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Desalination Markets 2016

  • April 2015
  • -
  • Global Water Intelligence
  • -
  • 368 pages

Desalination Markets 2016 is an essential tool for any business working in the desalination industry. There are still pockets of growth within the market and good opportunities for companies who have a strong strategy for offering solutions to meet specific market needs – this report will help you plan your direction in this market.

Including 17 profiles for the regions with the best opportunities; analysis of the desalination market, key players, trends and market size forecasts; and in-depth analysis of the core and emerging technologies and their place in the market – this report is the standard industry reference for the desalination business.

Table Of Contents

Desalination Markets 2016
Desalination Markets 2016
Publication information ii
Executive summary iii
Desalination capacity history and forecast, 2000-2030 iii
Total desalination capital expenditure and operating expenditure by region, 2015-2020 iv
Desalination technologies iv
Market dynamics iv
The top 20 desalination plant suppliers over the past decade v
The long term outlook v
Exchange rates used in this publication vi
1. The global desalination market 1
1.1 Desalination market profile 1
1.1.1 Global market development 1
Figure 1.1 Global annual and cumulative contracted desalination capacity, 1970-2014 1
Figure 1.2 Global contracted capacity by technology, 2004-2014 1
Figure 1.3 Cumulative contracted desalination capacity by technology, 1980-2014 2
Figure 1.4 Online desalination capacity by region, 2015 2
1.1.2 Feedwater type 2
Figure 1.5 Regional online desalination capacity by feedwater type, 2015 3
Figure 1.6 Online desalination capacity by feedwater type, 2015 3
1.1.3 Desalination technologies 3
Figure 1.7 Regional online capacity by main technology type, 2015 4
1.1.4 Plant size 4
Figure 1.8 Online desalination capacity by plant size, 2015 4
Figure 1.9 Online desalination capacity at extra-large plants in the Middle East and North Africa, 2015 5
1.1.5 Offtakers 5
Figure 1.10 Global online desalination capacity by sector, 2015 5
Figure 1.11 Global online desalination capacity by industrial sector, 2015 6
Figure 1.12 Global contracted desalination capacity by sector, 2004-2014 6
Figure 1.13 Global annual contracted desalination capacity by sector, 1980-2014 6
Figure 1.14 Regional online desalination capacity by sector, 2015 7
Figure 1.15 Online utility and industrial desalination capacity using RO by feedwater type, 2015 7
1.1.6 Delivery models 8
Figure 1.16 Installed desalination capacity by delivery model for plants >5,000 m³/d, 2015 8
Figure 1.17 Global annual desalination capacity by delivery model (plants >5,000 m³/d), 1990-2013 9
Figure 1.18 Cumulative contracted desalination capacity by delivery model (plants >5,000 m³/d), 2003 and 2013 9
Figure 1.19 Cumulative contracted desalination capacity by delivery model (plants >5,000 m³/d), 1995-2013 9
Figure 1.20 Projects procured using BOO/BOT with capacity >50,000 m³/d 10
Figure 1.21 BOO/BOT desalination capacity by developer market share for projects >50,000 m³/d 11
Figure 1.22 Largest IWPP desalination projects 12
Figure 1.23 IWPP desalination capacity by developer market share 13
Figure 1.24 Annual contracted capacity by delivery model in MENA region (plants >5,000 m³/d), 1995-2013 13
1.1.7 The cost of desalination 14
Figure 1.25 Trend of unit capital costs of selected RO desalination plants, 1996-2014 14
Figure 1.26 Distribution of unit EPC costs of RO desalination plants 15
Figure 1.27 Water prices from desalination projects since 2000 15
Figure 1.28 Water prices from desalination projects, plant capacity over 50,000 m³/d 16
Figure 1.29 Water price versus unit capital cost 17
Figure 1.30 Water price versus capacity 17
1.2 Energy recovery devices 18
Figure 1.31 SWRO energy recovery device market share since 2010 18
1.3 RO and NF membrane suppliers 19
Figure 1.32 Estimated membrane supplier market share since 2010, SWRO >10,000 m³/d 19
1.4 RO pretreatment 20
1.4.1 Dissolved air flotation 20
Figure 1.33 DAF pretreatment market share since 2010 20
1.4.2 Microfiltration/ultrafiltration suppliers 21
1.5 Desalination market forecast 22
1.5.1 The forecast model 22
1.5.1.1 Tracked projects 22
Figure 1.34 Desalination projects tracked by GWI's Desalination Tracker, 2015-2020 22
1.5.1.2 Anticipated capacity 22
1.5.1.3 Project delays 22
Figure 1.35 Expected contracted capacity at different stages in our forecast methodology 23
1.5.1.4 The current forecast 23
Figure 1.36 Forecast of contracted desalination capacity by feedwater, technology and plant size (m³/d) 23
Figure 1.37 Global awarded and anticipated contracted capacity, 2006-2020 24
Figure 1.38 Global cumulative contracted capacity by technology, 1990-2020 24
1.5.2 Forecast trends 24
1.5.2.1 Technology and feedwater trends 24
Figure 1.39 Contracted capacity forecast by technology, 2006-2020 25
Figure 1.40 Contracted capacity forecast by feedwater type, 2006-2020 25
1.5.2.2 Regional market trends 25
Figure 1.41 Contracted capacity forecast by region, 2006-2020 26
1.5.2.3 Brine concentration and volume reduction technologies 26
Figure 1.42 Forecast of capital expenditure on brine concentration technologies by industry, 2011-2020 27
1.5.3 The financial forecast 27
1.5.3.1 Capital expenditure 27
Figure 1.43 Forecast of desalination capital expenditure by plant type, 2011-2020 28
Figure 1.44 Capital expenditure breakdown, 2015 28
Figure 1.45 All desalination: Capital expenditure forecast by spending category, 2011-2020 29
Figure 1.46 XL MSF: Capital expenditure forecast by spending category, 2011-2020 29
Figure 1.47 XL MED: Capital expenditure forecast by spending category, 2011-2020 30
Figure 1.48 Other thermal: Capital expenditure forecast by spending category, 2011-2020 30
Figure 1.49 SWRO: Capital expenditure forecast by spending category, 2011-2020 31
Figure 1.50 BWRO: Capital expenditure forecast by spending category, 2011-2020 31
Figure 1.51 Other RO: Capital expenditure forecast by spending category, 2011-2020 32
Figure 1.52 ED-EDR: Capital expenditure forecast by spending category, 2011-2020 32
1.5.3.2 Operating expenditure 33
Figure 1.53 Estimated online desalination capacity by technology, 2011-2020 33
Figure 1.54 Estimated online desalination capacity by region, 2011-2020 33
Figure 1.55 Forecast of operating expenditure in desalination by technology, 2011-2020 34
Figure 1.56 Operating expenditure breakdown, 2015 34
Figure 1.57 Forecast of operating expenditure by spending category, 2011-2020 34
1.5.3.3 Private sector participation 35
Figure 1.58 Forecast of capital expenditure at privately-owned desalination plants vs. plant purchases 35
Figure 1.59 Forecast of operating expenditure by private operators and the public sector 36
2. Technologies 37
2.1 Established desalination technologies 37
2.1.1 Reverse osmosis (RO) 37
Figure 2.1 Removal of dissolved solids by reverse osmosis 37
Figure 2.2 Top SWRO plants in the Gulf by capacity 38
Figure 2.3 Top 10 SWRO plants by capacity worldwide 38
2.1.2 Multi-stage flash (MSF) 39
Figure 2.4 Multi-stage flash evaporation process 39
Figure 2.5 Top 10 MSF plants by capacity worldwide 40
2.1.3 Multi-effect distillation (MED) 40
Figure 2.6 Multi-effect distillation process 41
Figure 2.7 Top 10 MED plants by capacity worldwide 41
2.1.4 Vapour compression distillation 42
Figure 2.8 Vapour compression process 42
2.1.5 Electrodialysis (ED)/Electrodialysis reversal (EDR) 42
Figure 2.9 Electrodialysis cell 43
2.1.6 Electrodeionisation (EDI) 43
2.1.7 Thermal brine concentrator 43
Figure 2.10 Falling film brine concentrator with vapour compression 44
2.1.8 Thermal crystalliser 44
Figure 2.11 Forced circulation crystalliser 44
Figure 2.12 Installed volume reduction systems for industry by supplier since 2000 45
Figure 2.13 Installed volume reduction systems by industry since 2000 46
2.2 Emerging desalination technologies 47
Figure 2.14 Water Desalination Report's technology ratings 47
2.2.1 High-recovery RO 48
2.2.2 Forward osmosis (FO) 49
Figure 2.15 Membrane brine concentrator process 49
Figure 2.16 Example of RO-FO hybrid setup 50
Figure 2.17 Example of FO as pretreatment for RO 50
2.2.3 Membrane distillation (MD) 50
Figure 2.18 Membrane distillation process 51
2.2.4 Humidification-Dehumidification (HDH) 51
2.2.5 Deionisation advances 51
2.2.6 RO pretreatment overview 52
Figure 2.19 Pretreatment process options 52
Particulate fouling 52
Biofouling 52
Scaling 52
Oxide fouling 53
Cartridge filtration 53
Direct coupled membrane filtration 53
Figure 2.20 Example of RO pretreatment options 53
2.2.6.1 Algae and harmful algal blooms: Pretreatment challenges and strategies 53
Ten things desalters should know about HABs 54
Figure 2.21 Dissolved air flotation process 54
2.2.7 Membrane research directions 55
Figure 2.22 Current membrane research and development projects 55
2.3 Renewable desalination 57
Figure 2.23 Use of renewable energy resources in water desalination 57
Figure 2.24 Development stage and typical capacity range for key renewable desalination technologies 58
2.3.1 Solar desalination 58
2.3.1.1 Advantages and disadvantages of solar desalination 58
2.3.1.2 Technology trends 59
Figure 2.25 Breakdown of global installed desalination technologies powered by solar energy 59
2.3.1.3 Solar desalination projects 59
Figure 2.26 Solar desalination projects 60
2.3.2 Wind desalination 60
2.3.2.1 Advantages and disadvantages of wind desalination 60
2.3.2.2 Wind desalination projects 60
Figure 2.27 Wind desalination plants 61
2.4 Desalination technology investment strategies 62
2.4.1 Understanding the challenge 62
Figure 2.28 Energy consumption in SWRO 62
2.4.2 Alternatives to reverse osmosis 62
2.4.3 Improving reverse osmosis technology 63
2.4.3.1 Improved membranes 63
2.4.3.2 Scaling and fouling 64
2.4.3.3 Energy recovery devices 64
2.4.3.4 Niche markets 64
2.4.4 Other challenges 64
2.4.5 Summary 65
Figure 2.29 Top 10 desalination technology challenges 65
3. Algeria 66
3.1 Overview 66
Figure 3.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 66
Figure 3.2 Economic indicators 66
3.1.1 Water availability and demand 66
Figure 3.3 Water resources and demand 66
3.1.2 Sector structure 67
3.2 Key players 67
3.2.1 AEC 67
3.2.2 ADE 67
3.3 Desalination profile 67
Figure 3.4 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in Algeria, 1985-2013 68
Figure 3.5 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Algeria, 2015 68
3.3.1 Utility desalination 69
Figure 3.6 Top 10 seawater desalination plants 69
Figure 3.7 Simplified BOT structure for desalination plant in Algeria 69
Figure 3.8 Top 10 brackish water desalination plants 70
3.3.2 Industrial desalination 70
Figure 3.9 Selected current plants for industrial clients 70
3.4 Proposed plants and opportunities 71
Figure 3.10 Tracked desalination projects in Algeria 72
3.5 Market forecast 73
Figure 3.11 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in Algeria, 2011-2020 73
Figure 3.12 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Algeria, 2016-2020 74
Figure 3.13 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 75
Figure 3.14 Forecast of capital expenditure in Algeria, 2011-2020 75
Figure 3.15 Forecast of operating expenditure in Algeria, 2011-2020 76
4. Australia 77
4.1 Overview 77
Figure 4.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 77
Figure 4.2 Economic indicators 77
4.1.1 Water availability and demand 77
Figure 4.3 Water withdrawal and consumption by sector, 2012-2013 77
Figure 4.4 Sources of water supplied through distribution networks, 2012-2013 78
4.1.2 Sector structure 78
Figure 4.5 Organisation of water supply services in the Australian states involved in desalination 79
4.2 Desalination profile 80
Figure 4.6 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in Australia, 1985-2013 80
Figure 4.7 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Australia, 2015 81
4.2.1 Utility desalination 81
Figure 4.8 Top plants for utility and public sector clients 82
4.2.2 Industrial desalination 82
Figure 4.9 Top plants for industrial clients 83
4.3 Key offtakers 83
4.4 Proposed plants and opportunities 84
Figure 4.10 Tracked desalination projects in Australia 84
4.5 Market forecast 87
Figure 4.11 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in Australia, 2011-2020 87
Figure 4.12 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Australia, 2016-2020 88
Figure 4.13 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 89
Figure 4.14 Forecast of capital expenditure in Australia, 2011-2020 89
Figure 4.15 Forecast of operating expenditure in Australia, 2011-2020 90
5. Caribbean 91
5.1 Overview 91
Figure 5.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 91
Figure 5.2 Economic indicators 91
5.1.1 Water availability and demand 91
Figure 5.3 Water resources in selected countries in the Caribbean 91
Figure 5.4 Sectoral water use in selected countries in the Caribbean 92
5.1.2 Sector structure 93
Figure 5.5 Government agencies related to desalination activities in the Caribbean 93
5.2 Desalination profile 94
Figure 5.6 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in the Caribbean, 1985-2013 95
Figure 5.7 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in the Caribbean, 2015 95
5.2.1 Utility desalination 96
Figure 5.8 Point Lisas SWRO Plant expansion schedule 96
Figure 5.9 Top plants for utility and public sector clients 97
5.2.2 Industrial desalination 98
Figure 5.10 Top plants for industrial clients 98
5.3 Key clients 98
Figure 5.11 Installed capacity by client/offtaker, 2015 98
5.4 Proposed plants and opportunities 99
Figure 5.12 Tracked desalination projects in the Caribbean 99
5.5 Market forecast 100
Figure 5.13 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in the Caribbean, 2011-2020 100
Figure 5.14 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in the Caribbean, 2016-2020 101
Figure 5.15 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 102
Figure 5.16 Forecast of capital expenditure in the Caribbean, 2011-2020 102
Figure 5.17 Forecast of operating expenditure in the Caribbean, 2011-2020 103
6. Chile 104
6.1 Overview 104
Figure 6.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 104
Figure 6.2 Economic indicators 104
6.1.1 Water availability and demand 104
Figure 6.3 Estimates of water balance in Chile, 1996-2025 104
Figure 6.4 Expected sectoral water consumption, 2030 104
Figure 6.5 Total water use (freshwater and seawater) by copper mining in Chile, 2014-2025 105
6.1.2 Sector structure 105
6.2 Desalination profile 106
Figure 6.6 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in Chile, 1985-2013 106
Figure 6.7 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Chile, 2015 107
6.2.1 Utility desalination 107
Figure 6.8 Top plants for utility and public sector clients 108
6.2.2 Industrial desalination 108
Figure 6.9 Mining water consumption by source type in Chile, 2012 108
Figure 6.10 Top plants for industrial clients (mining) 109
6.3 Key clients 110
Figure 6.11 Top mining companies in Chile, 2012 110
6.4 Proposed plants and opportunities 110
Figure 6.12 Tracked desalination projects in Chile 111
6.5 Market forecast 115
Figure 6.13 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in Chile, 2011-2020 115
Figure 6.14 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Chile, 2016-2020 116
Figure 6.15 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 117
Figure 6.16 Forecast of capital expenditure in Chile, 2011-2020 117
Figure 6.17 Forecast of operating expenditure in Chile, 2011-2020 118
7. China 119
7.1 Overview 119
Figure 7.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 119
Figure 7.2 Economic indicators 119
7.1.1 Water availability and demand 119
Figure 7.3 Freshwater resources and water withdrawal in coastal provinces/province-level municipalities, 2013 119
Figure 7.4 Freshwater resources and water withdrawal in non-coastal provinces/province-level municipalities, 2013 120
Figure 7.5 South-North Water Transfer project 120
Figure 7.6 Annual water withdrawal by sector, 2007-2013 121
7.1.2 Sector structure 121
Figure 7.7 Five-Year Plans of different sectors affecting the Chinese desalination market 121
7.2 Desalination profile 122
Figure 7.8 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in China, 1985-2013 123
Figure 7.9 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in China, 2015 123
7.2.1 Utility desalination 124
Figure 7.10 Top plants for utility and public sector clients 124
7.2.2 Industrial desalination 125
Figure 7.11 Use of desalinated seawater in different industries, 2013 125
Figure 7.12 Top plants for industrial clients 125
7.3 Key clients 126
Figure 7.13 Installed seawater desalination capacity by client, 2013 126
7.4 Proposed plants and opportunities 126
Figure 7.14 Tracked desalination projects in China 127
7.5 Market forecast 128
Figure 7.15 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in China, 2011-2020 128
Figure 7.16 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in China, 2016-2020 129
Figure 7.17 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 130
Figure 7.18 Forecast of capital expenditure in China, 2011-2020 130
Figure 7.19 Forecast of operating expenditure in China, 2011-2020 131
8. India 132
8.1 Overview 132
Figure 8.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 132
Figure 8.2 Economic indicators 132
8.1.1 Water availability and demand 132
Figure 8.3 Water resources in India, 2014 132
Figure 8.4 Sectoral water withdrawal in India, 2010 132
8.1.2 Sector structure 133
Figure 8.5 Desalination research institutions 133
8.2 Desalination profile 134
Figure 8.6 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in India, 1985-2013 134
Figure 8.7 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in India, 2015 135
8.2.1 Utility desalination 135
Figure 8.8 Selected plants for utility and public sector clients 136
8.2.2 Industrial desalination 136
Figure 8.9 Selected plants for industrial clients 136
8.3 Key clients 137
8.3.1 Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (CMWSSB) 137
8.3.2 Tamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board (TWAD) 137
8.3.3 State government of Gujarat 137
8.3.4 Reliance Industries, Jamnagar 137
8.4 Proposed plants and opportunities 137
Figure 8.10 Tracked desalination projects in India 138
8.5 Market forecast 144
Figure 8.11 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in India, 2011-2020 144
Figure 8.12 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in India, 2016-2020 145
Figure 8.13 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 146
Figure 8.14 Forecast of capital expenditure in India, 2011-2020 146
Figure 8.15 Forecast of operating expenditure in India, 2011-2020 147
9. Iran 148
9.1 Overview 148
Figure 9.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 148
Figure 9.2 Economic indicators 148
9.1.1 Water availability and demand 148
Figure 9.3 Water consumption in Iran by sector, 2005 148
9.1.2 Sector structure 149
9.2 Desalination profile 149
Figure 9.4 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in Iran, 1985-2013 149
Figure 9.5 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Iran, 2015 150
9.2.1 Utility desalination 151
Figure 9.6 Top plants for utility and public sector clients 151
9.2.2 Industrial desalination 151
Figure 9.7 Top plants for industrial clients 151
9.3 Key clients 152
9.4 Proposed plants and opportunities 152
Figure 9.8 Tracked desalination projects in Iran 152
9.5 Market forecast 155
Figure 9.9 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in Iran, 2011-2020 155
Figure 9.10 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Iran, 2016-2020 156
Figure 9.11 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 157
Figure 9.12 Forecast of capital expenditure in Iran, 2011-2020 157
Figure 9.13 Forecast of operating expenditure in Iran, 2011-2020 158
10. Israel 159
10.1 Overview 159
Figure 10.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 159
Figure 10.2 Economic indicators 159
10.1.1 Water availability and demand 159
Figure 10.3 Water supply and demand, 2010-2014 159
Figure 10.4 Forecasted water supply and demand 160
10.1.2 Sector structure 161
10.2 Desalination profile 161
Figure 10.5 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in Israel, 1985-2013 162
Figure 10.6 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Israel, 2015 162
Figure 10.7 Top desalination plants for utility, public sector and industrial clients 163
10.3 Offtaker profiles 163
10.4 Proposed plants and opportunities 164
Figure 10.8 Tracked desalination projects in Israel 164
10.5 Market forecast 166
Figure 10.9 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in Israel, 2011-2020 166
Figure 10.10 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Israel, 2016-2020 167
Figure 10.11 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 168
Figure 10.12 Forecast of capital expenditure in Israel, 2011-2020 168
Figure 10.13 Forecast of operating expenditure in Israel, 2011-2020 169
11. Kuwait 170
11.1 Overview 170
Figure 11.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 170
Figure 11.2 Economic indicators 170
11.1.1 Water availability and demand 170
Figure 11.3 Available water resources and demand, 2011 170
11.1.2 Sector structure 170
11.1.2.1 Key government bodies 170
11.1.2.2 Key legislation 171
11.2 Desalination profile 171
Figure 11.4 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in Kuwait, 1985-2013 171
Figure 11.5 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Kuwait, 2015 172
11.2.1 Utility desalination 172
Figure 11.6 Top plants for utility and public sector clients 173
11.2.2 Industrial desalination 173
Figure 11.7 Top plants for industrial clients 173
11.3 Key offtaker 174
11.4 Proposed plants and opportunities 174
Figure 11.8 Tracked desalination projects in Kuwait 174
11.5 Market forecast 176
Figure 11.9 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in Kuwait, 2011-2020 176
Figure 11.10 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Kuwait, 2016-2020 177
Figure 11.11 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 178
Figure 11.12 Forecast of capital expenditure in Kuwait, 2011-2020 178
Figure 11.13 Forecast of operating expenditure in Kuwait, 2011-2020 179
12. Mexico 180
12.1 Overview 180
Figure 12.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 180
Figure 12.2 Economic indicators 180
12.1.1 Water availability and demand 180
Figure 12.3 Water resources 180
Figure 12.4 Sectoral water withdrawal by water source, 2013 180
12.1.2 Sector structure 181
12.2 Desalination profile 181
Figure 12.5 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in Mexico, 1985-2013 182
Figure 12.6 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Mexico, 2015 182
12.2.1 Utility desalination 183
Figure 12.7 Top utility desalination plants 183
12.2.2 Industrial desalination 184
Figure 12.8 Major online plants by industrial clients 184
12.3 Key clients 184
12.4 Proposed plants and opportunities 184
Figure 12.9 Investment in planned strategic desalination projects, PNI 2014-2018 184
Figure 12.10 Tracked desalination projects in Mexico 185
12.5 Market forecast 188
Figure 12.11 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in Mexico, 2011-2020 188
Figure 12.12 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Mexico, 2016-2020 189
Figure 12.13 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 190
Figure 12.14 Forecast of capital expenditure in Mexico, 2011-2020 190
Figure 12.15 Forecast of operating expenditure in Mexico, 2011-2020 191
13. Morocco 192
13.1 Overview 192
Figure 13.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 192
Figure 13.2 Economic indicators 192
13.1.1 Water availability and demand 192
13.1.2 Sector structure 192
13.2 Desalination profile 193
Figure 13.3 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in Morocco, 1985-2013 193
Figure 13.4 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Morocco, 2015 194
13.2.1 Utility desalination 195
Figure 13.5 Top plants for utility and public sector clients 195
13.2.2 Industrial desalination 195
Figure 13.6 Top plants for industrial clients 195
13.3 Key clients 195
13.3.1 ONEE 195
13.3.2 OCP 195
13.3.3 Ministry of Agriculture and Marine Fisheries 196
13.4 Proposed plants and opportunities 196
Figure 13.7 Desalination capacity by sector in 2030 196
Figure 13.8 Tracked desalination projects in Morocco 196
13.4.1 Industrial plants 198
13.4.2 Utility plants 198
13.5 Market forecast 199
Figure 13.9 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in Morocco, 2011-2020 199
Figure 13.10 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Morocco, 2016-2020 200
Figure 13.11 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 201
Figure 13.12 Forecast of capital expenditure in Morocco, 2011-2020 201
Figure 13.13 Forecast of operating expenditure in Morocco, 2011-2020 202
14. Oman 203
14.1 Overview 203
Figure 14.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 203
Figure 14.2 Economic indicators 203
14.1.1 Water availability and demand 203
Figure 14.3 Estimated water resources, 2014 203
Figure 14.4 OPWP desal capacity vs. peak Omani water demand (2014-2020) 204
14.1.2 Sector structure 204
Figure 14.5 Omani water and electricity sector structure 204
14.2 Desalination profile 205
Figure 14.6 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in Oman, 1985-2013 206
Figure 14.7 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Oman, 2015 206
14.2.1 Utility desalination 207
Figure 14.8 Top plants for utility and public sector clients in Oman 207
14.2.2 Industrial desalination 208
Figure 14.9 Top plants for industrial clients 208
14.3 Offtaker profile 209
14.3.1 Oman Power and Water Procurement Company (OPWP) 209
14.4 Proposed plants and opportunities 209
Figure 14.10 Tracked desalination projects in Oman 210
14.5 Market forecast 212
Figure 14.11 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in Oman, 2011-2020 212
Figure 14.12 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Oman, 2016-2020 213
Figure 14.13 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 214
Figure 14.14 Forecast of capital expenditure in Oman, 2011-2020 214
Figure 14.15 Forecast of operating expenditure in Oman, 2011-2020 215
15. Qatar 216
15.1 Overview 216
Figure 15.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 216
Figure 15.2 Economic indicators 216
15.1.1 Water availability and demand 216
Figure 15.3 Water resources, 2014 216
15.1.2 Sector structure 216
15.2 Desalination profile 217
Figure 15.5 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in Qatar, 1985-2013 217
Figure 15.6 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Qatar, 2015 218
15.2.1 Utility desalination 218
Figure 15.7 Top plants for utility and public sector clients 219
15.2.2 Industrial desalination 219
Figure 15.8 Top plants for industrial clients 220
15.3 Key offtaker 220
15.3.1 Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation (Kahramaa) 220
15.4 Proposed plants and opportunities 220
Figure 15.9 Tracked desalination projects in Qatar 221
15.5 Market forecast 222
Figure 15.10 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in Qatar, 2011-2020 222
Figure 15.11 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Qatar, 2016-2020 223
Figure 15.12 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 224
Figure 15.13 Forecast of capital expenditure in Qatar, 2011-2020 224
Figure 15.14 Forecast of operating expenditure in Qatar, 2011-2020 225
16. Saudi Arabia 226
16.1 Overview 226
Figure 16.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 226
Figure 16.2 Economic indicators 226
16.1.1 Water availability and demand 226
Figure 16.3 Estimated water resources in Saudi Arabia, 2010 226
Figure 16.4 Estimated sectoral water demand in Saudi Arabia, 2010-2060 226
16.1.2 Sector structure 226
Figure 16.5 Water authorities in Saudi Arabia 227
Figure 16.6 Conservation targets from the National Water Strategy 227
16.2 Desalination profile 228
Figure 16.7 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in Saudi Arabia, 1985-2013 229
Figure 16.8 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Saudi Arabia, 2015 229
16.2.1 Utility desalination 230
Figure 16.9 Top plants for utility and public sector clients 230
16.2.1.1 Procurement 230
16.2.2 Industrial desalination 231
Figure 16.10 Top plants for industrial clients 231
16.3 Offtaker profiles 231
Figure 16.11 Installed capacity by offtaker/client 232
16.3.1 Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) 232
Figure 16.12 Installed capacity of SWCC, 1970-2015 232
16.3.2 Marafiq 233
16.3.3 National Water Company (NWC) 233
16.4 Proposed plants and opportunities 233
16.4.1 Solar desalination 233
Figure 16.13 Projections on Saudi water supply by source 234
16.4.2 General opportunities 234
Figure 16.14 Tracked desalination projects in Saudi Arabia 235
16.5 Market forecast 239
Figure 16.15 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in Saudi Arabia, 2011-2020 239
Figure 16.16 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Saudi Arabia, 2016-2020 240
Figure 16.17 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 241
Figure 16.18 Forecast of capital expenditure in Saudi Arabia, 2011-2020 241
Figure 16.19 Forecast of operating expenditure in Saudi Arabia, 2011-2020 242
17. Singapore 243
17.1 Overview 243
Figure 17.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 243
Figure 17.2 Economic indicators 243
17.1.1 Water availability and demand 243
Figure 17.3 Water resources 243
Figure 17.4 Sales of water by sector, 2007-2013 243
Figure 17.5 Water supply by source, 2013 244
17.1.2 Sector structure 244
17.1.2.1 Key offtaker 244
17.2 Desalination profile 245
Figure 17.6 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in Singapore, 1985-2013 245
Figure 17.7 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Singapore, 2015 246
17.2.1 Utility desalination 246
17.2.1.1 Seawater desalination 246
Figure 17.8 Seawater desalination plants for PUB 247
17.2.1.2 NEWater plants 247
Figure 17.9 NEWater plants 247
17.2.2 Industrial desalination 248
17.3 Proposed plants and opportunities 248
Figure 17.10 PUB's targets for water supply by source in 2030 and 2060 248
Figure 17.11 Tracked desalination projects in Singapore 249
17.4 Market forecast 250
Figure 17.12 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in Singapore, 2011-2020 250
Figure 17.13 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Singapore, 2016-2020 251
Figure 17.14 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 252
Figure 17.15 Forecast of capital expenditure in Singapore, 2011-2020 252
Figure 17.16 Forecast of operating expenditure in Singapore, 2011-2020 253
18. Spain 254
18.1 Overview 254
Figure 18.1 Population projections, 2015-2025 254
Figure 18.2 Economic indicators 254
18.1.1 Water availability and demand 254
Figure 18.3 Water resources in Spain, 2011 254
Figure 18.4 Sectoral water demand, 2010 254
18.1.2 Sector structure 254
Figure 18.5 Government agencies with responsibilities in the water sector in Spain 255
18.2 Desalination profile 256
Figure 18.6 Annual cumulative and additional contracted capacity in Spain, 1985-2013 256
Figure 18.7 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Spain, 2015 257
18.2.1 Utility desalination 257
Figure 18.8 Sources for drinking water supply in Spain, 2010-2012 257
Figure 18.9 Top plants for utility and public sector clients 258
18.2.1.1 Procurement 258
18.2.2 Industrial desalination 258
Figure 18.10 Top plants for irrigation purposes, 2015 259
18.3 Key clients 259
18.3.1 Acuamed 260
Figure 18.11 Desalination plants owned by Acuamed, 2015 260
18.4 Proposed plants and opportunities 261
Figure 18.12 Tracked desalination projects in Spain 261
18.5 Market forecast 262
Figure 18.13 Forecast of desalination capacity and expenditure in Spain, 2011-2020 262
Figure 18.14 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Spain, 2016-2020 263
Figure 18.15 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant size, feedwater and technology, 2011-2020 (m³/d) 264
Figure 18.16 Forecast of capital expenditure in Spain, 2011-2020 264
Figure 18.17 Forecast of operating expenditure in Spain, 2011-2020 265

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