEMARLE: PARTNERSHIPS AND JOINT VENTURES SUMMARY 269
FINANCIALS 270
FIGURE 96 ALBEMARLE REVENUES FROM CATALYST SEGMENT, 2009-2013 ($
MILLIONS) 270
ARISTO INTELLIGENT CATALYST TECHNOLOGY 270
AXENS 271
TABLE 89 AXENS: LIST OF CATALYSTS BY INDUSTRY AND APPLICATION 272
BABCOCK HITACHI KK (NOW MITSUBISHI HITACHI POWER SYSTEMS LTD.) 274
AKITSU WORKS 274
CHINA CATALYST WORKS 274
SERVICES 275
BABCOCK POWER INC. 275
BASF 275
LOCATIONS 276
SEGMENTS, MARKET POSITION AND COMPETITORS 277
Mobile Emissions Catalysts 277
Process Catalysts and Technologies 277
Battery Materials 278
Precious and Base Metal Services 278
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 278
Mobile Emissions Catalysts 279
Process Catalysts 279
Material Services 279
FINANCES 279
FIGURE 97 BASF REVENUES FROM CATALYST SUBSEGMENTS, 2009-2013 (MILLION
EUROS) 280
FIGURE 98 DISTRIBUTION OF BASF CATALYST REVENUES BY REGION, 2013 (%) 280
FIGURE 99 BASF CATALYST REVENUE SHARES BY MARKET, 2013 (%) 281
BAYER TECHNOLOGY SERVICES GMBH 282
CASE STUDY: IN SITU CATALYST REGENERATION MONITORING 282
FIGURE 100 EXAMPLE OF IN SITU MONITORING OF CATALYST REGENERATION FOR
PROCESS CONTROL 283
FIGURE 101 EXAMPLE OF HYDROGENATION MONITORING USING IR
SPECTROSCOPY 283
GREEN MATTER: A DREAM REACTION 285
BERGARI SOLUTIONS LLC 285
CATALYTIC COMBUSTION CORP. 285
CDTI 286
MIXED-PHASE CATALYST (MPC) TECHNOLOGY 287
ZPGM: A DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY 287
TABLE 90 HONDA VEHICLE PLATFORMS WITH CDTI TECHNOLOGIES 288
CELANESE 288
CATALYST REGENERATION 289
TABLE 91 U.S. PATENTS ASSIGNED TO CELANESE RELATED TO CATALYSTS AND
REGENERATION 289
CHEMTRADE 290
SULFURIC ACID REGENERATION 291
CHEVRON LUMMUS GLOBAL 291
TABLE 92 TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONS AT CHEVRON LUMMUS SINCE 1959 292
ISOCRACKING TECHNOLOGY 293
ISODEWAXING TECHNOLOGY 294
MERCAWAY TECHNOLOGY 294
ZEOLITEPLUS TECHNOLOGY 295
CUSTOMERS 295
TABLE 93 LIST OF CUSTOMER UNITS RUNNING LC-FINING TECHNOLOGY 295
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 296
CHROMALOX 296
CLARIANT INTERNATIONAL 297
TABLE 94 CLARIANT COMPANY FINANCIALS, CATALYST SEGMENT AND
SUBSIDIARIES (MILLIONS CHF*) 298
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 298
PRODUCTS 298
PRODUCTS BY MARKET SEGMENTS 299
TABLE 95 CLARIANT CATALYST PORTFOLIO 299
REGENERATION 300
CLEAN HARBORS 301
COALOGIX (SCR-TECH LLC) 302
REGULATIONS: A DRIVER FOR COMPANY GROWTH 302
OPERATIONS 303
OWNERSHIP HISTORY 303
MARKET AND CUSTOMERS 304
CORMETECH INC. 304
LOCATIONS 305
TECHNOLOGY AND PRODUCTS 305
CUSTOMERS 305
FIGURE 102 DISTRIBUTION OF CORMETECH SCR SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS BY
INDUSTRY SEGMENT (%) 305
NEW DEVELOPMENTS 306
CRI CATALYST COMPANY LTD. (CRITERION) 307
CRITERION CATALYSTS AND TECHNOLOGIES LP 307
TECHNOLOGY LICENSING 307
CATALYSTS 308
REGENERATION ACTIVITIES 308
DCL AMERICA INC. 309
DONGFANG ELECTRIC CORP. LTD. 309
DOW OIL AND GAS 310
CATALYSTS AND REGENERATION 310
DUPONT 311
ALKYLATION TECHNOLOGY (STRATCO) 312
SULFURIC ACID TECHNOLOGIES 312
ORGANIZATION 312
MECS Inc. 312
Belco Technologies 313
IsoTherming 313
EBINGER KATALYSATOR SERVICE GMBH and CO. KG 313
SONOCHEMICAL CLEANING: A PATENTED TECHNOLOGY 314
CUSTOMERS 314
TABLE 96 LIST OF CUSTOMERS AND CATALYSTS REGENERATED BY EBINGER 314
ECO-RIGEN S.R.L 320
REGENERATION PROCESS 320
TOTSUCAT: SULFIDING 321
ENVIRONEX INC. 321
CUSTOMERS 322
TABLE 97 LIST OF CUSTOMER OF ENVIRONEX 322
ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS WORLDWIDE INC. (ESW GROUP) 322
PRODUCTS 323
COMPETITORS 324
ENVIROTHERM GMBH (FORMER KWH) 324
COMPANY STRUCTURE 325
COLLABORATIONS AND LICENSES 325
PRODUCTS 326
SERVICES 326
CUSTOMER INDUSTRIES 326
TABLE 98 LIST OF CUSTOMERS OF ENVIROTHERM 327
ERAMET GROUP 327
EURECAT SA 328
ORGANIZATION 329
FIGURE 103 EURECAT COMPANY ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE 329
Eurecat SA 329
Eurecat France 330
Eurecat U.S. Inc. 330
Eurecat U.S. Inc. (regeneration unit) 330
AlBilad Catalyst Co. Ltd. 331
Eco-Rigen S.r.l. 331
Petroval 331
Tricat GmbH 331
Eurecat India Catalyst Services Pvt. Ltd. 332
Eurecat Singapore 332
Nippon Eurecat 333
L.E. Ufaneftekhim Refinery 333
COMPANY HISTORY 333
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 334
SERVICES AND TECHNOLOGIES 334
Regeneration of Catalysts 334
FIGURE 104 ROTO LOUVRE USED BY EURECAT FOR CATALYST REGENERATION 335
Presulfiding 335
FIGURE 105 COMPARISON OF OFF-SITE AND ON-SITE SULFIDATION PROCESSES 335
Preconditioning 336
Technology Licenses 337
Reclamation 337
EURO SUPPORT B.V. 338
ASM CATALYSTS LLC 338
EUROMET 338
CATALYST RECYCLING: CATEAM 339
EVONIK INDUSTRIES AG 339
TABLE 99 LIST OF CATALYSTS OFFERED BY EVONIK 340
BIOFUELS AS GROWTH AREA 340
ORGANOMETALLIC TIN CATALYSTS 341
FUEL TECH INC. 341
FULL YIELD INDUSTRY CO. LTD. (FYI) 341
LONDON CHEMICALS and RESOURCES LTD. 342
GENERAL CHEMICAL CORP. (GENCHEM) 342
GULF CHEMICAL and METALLURGICAL CORP. (GCMC) 342
HALDOR TOPSOE A/S 343
SEGMENTS AND ACTIVITIES 343
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES 345
TECHNOLOGIES AND LICENSES 345
HEADWATERS TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION (HTI) 346
COMPANY HISTORY 346
TECHNOLOGIES DEVELOPED 347
HCAT and DCL Technologies 347
HERAEUS PRECIOUS METALS 348
CATALYSTS 348
CATALYST REFINING AND RECYCLING 349
HITACHI ZOSEN CORP. 349
HITACHI ZOSEN CATALYST 349
HUNTSMAN CORP 350
AMINES 350
IDEMITSU KOSAN CO. LTD. 350
IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES 351
TABLE 100 IFP: PORTFOLIO OF INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENTS 352
TABLE 101 LIST OF COMPANIES THAT COLLABORATE WITH IFP 353
CATALYST RESEARCH ACTIVITIES 353
AXENS 354
EURECAT 354
INTERTEK 355
INTERTEK AMERICAS 355
Services 355
Intertek Pilot Plant Services 355
JEANBLANC INTERNATIONAL 356
JGC CATALYSTS AND CHEMICALS LTD. (JGC and CC) 356
CASE STUDY: DTP PROCESS FOR PROPYLENE PRODUCTION 357
TABLE 102 COMPARISON OF PROPYLENE PRODUCTION PROCESSES 357
FIGURE 106 CATALYST ACTIVITY THROUGH REGENERATION CYCLES FOR
PROPYLENE PRODUCTION BY DTP 358
JOHNSON MATTHEY 358
EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES 359
PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES 359
TABLE 103 JOHNSON MATTHEY CATALYSTS AND PROCESSES SUPPORTED 360
PRECIOUS METAL PRODUCTS/REFINING 360
FINE CHEMICALS 361
NEW BUSINESS 361
REGENERATION TECHNOLOGIES 361
FIGURE 107 ACTIVE DPF REGENERATION TECHNOLOGY-PROCESS DETAILS 361
TABLE 104 DPF REGENERATION TECHNOLOGIES: A COMPARISON 362
PALLADIUM CATALYST SCAVENGING: THE SMOPEX FIBER FAMILY 362
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 362
KAIDA CO. 363
PRODUCTS 364
TABLE 105 CATALYSTS FROM KAIDA SHOWING PGM LOADING LEVELS BY
APPLICATION 364
PGM RECOVERY 365
KBR 366
KC COTTRELL 366
KC ENVIRO SERVICES 366
KC CATALYST SERVICES 367
LIQTECH INTERNATIONAL A/S 368
LYONDELLBASELL 368
LYONDELLBASELL U.S. 368
TRANS4M S TECHNOLOGY 369
VACIDO TECHNOLOGY 369
METCHEM (METALCHEMIC RECYCLING) BV 370
MIRATECH CORP. 370
MITSUBISHI CHEMICAL CORP. 371
MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES 371
MITSUBISHI HITACHI POWER SYSTEMS AMERICA 372
MITSUI CHEMICALS INC. 372
LICENSING DIVISION 373
NEW TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 373
MOURIK INTERNATIONAL BV 374
MOXBA-METREX BV 375
SPENT CATALYST PROCESSING 375
N.E. CHEMCAT CORP. 375
NANO 376
NEW CHEMICAL SYNTHESES INSTITUTE 376
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY DIVISION (ICHN) GLIWICE 377
CATALYST PRODUCTS 377
CUSTOMERS 377
NIKKI-UNIVERSAL CO. LTD. 378
NIPPON KETJEN 378
NIPPON SHOKUBAI CO. LTD. 379
CATALYSTS 380
TABLE 106 NIPPON SHOBUKAI FINANCIALS FOR CATALYST SEGMENT,2011-2013
(MILLION YEN) 380
NOVA CHEMICALS 380
CATALYST TECHNOLOGIES 381
PEMEX 381
POROCEL 383
SERVICES AND TECHNOLOGIES 384
FIGURE 108 POROCEL'S MOVING BELT REGENERATION PROCESS:SCHEMATIC 384
CATALYST TESTING 384
LICENSES 385
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 385
TABLE 107 POROCEL DISTRIBUTION OF CATALYST REGENERATION BY TYPE OF
CATALYST, 2014 (%) 386
FIGURE 109 POROCEL DISTRIBUTION OF CATALYST REGENERATION BY TYPE OF
CATALYST, 2014 (%) 386
PQ CORP. 387
RENEWABLE ENERGY GROUP (REG) 387
SYNTROLEUM CORP. 388
TABLE 108 COMPARISON OF IRON AND COBALT CATALYSTS FOR THE
FISCHER-TROPSCH PROCESS 388
DYNAMIC FUELS 389
SYNTROLEUM TECHNOLOGIES 390
Syntroleum Process 390
CTL Process 390
Synfining 390
Bio-Synfining 390
CUSTOMERS 390
CATALYST REGENERATION TECHNOLOGY 391
TABLE 109 U.S. PATENTS GRANTED TO SYNTROLEUM ON CATALYST
REGENERATION 391
REPSOL YPF 391
SAMSUNG ENGINEERING CO. LTD. 392
TABLE 110 SAMSUNG ENGINEERING PROJECTS RELATED TO CATALYST MARKETS 392
SASOL 393
FIGURE 110 COMPARISON OF LAB SCALE AND COMMERCIAL SCALE CATALYST
REGENERATION TESTS AT SASOL 395
SHOWA SHELL SEKIYU KK 396
SINOPEC CATALYST CO. (SCC) 396
SINOPEC TECH 398
TABLE 111 TECHNOLOGIES LICENSED BY SINOPEC WITH CATALYST
REGENERATION 398
TABLE 112 SINOPEC CATALYSTS THAT CAN BE REGENERATED 399
SOLVAY SA 399
RHODIA SA 399
STEAG ENERGY SERVICES LLC 400
TAIYO KOKO CO. 401
PRODUCTS 402
TANAKA HOLDINGS CO., LTD 402
TABLE 113 CATALYST PRODUCTS FROM TANAKA 403
TORFTECH GROUP 403
TORFTECH (CANADA) INC. 403
CATALYST APPLICATIONS 404
TREIBACHER INDUSTRIE AG 404
TRICAT 405
IN SITU AND EX SITU REGENERATIONS COMPARED 406
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 406
SERVICES AND TECHNOLOGIES 406
LICENSES FOR TECHNOLOGY 407
UMICORE 407
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 408
FIGURE 111 UMICORE REVENUES FROM CATALYSIS SUBSEGMENT, 2009-2013
(MILLION EUROS) 408
UNIVATION TECHNOLOGIES 409
FIGURE 112 POLYETHYLENE PRODUCTION CAPACITY AND TECHNOLOGIES
PROVIDED BY UNIVATION,1968-2010 410
UOP 410
CATALYSTS 411
ALBEMARLE ALLIANCE: HYDROTREATING 412
REGENERATION 412
CONTINUOUS CATALYST REGENERATION 412
FIGURE 113 DISTRIBUTION OF UOP CCR PLATFORMING UNITS BY REGION (%
TOTAL OPERATING UNITS = 224) 412
CATALYST REGENERATION CONTROL SYSTEM 414
FINANCIALS 414
FIGURE 114 UOP COMPANY REVENUES, 2009-2013 ($ MILLIONS) 414
VELOCYS INC. 415
TABLE 114 LIST OF VELOCYS REACTORS WORLDWIDE 415
FIGURE 115 DISTRIBUTION OF GAS FIELDS BY SIZE 416
FIGURE 116 VELOCYS MICROCHANNEL REACTOR DESIGN SCHEMATIC 416
TABLE 115 COMPARISON OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER BY MICROCHANNEL
TECHNOLOGY AND CONVENTIONAL PROCESSES 417
FIGURE 117 VELOCYS IP PORTFOLIO SUMMARY 417
W.R. GRACE 418
CATALYST PRODUCTS 419
FINANCIALS 419
FIGURE 118 W.R. GRACE CATALYST SEGMENT FINANCIALS BY MARKETS,
2011-2013 ($ MILLIONS) 420
FIGURE 119 W.R. GRACE CATALYST SEGMENT FINANCIALS BY REGION, 2011-2013
($ MILLIONS) 420
YARA INTERNATIONAL ASA 421
ZEOLYST INTERNATIONAL 422
ZIBO HENGJI CHEMICAL CO. LTD. 422
CATALYST REGENERATION 423

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