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Transfomer Report 2015 Ed 4

  • December 2015
  • -
  • Statplan Energy Ltd
  • -
  • 209 pages

The report analyses the global market for power and distribution transformers of $29 billion at ex factory prices in 2014. A detailed analysis of the installed base by type of transformer and ownership is shown, analysed by region and individually for 124 countries; by transformer type – Generator/Power/Distribution; power generation capacity MW; transformer capacity MVA, number of transformers, kVA per transformer. The transformer base is broken by the following categories; power transformers — GSU - 220 kV, GSU >35<220 kV, utility, industry/distribution transformers — GSU - 35 kV, utility, industry. With base year 2014, the report forecasts market demand in MVA and $ value from 2015 to 2020, analysed by region and individually for 124 countries; by transformer type – Generator/Power/Distribution. Transformer : generator capacity ratios, mva : mw, are tabulated by region and 124 countries, within the three categories of transformer; enerator/Power/Distribution. Long tern demand cycles ae forecast up to 2050. The report predicts future market trends in volume and value, and examines the factors affecting price; input costs for raw materials, labour, energy and production capacity.

Production and manufacture are surveyed and levels of production capacity are assessed. The leading transformer manufacturers are ranked with market shares. The changing landscape of generation and the networks with the growth of DER and renewables, energy efficiency, logistics, electrification are identified and discussed. The global market, regions and 15 major markets are surveyed with detailed reports: - USA, France, Italy, Germany, Spain, UK, Turkey, Russia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Brazil, Mexico. The report contains 209 pages, 54 charts and 107 tables. N-1, N-2 and 2N standards of redundancy are explained. The number of transformers used in a network has to take outages into account. In the various parts of a network different degrees of redundancy are applied to achieve a cost-effective N-1 standard of security (the ability to operate without loss of service even after the failure of one key component in the grid.) Large power transformers are costly custom built items and no two are the same so spares cannot be stored, whereas MV distribution transformers are commodity items and are kept in stock by distributors and this affects contingency planning. This is discussed and different practices outlined.

Table Of Contents

Transfomer Report 2015 Ed 4
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .. 16
The power transformer market . 16
United States 17
Europe . 17
CIS.. 18
Middle East and Africa 18
Asia Pacific. 19
China 19
LAC 21
Long term demand cycle 21
Transformer: generator capacity ratios - MVA : MW . 22
Channels to market .. 22
Transformer types . 22
Efficiency transformers .. 23
Trends in the generation mix .. 23
Manufacturing capacity, global and by region .. 24
Price trend . 24
Redundancy . 25
Logistics .. 25
Electrification .. 26
1. GLOBAL TRANSFORMER DEMAND FORECAST AT EX-FACTORY COST 27
1.1 WORLD OVERVIEW 27
2. NORTH AMERICAN TRANSFORMER MARKET . 29
2.1. MARKET REVIEW 29
2.1.1. Transformer stock 30
2.1.2. Composition of demand 31
2.1.3. The utility market in the United States . 32
2.1.4. Market Drivers .. 32
2.1.5. Utility Investment 33
2.2. MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY REVIEW .. 34
2.2.1. Manufacturing facilities 34
2.2.2. Power transformers 34
2.2.3. USA plant .. 35
2.2.4. NAFTA suppliers in Canada and Mexico .. 35
2.2.5. Large Power transformers (LPT) .. 35
2.2.6. Medium Power Transformers 37
2.2.7. Distribution transformers 38
2.2.8. MV distribution transformer .. 38
2.2.9. LV distribution transformers .. 38
2.2.10. National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) 39
2.2.11. CEE- Consortium for Energy Efficiency .. 39
2.2.12. MEPS Standards . 39
3. EUROPEAN TRANSFORMER MARKETS . 41
3.1. REGIONAL MARKET .. 41
3.1.1. Regional Overview of the European utility system . 44
3.1.2. High efficiency transformers .. 46
3.1.3. European utility crisis . 46
3.1.4. Market Drivers .. 47
3.1.5. MEPS Standards 48
3.1.6. European manufacturing industry review .. 48
3.2. FRANCE 50
3.2.1. Transformer stock 50
3.2.2. Market drivers 50
3.2.3. Market leaders - Alstom, Schneider, development in France .. 51
3.3. GERMANY .. 52
3.3.1. Transformer stock 52
3.3.2. Market drivers 52
3.3.3. Market leader - Siemens .. 53
3.3.4. German utility crisis 53
3.3.5. Transformer manufacturers 54
3.4. ITALY . 55
3.4.1. Transformer stock 55
3.4.2. Market drivers 55
3.4.3. Transformer manufacturers 55
3.5. SPAIN 56
3.5.1. Transformer stock 56
3.5.2. Market drivers 56
3.5.3. Transformer manufacturers 56
3.6. UNITED KINGDOM 57
3.6.1. Transformer stock 57
3.6.2. Market drivers 57
3.6.3. Transformer manufacturers 57
3.7. TURKEY 58
3.7.1. Transformer stock 58
3.7.2. Market drivers 58
3.7.3. Transformer manufacturers 58
4. CIS TRANSFORMER MARKET 59
4.1. RUSSIA . 59
4.1.1. Transformer stock 59
4.1.2. Market drivers 59
4.1.3. Transformer manufacturers 60
5. MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA TRANSFORMER MARKETS .. 61
6. ASIA PACIFIC TRANSFORMER MARKETS 64
6.1. REGIONAL OVERVIEW . 64
6.2. CHINA .. 69
6.2.1. Transformer stock 69
6.2.2. Market drivers 70
6.2.3. MEPS Standards 71
6.2.4. Manufacturing industry review 71
6.3. JAPAN .. 73
6.3.1. Transformer stock 73
6.3.2. Market drivers 74
6.3.3. MEPS Standards 74
6.3.4. Transformer manufacturers 74
6.3.5. Overseas production .. 75
6.7. INDIA 76
6.7.1. Transformer stock 77
6.7.2. Market drivers 77
6.7.3. MEPS Standards 78
6.7.4. Manufacturing industry review 78
6.8.KOREA .. 79
6.8.1. Transformer stock 80
6.8.2. Market drivers 80
6.8.3. Transformer manufacturers 80
6.9. TAIWAN .. 81
6.9.1. Transformer stock 81
6.9.2. Market drivers 82
6.9.3. Transformer manufacturers 82
7. LAC 83
7.1. BRAZIL . 85
7.1.1. Transformer stock 85
7.1.2. Market drivers 85
7.1.3. Manufacturing industry review 85
7.2. MEXICO .. 86
7.2.1. Transformer stock 87
7.2.2. Market drivers 87
7.2.3. MEPS Standards 87
7.2.4. Transformer manufacturers 88
8. TRANSFORMER DEMAND AT EX-FACTORY AND INSTALLED COST 89
8.1. GLOBAL DEMAND. 89
8.2. NORTH AMERICA .. 89
8.3 EUROPE AND CIS 90
8.4. MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA .. 91
8.5. LAC .. 91
8.6. ASIA PACIFIC 92
9. TRANSFORMER DEMAND IN MVA CAPACITY .. 93
9.1. GLOBAL DMAND 93
9.2. NORTH AMERICA 93
9.3. EUROPE AND CIS 94
9.4. MIDDLE EAST 97
9.5. AFRICA . 98
6
9.6. 8ASIA PACIFIC 100
9.7. LAC . 103
10. UTILITY, GSU and INDUSTRIAL POWER AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER INSTALLED CAPACITY, NUMBERS AND AVERAGE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER KVA PER UNIT 105
11. NETWORK TRANSFORMER LAYOUT . 116
11.1. THE TRANSFORMATION PROCESS .. 116
11.1.1. Stage 1 .. 116
1.1.2. Stage 2 . 116
11.1.3. Stage 3 .. 116
11.1.4. Stage 4 .. 116
11.1.5. Network Configurations for distribution - Radial, Loop and Network systems .. 117
11.1.6. INDUSTRY 118
11.2. Review of regional utility network practices 118
11.2.1. The link from medium voltage to low voltage . 118
11.2.2. North America .. 119
11.2.3. Japan . 120
11.2.4. Europe .. 120
11.3. Types of Transformer 121
11.3.1. Liquid dielectric transformers .. 122
11.3.2. Dry type transformers .. 122
11.3.3. Gas filled transformers . 123
11.4. Evolution of power transformers by size and capacity 123
11.5. Ownership of power and distribution transformers . 124
11.6. Ownership of GSU transformers . 124
12. THE LONG TERM DEMAND CYCLE 1900-2050 126
12.1. INSTALLED CAPACITY . 126
12.2. INSTALLED CAPCITY VERSUS DEMAND . 126
12.3. The China Factor . 131
12.4. Regional trends- New versus replacement 132
13. TRANSFORMER : GENERATOR CAPACITY RATIOS - MVA : MW . 134
14. N-1 STANDARD, N-2 AND 2N, REDUNDANCY AND REPLACEMENT . 140
14.1. NETWORK FAILURE . 140
14.2. TRANSFORMER FAILURE .. 140
14.2.1. Transformer age .. 140
14.2.2. Tap changer 141
14.2.3. Windings . 141
14.2.4. Core 141
14.2.5. Tank 141
14.2.6. Solid insulation . 141
14.2.7. Cooler 141
14.2.8. Oil insulation . 141
14.2.9. Bushings .. 142
14.3. INDUSTRIAL RELIABILITY .. 142
14.4. NETWORK RELIABILITY .. 143
14.4.1. N-1 AND THE NETWORKS 143
14.4.2. Electricity distribution .. 144
14.4.3. Electricity transmission 144
14.4.4. Massive size of a power transformer 145
14.5. TRANSFORMER/GENERATOR RATIOS AND REDUNDANCY . 146
14.5.1. Generation . 146
14.5.2. Transmission . 146
14.5.3. Distribution 146
15. PRICE TRENDS AND FACTORS DRIVING TRANSFORMER PRICES 147
15.1. PPI - PRODUCER PRICE INDEX 147
15.1.1. USA . 147
15.1.2. EU 148
15.1.3. China . 149
15.1.4. Japan . 150
15.1.5.Korea 151
15.2. DEMAND FOR TRANSFORMERS - MARKET AND INDUSTRY TRENDS . 151
15.2.1. Utilities . 151
15.3. PRODUCTION CAPACITY 152
15.3.1. Production capacity of raw materials .. 152
15.3.2. Production capacity of manufactured equipment . 152
15.4.MANUFACTURING INPUT COST COMPOSITION 153
15.4.1. Composition of manufacturing inputs . 153
15.5. INPUT COSTS - RAW MATERIALS .. 154
15.5.1. Metal consumption 154
15.5.2. Steel .. 154
15.5.3. Electrical Steel .. 155
15.5.4. The electrical steel market . 156
15.5.5. Anti-dumping Measures . 157
15.5.6. Electrical steel producers 157
15.6. Copper and Aluminium 158
15.6.1. Copper .. 159
15.6.2. Aluminium 159
15.7. Transformer oil. 160
15.8. INPUT COSTS - LABOUR 161
15.9. INPUT COSTS - ENERGY 163
15.10. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CLIMATE 164
15.10.1. Overview .. 164
15.10.2. Inflation and debt outlook .. 166
16. THE POINT OF CONNECTION, CENTRAL AND DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND VOLTAGE . 169
16.1. TRENDS IN THE GENERATION MIX .. 169
16.1.1. The impact of generation developments on transformation technology . 169
16.3. Decentralised power . 172
16.3.1. Czech Republic . 173
16.3.2. Germany .. 174
16.3.3. Italy. 175
16.3.4. Spain .. 176
16.3.5. United States . 178
17. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND HIGH EFFICIENCY TRANSFORMERS 179
17.1. MEPS (Minimum Energy Performance Standards) 180
17.1.1. United States . 180
17.1.2. Canada . 180
17.1.3. Mexico .. 180
17.1.4. European Union .. 180
17.1.5. Australia .. 181
17.1.6. Japan . 181
17.1.7. China . 181
17.1.8. India .. 181
17.2. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TECHNOLOGY - AMORPHOUS CORE TRANSFORMERS 182
17.2.1. The market for AMTs 183
17.2.2. Amorphous metal ribbon manufacturers .. 183
17.2.2.1. Japan . 183
17.2.2.2. China . 184
17.2.2.3. India .. 184
17.2.2.4. Taiwan .. 185
17.2.2.5. Other . 185
17.3. HTS -HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTOR TRANSFORMERS . 185
18. TRANSFORMER PRODUCTION CAPACITY .. 186
18.1. MANUFACTURING CAPACITY, GLOBAL AND BY REGION . 186
18.1.1. North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) 187
18.1.2. Mexico .. 187
18.1.3. Latin America (excluding Mexico) .. 188
18.1.4. China . 188
18.1.5. India .. 190
18.1.6. Korea . 191
18.1.7. Europe .. 191
18.1.8. CIS 191
18.1.9. Africa . 192
18.2. Global balance of production capacity and demand . 192
19. LOGISTICS .. 193
19.1. Rail transport 193
19.2. Road transport . 195
19.3. Alternative solutions . 198
20. ELECTRIFICATION .. 199
20.1. Regional growth characteristics .. 203
20.2. Sub-Saharan Africa . 203
20.3. Asia . 203
20.4. MENA 204
20.5. Latin America 204
20.6. Europe .. 204
20.7. CIS 204
20.8. North America .. 204
20.9. THE IMPACT OF ELECTRIFICATION ON THE ELECTRICAL SUPPLY INDUSTRY 204
21. METHODOLOGY . 206
21.1. SHORT TERM DEMAND FORECAST 206
21.2. LONG TERM DEMAND CYCLE . 206
21.2.1. Demand cycles and the market .. 207
21.2.2. StatPlan Energy Databases 207

Figures
Figure 1: Real and nominal % growth in the transformer market, by region, from 2014 to 2020 . 28
Figure 2: Ratio of distribution transformers to generating capacity, installed base 1960 to2015 . 30
Figure 3: Utility investment I transmission and distribution, 1977 to 2015, nominal $ .. 34
Figure 4: Imports of power transformers (Oil filled ? 10 MVA), into the United States from .. 37
Figure 5: Market capitalisation of seleced European utilities .. 46
Figure 6: RWE Profit and loss . 47
Figure 7: Investment as a % of GDP, selected countries and economic groupings, 1980-2020 .. 68
Figure 8: The UK Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution System .. 117
Figure 9: Evolution of transformers in voltage kV and capacity MVA 123
Figure 10: Proportion of capacity (MVA) generator, utility and private industry ownership of .. 124
Figure 11: Installed capacity of power and distribution transformers, GVA, 1900 - 2050 .. 126
Figure 12: Global installed transformation capacity and demand 1900 - 2050, GVA 127
Figure 13: The cycle of demand, new and replacement capacity, 1900 - 2050, GVA. .. 128
Figure 14: Installed power transformer capacity and annual demand, 1900 - 2050, VA.G 129
Figure 15: Installed distribution transformer capacity and annual demand, 1900 - 2050, GVA. . 129
Figure 16: Global utility transformation capacity installed base, GVA, 1900 - 2050 . 130
Figure 17: Annual transformer demand, excluding China, 1900 - 2050 131
Figure 18: Annual transformer demand including China, 1900 - 2050 .. 132
Figure 19: Regional variations, new versus replacement capacity, 1950 - 2050, by region 133
Figure 20: Power, distribution and speciality transformers Producer Price Index, USA, 2005=100, 1998-2015 . 148
Figure 21: Europe Producer Price Index for industrial manufactures 2012 to 2015 .. 148
Figure 22: China Producer Price Index for industrial goods 2005 to 2015 .. 150
Figure 23: Japan Producer Price Index for industrial goods 2005 to 2015 .. 150
Figure 24: Korea Producer Price Index for industrial goods 2012 to 2015 .. 151
Figure 25: Average annual investment in TandD infrastructure 152
Figure 26: Costs of manufacturing an oil filled- transformer . 153
Figure 27: World metal consumption (Total of aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin and zinc) 154
Figure 28: Prices of copper and aluminium 1960-2014 . 158
Figure 29: Copper prices 2007-2013 159
Figure 30: Aluminium prices 160
Figure 31: Labour compensation cost, including direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labour-related taxes (US = 100). 161
Figure 32: Labour costs including wages and salaries, social insurance and labour-related taxes . 162
Figure 33: Minimum wages in China in yuan per month 1995 to 2012. 162
Figure 34: Wage inflation in China versus the US, India and Mexico, 2005 to2012 163
Figure 35: Global energy cost index (2010 = 100) 163
Figure 36: Total growth of GDPs between 2008 and Q3 2014, the period encompassing the financial crisis, recession and recovery . 166
Figure 37: Inflation 2005 to 2015.. 167
Figure 38: Global generating capacity mix, 1990 - 2050 169
Figure 39: Global generating capacity mix by energy source, 1990 - 2050 . 170
Figure 40: Capacity and generation by each energy source as percent of total, 1990 - 2013 .. 171
Figure 41: Capacity and generation by each energy source as percent of total, 1990 - 2013 .. 172
Figure 42: Two Schnabel cars unloaded 194
Figure 43: Schnabel car with load . 194
Figure 44: The largest load ever transported by road in the United Kingdom .. 195
Figure 45: Overhead obstructions 197
Figure 46: Transformer off the road 197
Figure 47: Share of people without electricity access for developing countries .. 199
Figure 48: World electrification - % of households with electricity, 1900-2050 .. 200
Figure 49: World electrification - number and % of households with electricity, 1900-2050 .. 201
Figure 50: Selected major countries - % of households with electricity, 1900-2050 . 201
Figure 51: Selected major countries - Number of households with electricity, 1900-2050 .. 202
Figure 52: Additions of electrified households in each decade by region, 2010 to 2050 202
Figure 53: Regional totals of electrified households 2010 to 2050 . 203
Figure 54: Diagram of new plus total replacement capacity .. 207

Tables
Table 1: World, total transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million . 27
Table 2: World, generator transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million .. 27
Table 3: World, power network transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million 27
Table 4: World, distribution transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million 27
Table 5: North America, total transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million 29
Table 6: North America, generator transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million . 29
Table 7: North America, power network transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million . 29
Table 8: North America, distribution transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million . 29
Table 9: US power and distribution transformer stock, 2014 .. 30
Table 10: Detailed shipment data for power and distribution transformers in the US, 2009 .. 31
Table 11: Market shares of Power Transformer Producers in the United States 35
Table 12: Europe, total transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million . 41
Table 13: Europe, generator transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million 42
Table 14: Europe, power network transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million 43
Table 15: Europe, distribution transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million 44
Table 16: French power and distribution transformer stock, 2014 50
Table 17: German power and distribution transformer stock, 2014 . 52
Table 18: Italian power and distribution transformer stock, 2014 . 55
Table 19: Spanish power and distribution transformer stock, 2014 . 56
Table 20: UK power and distribution transformer stock, 2014 57
Table 21: Turkish power and distribution transformer stock, 2014 .. 58
Table 22: Russian power and distribution transformer stock, 2014.. 59
Table 23: MENA, total transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million .. 61
Table 24: MENA, generator transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million 62
Table 25: MENA, power transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million63
Table 26: MENA, distribution transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million 63
Table 27: Asia Pacific, total transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million 64
Table 28: Asia Pacific, generator transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million 65
Table 29: Asia Pacific, power network transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million . 66
Table 30: Asia Pacific, distribution transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million 67
Table 31: Chinese power and distribution transformer stock, 2014 . 69
Table 32: Japanese power and distribution transformer stock, 2014 .. 73
Table 33: Transformer manufacturers in Japan 75
Table 34: Indian power and distribution transformer stock, 2014 . 77
Table 35: Transformer manufacturers in India . 79
Table 36: Korean power and distribution transformer stock, 2014 .. 80
Table 37: Taiwanese power and distribution transformer stock, 2014 81
Table 38: LAC, total transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million 83
Table 39: LAC, generator transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million .. 83
Table 40: LAC, power network transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million 84
Table 41: LAC, distribution transformer demand forecast at ex-factory cost, 2014-2020, $ nominal million 84
Table 42: Brazilian power and distribution transformer stock, 2014 85
Table 43: Mexican power and distribution transformer stock, 2014 87
Table 44: Transformer demand at ex-factory and installed cost, World, 2014, $ million .. 89
Table 45: Transformer demand at ex-factory and installed cost, North America, 2014, $ million 89
Table 46: Transformer demand at ex-factory and installed cost, Europe and CIS, 2014, $ million .. 90
Table 47: Transformer demand at ex-factory and installed cost, Middle East and Africa, 2014, $ million 91
Table 48: Transformer demand at ex-factory and installed cost, LAC, 2014, $ million 91
Table 49: Transformer demand at ex-factory and installed cost, Asia Pacific, 2014, $ million 92
Table 50: Annual demand for power and distribution transformers, MVA, World, 2014-2020 . 93
Table 51: Annual demand for power and distribution transformers, MVA, North America, 2014-2020 93
Table 52: Annual demand for power transformers, MVA, North America 2014,-2020 .. 93
Table 53: Annual demand for distribution transformers, MVA, North America, 2014-2020 94
Table 54: Annual demand for power and distribution transformers, MVA, Europe and CIS, 2014-2020 .. 94
Table 55: Annual demand for power transformers, MVA, Europe and CIS, 2014,-2020 . 95
Table 56: Annual demand for distribution transformers, MVA, Europe and CIS, 2014-2020 .. 96
Table 57: Annual demand for power and distribution transformers, MVA, Middle East, 2014-2020 . 97
Table 58: Annual demand for power transformers, MVA, Middle East, 2014,-2020 97
Table 59: Annual demand for distribution transformers, MVA, Middle East, 2014-2020 .. 97
Table 60: Annual demand for power and distribution transformers, MVA, Africa, 2014-2020 .. 98
Table 61: Annual demand for power transformers, MVA, Africa, 2014,-2020 . 98
Table 62: Annual demand for distribution transformers, MVA, Africa, 2014-2020 .. 99
Table 63: Annual demand for power and distribution transformers, MVA, Asia Pacific, 2014-2020 100
Table 64: Annual demand for power transformers, MVA, Asia Pacific, 2014,-2020 .. 101
Table 65: Annual demand for distribution transformers, MVA, Asia Pacific, 2014-2020 . 102
Table 66: Annual demand for power and distribution transformers, MVA, LAC, 2014-2020 103
Table 67: Annual demand for power transformers, MVA, LAC, 2014,-2020 .. 103
Table 68: Annual demand for distribution transformers, MVA, LAC, 2014-2020. 104
Table 69: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, World .. 105
Table 70: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, World .. 105
Table 71: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, North America 105
Table 72: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership North America . 105
Table 73: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Europe 106
Table 74: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, Europe . 107
Table 75: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, CIS . 108
Table 76: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, CIS . 108
Table 77: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Middle East .. 109
Table 78: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, Middle East .. 109
Table 79: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Asia Pacific 110
Table 80: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, Asia Pacific 111
Table 81: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, Africa 112
Table 82: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership Africa 113
Table 83: Generator, Utility and Industrial Power and Distribution transformer capacity (MVA) by country and ownership, LAC 114
Table 84: Number and average capacity in kVA of distribution transformers by country and ownership, LAC 115
Table 85: Average numbers of household consumers per DT 118
Table 86: Number of LV consumers, number of distribution transformers and average LV customers per transformer in selected countries 121
Table 87: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), World . 134
Table 88: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Europe 135
Table 89: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), CIS 136
Table 90: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Middle East . 136
Table 91: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Africa .. 137
Table 92: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Asia Pacific .. 138
Table 93: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), North America 139
Table 94: Ratios of transformation capacity (MVA) to generating capacity (MW), Latin America . 139
Table 95: Electrical steel producers by country and production in 2009 . 157
Table 96: Voltage level of for connection to the grid, German rules . 173
Table 97: Grid voltage connection by installation size for solar PV in Czech Republic, 2012 . 173
Table 98: Grid voltage connection by installation size for solar PV in Germany, 2012 . 174
Table 99: Grid voltage connection by installation size for solar PV in Italy, 2012 176
Table 100: Grid voltage connection by installation size for solar PV in Spain, 2012 .. 177
Table 101: Network losses by region .. 179
Table 102: Manufacturers of energy efficient transformers in China, 2013 .. 184
Table 103: Global manufacturers' production capacity power and distribution transformers, 2013 .. 186
Table 104: China, domestic manufacturers' production capacity power and distribution transformers, 2013 . 189
Table 105: India, manufacturers' production capacity power and distribution transformers, 2013 . 190
Table 106: CIS, manufacturers' production capacity power and distribution transformers, 2013 . 191
Table 107: Population and electrical parameters of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa 205

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