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Electricity Transmission Towers and Poles 2015 Ed 3

  • July 2015
  • -
  • Statplan Energy Ltd
  • -
  • 137 pages

The report contains comprehensive quantitative data and qualitative analysis about the towers and poles markets and stock, globally and for all regions and countries.
1. STEEL TOWERS AND POLES INSTALLED BASE ANALYSIS IN UNITS
Base year 2014
- By region and 124 countries, separately for:
- Electricity transmission towers
- Utility poles - Electricity distribution, telecoms, railways
- Wood, concrete, steel, composite
2. STEEL TOWERS AND POLES MARKET DEMAND IN UNITS
Demand in base year 2014, forecast in nominal $ annually 2015 to 2020
- By region and 124 countries, separately for:
- Electricity transmission towers
- Utility poles - Electricity distribution, telecoms, railways
- Wood, concrete, steel, composite
3. STEEL TOWERS AND POLES MARKET DEMAND EX-FACTORY COST $
Demand in base year 2014, forecast in nominal $ annually 2015 to 2020
- By region and 124 countries, separately for:
- Electricity transmission towers
- Utility poles - Electricity distribution, telecoms, railways
Wood, concrete, steel, composite
4. LONG TERM DEMAND CYCLE FOR STEEL TOWERS
Towers commonly have 40 to 60 year lives so the replacement cycle is a long term issue. To determine the demand cycle it is necessary to chart the growth of the tower stock over many decades. StatPlan has charted this, for towers and poles since 1900 and the cycle is plotted to determine the long term demand cycle.
5. EVOLUTION OF THE TRANSMISSON NETWORKS
Length and voltage time series.
6. TYPES OF STEEL TOWER
- Suspension towers
- Tension towers
- Angle suspension towers
- Dead end towers
7. SERVICE LIFE AND MAINTENANCE OF STEEL TOWERS
Maintenance practices have a critical impact on the service life of towers, especially in harsh climate conditions.
8. UTILITY POLES SERVICE LIFE AND REPLACEMENT
Demand depends on new build and replacement. In 1950, 4.3% of demand for utility poles was for replacement, in 2015 that has risen to 62%. Poles have widely varying
service lives depending on material, and for wood poles the wood species, climate conditions and wood protection. The service lives have been established by region
and in some cases for individual countries.
9. JOINT USE OF UTLITY POLES
Joint use by different utilities is a significant factor in the pole market. The protocols for space allocation and standards are outlined.
10. MARKET COMMENTARY FRO UTILITY POLES
Brief market commentary on installed bases and demand for utility poles in 24 countries, with information on numbers and type of pole.
11. TYPES OF UTILITY POLE AND APPLICATIONS
There are many types of pole in use, depending on the purpose. Different types and applications are outlined.
12. ELECTRIC RAILWAY USERS
Railways are a minority but significant users of distribution poles. The networks are outlined, with description of the traction systems. Usage is estimated.
13. CIRCUIT PHASES AND CONDUCTORS
Most distribution networks employ single circuits, whereas transmission networks range from single to multiple circuits. This is an important consideration in specifying
the type and dimensions of towers and poles.
14. RIGHTS OF WAY
Rights of Way (ROW) is a significant cost and can be a serious obstacle in designing networks and specifying equipment.
15. MANUFACTURERS OF TOWERS AND POLES
- Manufacturers of steel towers are listed with brief details.
- Companies manufacturing concrete and steel poles are listed with brief details.
- Companies harvesting and preparing wood poles are listed with brief details.
16. DANGERS & MITIGATION OF DAMAGE TO UTILITY POLES BY BIRDS
Birds constitute a significant threat to poles and to themselves in nesting and perching on wires and poles, and in colliding with energised lines. These accidents not only
harms the birds but causes power outages.

Table Of Contents

Electricity Transmission Towers and Poles 2015 Ed 3
Contents

Tables 8
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 10
STEEL TRANSMISSION TOWERS 10
Drivers of growth for steel transmission towers 12
UTILITY POLES 12
1. INSTALLED BASE OF ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSON TOWERS and POLES 15
1.1 Global installed base of towers 15
1.2 North America 17
1.3 Europe 18
1.4 CIS 20
1.5 Middle East 21
1.6 Africa 22
1.7 Asia Pacific 24
1.8 LAC 25
2. ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION TOWERS MARKET 27
2.1 Global demand for towers 27
2.2 North America 28
2.3 Europe 28
2.4 CIS 29
2.5 Middle East 30
2.6 Africa 30
2.7 Asia Pacific 32
2.8 LAC 33
3. LONG TERM DEMAND CYCLES FOR ELECTRICITY TOWERS 35
Growth of transmission line networks 35
4. TYPES OF TOWER OR PYLONS 38
4.1 Suspension tower 38
4.2 TENSION TOWERS 39
4.3 ANGLE SUSPENSION TOWER 39
4.4 Termination or dead end towers, also called tension towers 39
4.5 Transposition towers 39
4.6 Tower Installation 39
4.6.1 Build-up or Piecemeal method. 39
4.6.2 Section method 39
4.6.3 Ground assembly method 40
4.6.4 Helicopter method. 40
4.7 TRANSMISSION TOWERS DESIGN 42
5. UTILITY POLE INSTALLED BASE 45
5.1 INSTALLED BASE 45
5.2 Growth of the pole population 46
5.4 Installed base of poles by country and utility 48
5.4.1 North America 48
6. DEMAND FOR UTILITY POLES 55
6.1 Demand in numbers of poles 55
6.2 Demand for poles by value 64
7. NATIONAL MARKETS 71
7.1 United States 71
7.2 Europe 71
7.3 Austria 72
7.4 Czech Republic 72
7.5 Cyprus 72
7.6 Finland 72
7.7 France 72
7.8 Germany 72
7.9 Greece 73
7.10 Ireland 73
7.11 Netherlands 73
7.12 Norway 73
7.13 Spain 73
7.14 Sweden 73
7.15 Switzerland 74
7.16 United Kingdom: 74
7.17 Russia 74
7.18 Japan 74
7.19 China 75
7.20 India 75
7.21 Korea 75
7.22 Singapore and Macau 75
7.23 Australia 76
7.24 Middle East 76
7.25 Africa 76
8. MATERIAL COMPOSITION OF POLES AND SERVICE LIFE 78
8.1 Materials 78
8.2 Use 78
8.3 Description 79
8.4 Size classification 79
8.5 Wood 80
8.5.1 Wood preservatives 81
8.5.2 Pollution from wood preservatives - Leaching 81
8.6 Steel 81
8.7 Concrete 82
8.8 Composites- fibreglass 83
8.9 Disposal 83
9. POLE SPAN 85
10. TYPES OF POLES 87
10.1 Other equipment 89
10.2 Grounding Rod 89
10.3 Dead-end (anchor or termination) poles 89
10.4 Physical access 89
10.5 Construction Classifications 90
11. SPACE ALLOCATION ON JOINT USE UTILITY POLES 91
11.1 Supply Space 91
11.2 Safety Zone Space 93
11.3 Communications Space 93
12. SERVICE LIFE AND MAINTENANCE OF STEEL TOWERS AND POLES 95
12.1 Service Life 95
12.2 Maintenance 95
Phase 1 - Coffee Stain Rust 96
Phase 2 - Abrasive Rust 96
Phase 3 - Extensive Abrasive Rust 97
Phase 4 - Crash 97
13. SERVICE LIFE AND MAINTENANCE OF WOODEN POLES 99
13.1 Service life 99
13.2 Maintenance 100
13.2.1 Groundline Treatment 102
13.2.2 Internal Treatment 102
13.3 CONCRETE POLES 103
14. ELECTRIC RAILWAYS 104
14.1 OVERVIEW OF CURRENT NETWORKS 104
14.2 Traction systems 106
14.3 MARKET SIZE FOR POLES AND PYLONS IN THE ELECTRIC RAILWAY INDUSTRY 108
15. MANUFACTURERS 109
15.1 MANUFACTURERS OF STEEL TRANSMISSION TOWERS 109
15.1.1 KEC International 109
15.1.2 Chinese manufacturers 110
15.1.3 Other Asian manufacturers 111
15.1.4 North American manufacturers 113
15.2 MANUFACTURERS OF DISTRIBUTION POLES 115
15.2.1 North American manufacturers 115
15.2.2 African manufacturers 116
15.2.3 Indian manufacturers 116
16. CIRCUIT PHASES AND CONDUCTORS 118
16.1 SINGLE CIRCUIT 118
16.2 DOUBLE CIRCUIT 119
16.3 MULTIPLE CONDUCTORS 119
16.4 RESTRICTIONS ON MULTIPLE USE OF CORRIDORS 122
17.COMPETITIONS FOR TOWER DESIGN 123
17.RIGHTS OF WAY 126
Multiple use of ROWs 131
18.DANGER TO AND FROM BIRDS 132
18.1 Extent of the problem 132
18.2 The mechanics of an electrocution 135
18.3.1 Mitigation and Prevention of Collisions 137
18.3.2 Mitigation and Prevention of Electrocution 137

Figures

Figure 1: Global installed electricity transmission towers, 2014-2020 15
Figure 2: Global installed electricity transmission towers by regions, 2015 15
Figure 3: Regional growth in electricity transmission towers, 2013-2020 16
Figure 4: Global installed electricity transmission towers, North America, 2014 17
Figure 5: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Europe, 2014 18
Figure 6: Global installed electricity transmission towers, CIS, 2014 20
Figure 7: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Middle East, 2014 21
Figure 8: Global installed electricity transmission towers, North Africa, 2014 22
Figure 9: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2014 23
Figure 10: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Asia Pacific, 2014 24
Figure 11: Global installed electricity transmission towers, South America, 2014 25
Figure 12: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Central America, 2014 26
Figure 13 : World sales of electricity transmission towers, nominal $, 2014-2020 27
Figure 14: Sales of electricity transmission towers by regions, nominal $, 2015 27
Figure 15 : The global networks of transmission lines, length in route km 1900 to 2050 35
Figure 16: The evolution of transmission line voltage, the first introductions 36
Figure 17: The long term demand cycles for towers, 1900 to 2050 37
Figure 18: Annual new and replacement installations of towers, 1900 to 2050 37
Figure 19: Suspension tower, single steel pole 38
Figure 20: Lattice steel suspension tower (L6 used in the United Kingdom) 38
Figure 21: Installation of transmission tower by helicopter 40
Figure 22: The scale of the helicopter operation illustrated 41
Figure 23: Peak and Cage of a Transmission Tower 43
Figure 24: Cross Arm and Body of a Transmission Tower 43
Figure 25: 220-kV single-circuit LST 44
Figure 26: 500-kV single-circuit LST 44
Figure 27: 220-kV double-circuit LST 44
Figure 28: 500-kV double-circuit LST 44
Figure 29: World installed base of utility poles, millions of poles by utility, 2015 45
Figure 30: World installed base of utility poles, millions of poles by region, 2015 46
Figure 31: World installed base of utility poles, millions of poles by region and utility, 2015 46
Figure 32: Historical growth of the pole pollution, all poles and electricity poles, 1900 to 2015, forecast to 2050 47
Figure 33: Historical growth of the pole population by region, 1900 to 2015, forecast to 2050 47
Figure 34: Historical growth of the pole pollution, all poles and wood poles, 1900 to2015, forecast to 2050 48
Figure 35: Annual demand for utility poles (electricity, telecoms and rail) from 2014 to 2020. 55
Figure 36: Annual demand for utility poles (electricity, telecoms and rail) 2014 to 2020, new and replacements. 56
Figure 37: Annual demand for utility poles (electricity, telecoms and rail) 2014 to 2020, by region. 56
Figure 38: Demand for utility poles of all materials by region, 1900 to 2015, forecast to 2050 57
Figure 39: Global demand for poles by country in value nominal $, North America, 2014-2020 64
Figure 40: Utility pole in Japan 75
Figure 41: Lines in Bolivia (left) have considerably longer span than lines in Laos (right) 86
Figure 42: Double-circuit, 138-kV line on wood structures 87
Figure 43: Double-circuit, 138-kV line on galvanized steel poles 87
Figure 44: Single-circuit 138-kV line on weathering steel. 88
Figure 45: H-frame wood structure 88
Figure 46 : Space allocations on a joint utility pole 91
Figure 47 : Supply space on a utility pole 92
Figure 48: Fig; Safety Zone Space on a utility pole 93
Figure 49: The Communications Space in a utility pole 94
Figure 50 : The principle of exponential corrosion 95
Figure 51 : Phase 1 - Coffee Stain Rust 96
Figure 52 : Phase 2 - Abrasive Rust 96
Figure 53 : Phase 3 - Abrasive Rust 97
Figure 54 : Phase 3 - The tower falls 97
Figure 55 : Outline of potential decay patterns 100
Figure 56 : Decay in a wood utility pole 101
Figure 57: Overhead line for rail traction 107
Figure 58: KEC International planned investment by region ($ billion) 109
Figure 59: Tower for single circuit, three phase system (three conductors) 118
Figure 60: Tower for double circuit, three phase system (six conductors) 119
Figure 61: Tower for multiple circuits, three phase system (twelve conductors) 120
Figure 62: Lattice (left) and Monopole (right) Towers 121
Figure 63: 2 Multiple Lines in a Power Corridor 122
Figure 64: Dietmar Koering of Arphenotype, competition for Icelandic Electrical Transco/1 123
Figure 65: Dietmar Koering of Arphenotype, competition for Icelandic Electrical Transco/2 123
Figure 66: Dietmar Koering of Arphenotype, competition for Icelandic Electrical Transco/3 124
Figure 67: Y Pylon by Knight Architects competition for National Grid 2012 124
Figure 68: Plexus by Arup for National Grid 2012 125
Figure 69: The Land of Giants, Iceland, Choi and Shine 125
Figure 70: A distribution line right of way 126
Figure 71: A wetland-scrub/shrub-dominated community the first year after a mow. 126
Figure 72: A grass-dominated community in an agricultural matrix the first year after a mow. 127
Figure 73: An example of a single ROW corridor. 127
Figure 74: An example of parallel transmission ROW corridors 128
Figure 75 : Typical European right of way cross section, self-supporting tower 129
Figure 76: Typical European right of way cross section, guyed tower 130
Figure 77: Right-of-way comparison for equivalent capacity of 765-kV and 345-kV lines 131
Figure 78: Blue crane electrocuted in South Africa 132
Figure 79: White Storks in their nest on a utility pole in Vl?deni, Romania 133
Figure 80: An example of a pole-mounted transformer 136
Figure 81: Distribution pole with symmetric chevron (arrow) on top as bird exclusion device 138
Figure 82 : Dedicated nesting pole next to distribution pole with bird exclusion device 138

Tables

Table 1: Global installed electricity transmission towers, 2015 16
Table 2: Global installed telecoms towers, by region, 2014-2020 17
Table 3: Global installed electricity transmission towers, North America, 2014 17
Table 4: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Europe, 2014 19
Table 5: Global installed electricity transmission towers, CIS, 2014 20
Table 6: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Middle East, 2014 21
Table 7: Global installed electricity transmission towers, North Africa, 2014 22
Table 8: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2014 23
Table 9: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Asia Pacific, 2014 24
Table 10: Global installed electricity transmission towers, South America, 2014 26
Table 11: Global installed electricity transmission towers, Central America, 2014 26
Table 12: Sales of electricity transmission towers by regions, nominal $, 2015 28
Table 13: Sales of electricity transmission towers, North America, nominal $, 2014-2020 28
Table 14: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Europe, nominal $, 2014-2020 28
Table 15: Sales of electricity transmission towers, CIS, nominal $, 2014-2020 29
Table 16: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Middle East, nominal $, 2014-2020 30
Table 17: Sales of electricity transmission towers, North Africa, nominal $, 2014-2020 30
Table 18: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Sub-Saharan Africa, nominal $, 2014-2020 31
Table 19: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Asia, nominal $, 2014-2020 32
Table 20: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Pacific, nominal $, 2014-2020 33
Table 21: Sales of electricity transmission towers, South America, nominal $, 2014-2020 33
Table 22: Sales of electricity transmission towers, Central America, nominal $, 2014-2020 34
Table 23: Installed base of poles by country and utility, North America, 2015 48
Table 24: Installed base of poles by country and utility, Europe, 2015 49
Table 25: Installed base of poles by country and utility, CIS, 2015 50
Table 26: Installed base of poles by country and utility, Middle East, 2015 50
Table 27: Installed base of poles by country and utility, North Africa, 2015 50
Table 28: Installed base of poles by country and utility, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2015 51
Table 29: Installed base of poles by country and utility, Asia, 2015 52
Table 30: Installed base of poles by country and utility, Pacific, 2015 53
Table 31: Installed base of poles by country and utility, South America, 2015 53
Table 32: Installed base of poles by country and utility, Central America, 2015 54
Table 33: Demand for poles by country, North America, 2014-2020 58
Table 34: Demand for poles by country, Europe, 2014-2020 58
Table 35: Demand for poles by country, CIS, 2014-2020 59
Table 36: Demand for poles by country, Middle East, 2014-2020 59
Table 37: Demand for poles by country, North Africa, 2014-2020 59
Table 38: Demand for poles by country, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2014-2020 60
Table 39: Demand for poles by country, Asia, 2014-2020 61
Table 40: Demand for poles by country, Pacific, 2014-2020 62
Table 41: Demand for poles by country, South America, 2014-2020 62
Table 42: Demand for poles by country, Central America, 2014-2020 63
Table 43: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, North America, 2014-2020 64
Table 44: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, Europe, 2014-2020 65
Table 45: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, CIS, 2014-2020 66
Table 46: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, Middle East, 2014-2020 66
Table 47: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, North Africa, 2014-2020 66
Table 48: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2014-2020 67
Table 49: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, Asia, 2014-2020 68
Table 50: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, Pacific, 2014-2020 69
Table 51: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, South America, 2014-2020 69
Table 52: Demand for poles by country in value nominal $, Central America, 2014-2020 70
Table 53: Description and cost of repairs 98
Table 54: Recommended Pole Inspection Schedules, Rural Utilities Service, US 102
Table 55: Electrified railways throughout the world, 2011 105
Table 56 : Estimates of the annual number of collision victims with above ground transmission lines (excluding distribution lines) for three different countries. 135
Table 57 : The size of large raptors 137

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