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Intelligent Transportation Systems - Driverless Car

  • August 2015
  • -
  • Practel Group
  • -
  • 135 pages

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are a subject of the Practel, Inc. research for a number of years; several related reports have been published in 2010-2014.

ITS are in the process of dynamic evolution and present one of the most important branches of the economy. They are also affect everybody’s life – their main goal is to make efficient and safe traveling a reality.

This particular report updates technical and marketing ITS characteristics as well as their standardization. Architecture of ITS, their applications and the industry are analyzed.

The current development of ITS leads to introduction of driverless cars, which are the most viable form of ITS. R&D as well as industry activities indicate that driverless cars may hit the roads in a couple of years; with wider commercialization in 2025-2030. The status of such cars introduction, their major characteristics, economics, opportunities and road blocks are analyzed in the report. The report also addresses major players’ projects in this development.

A driverless car, for simplicity of the analysis, may be described as a combination of a connected car, ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems); and other parts.

The detailed analysis of connected cars specifics, characteristics and economics are presented in this report. The companies – contributors to the connected car market development – are identified and their portfolios analyzed.

As an example of a connected car commercialized technology, the detailed analysis of 5.9 GHz DSRC, its applications, the industry and market is provided. There is an active discussion in the industry regarding the allocated spectrum utilization as well as still limited 5.9 GHz DSRC use as well as benefits of competing technologies (such as LTE); it is the authors’ opinion that this type of DSRC is finding applications in the connected car market.

The report also emphasizes the importance of 5G mobile networking as a basis for the driverless car ITS revolution.

The ADAS important part is driverless car “eyes” – an instrument that can “see” surroundings and provide the information to the car for the analysis and taking relevant actions. One of most promising technologies that makes cars “see” is lidar, which is composed of laser and other parts.

Lidar properties, and in particular its automotive applications, are addressed in this report. Lidar can function as driverless car’s “eyes” much more effectively than some competing technologies; the subjects of this report also include the analysis of the lidar market and the industry survey.

The report is intended for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in advanced ITS development; and for specialists in communications technologies that support such development.

Table Of Contents

Intelligent Transportation Systems - Driverless Car
1.0 Introduction 8
1.1 Statistics 8
1.2 Goal 9
1.3 Scope 10
1.4 Research Methodology 10
1.5 Target Audience 11
2.0 ITS: Major Components and Characteristics 12
2.1 General 12
2.2 ITS Introduction: U.S. 12
2.3 Structure 13
2.4 Layers and Components-Roadways 13
2.5 Key Technologies 15
2.6 Subsystems 15
2.7 ITS Architecture: U.S. 16
2.7.1 General 16
2.7.2 Functionalities 16
2.7.3 Layers 17
2.7.3.1 Details: Communications Layer 19
2.7.3.2 Networks 20
2.7.4 Version 7.0 21
2.8 ITS Standardization: In Progress 21
2.8.1 Overview 22
2.8.2 ETSI - Europe 22
2.8.3 U.S. 23
2.8.3.1 General 23
2.8.3.2 National Transportation Communications for ITS Protocol (NTCIP) 23
2.8.3.2.1 Scope 23
2.8.3.2.2 Family 24
2.8.4 China 25
2.8.5 International 25
2.8.5.1 General 25
2.8.5.2 ITU 25
2.8.6 Summary 26
2.9 ITS Applications 26
2.10 ITS Market Statistics 28
2.10.1 General 28
2.10.2 Assumptions 29
2.10.3 Estimate 29
3.0 Driverless Car - 5G Era 32
3.1 General - Definition 32
3.1.1 ADAS 32
3.2 Directions and Issues 33
3.2.1 Current Status - Legislation 34
3.2.2 Major Benefits 34
3.2.3 Alternatives 35
3.3 Market Predictions and Price 36
3.4 Phases 37
3.4.1 Characteristics 38
3.5 Industry and RandD 38
3.5.1 Automakers 38
3.5.1.1 Audi 39
3.5.1.2 Ford 39
3.5.1.3 GM 40
3.5.1.4 Nissan 40
3.5.1.5 Daimler/Mercedes 41
3.5.1.6 VW and AdaptIVe Consortium 41
3.5.1.7 Tesla Motors 42
3.5.1.8 Other 43
3.5.2 RandD and Competitors 43
3.5.2.1 Google 43
3.5.2.2 Baidu 44
3.5.2.3 DOTs 45
3.5.2.4 Telecom Readiness -5G Communications 45
3.5.2.4.1 Huawei 45
3.5.2.4.2 Swisscom 45
3.5.2.5 QNX 46
3.5.2.6 Continental Automotive 47
3.5.3 Sturt-ups 47
3.6 Standardization 49
3.6.1 NHTSA 49
3.6.2 SAE International 52
3.6.3 IEEE 53
3.6.4 Summary 54
4.0 Connected Car 55
4.1 General - Definition 55
4.2 Legislation 56
4.3 Choices 57
4.3.1 Network Requirements 57
4.3.2 Functional Technologies 58
4.4 Driving Forces 60
4.5 Major Use Cases 61
4.6 Market 62
4.7 Industry 64
Airbiquity Inc. 65
Apple 65
Broadcom 66
Ericsson 67
Ficosa 68
Luxoft 69
Nokia 70
Qualcomm 71
Sierra Wireless 72
Streetline 73
Visteon 74
Zubie 75
4.8 Groups and Alliances 76
4.8.1 Open Automotive Alliance 76
4.8.2 4G Venture Forum for Connected Cars 76
4.8.3 Apple - iOS in the Car 76
4.9 Standards and Regulations 77
4.9.1 Joint Efforts 77
4.9.2 Europe 78
4.9.3 U.S. 79
4.9.4 WWW Consortium 81
4.9.5 SAE 81
4.9.6 GSMA Connected Car Forum 81
4.9.7 Car Connectivity Consortium 82
4.10 M2M/IoT and Driverless/Connected Car 83
4.11 5.9 GHz DSRC 84
4.11.1 History 85
4.11.2 Structure and Protocols 85
4.11.3 Requirements 87
4.11.4 Milestones 88
4.11.5 Standards: IEEE 802.11p - WAVE and Other 90
4.11.5.1 General 90
4.11.5.2 Objectives and Status 90
4.11.5.3 ASTM Contributions 91
4.11.5.4 IEEE 802.11p - Major Features 92
4.11.5.5 ETSI ITS-G5 - Major Features 93
4.11.5.6 ISO and DSRC 95
4.11.5.7 SAE and DSRC 96
4.11.6 IEEE 1609 96
4.11.6.1 General 96
4.11.6.2 Overview 96
4.11.6.3 IEEE 1609 in Use 97
4.11.7 Components 97
4.11.8 Place 98
4.11.9 Services 98
4.11.10 Applications 99
4.11.11 Benefits and Limitations - 5.9 GHz DSRC 100
4.11.12 Procedures 102
4.11.13 Service Categories/QoS 103
4.11.14 Summary: DSRC (5.9 GHz) Transmission Characteristics 103
4.11.16 Market Segment 105
4.11.16.1 Market Drivers 105
4.11.16.2 Market Requirements 105
4.11.16.3 Market Estimate 106
4.11.17 Industry 108
4.11.17.1 Industry Coalition 108
4.11.17.2 Vendors 109
Arada 109
Arinc 110
AutoTalks 111
Commsignia 112
Cohda Wireless 113
DGE 114
Kapsch 115
Redpine Signals 117
Savari 118
Unex 120
5.0 Lidar 121
5.1 General 121
5.1.1 Popularity 121
5.2 Structure and Functionalities 122
5.3 Industry 124
Aerostar 124
Ibeo 125
Osram/Phantom Intelligence 126
Quanergy 127
TriLumina 128
Velodyne 129
5.4 Benefits and Limitations 130
5.5 Market 132
6.0 Conclusions 135

List of Figures
?
Figure 1: Wireless Communications: ITS Environment 13
Figure 2: ITS Architecture-Illustration 18
Figure 3: Europe - Standardization Organizations 22
Figure 4: U.S.-Standardization Bodies 23
Figure 5: NTCIP Structure 24
Figure 6: International -Standardization Bodies 25
Figure 7: TAM: Global ITS ($B) 29
Figure 8: TAM: ITS WICT- Global ($B) 30
Figure 9: ITS Equipment Sales by Regions ($B) 31
Figure 10: Evolution 37
Figure 11: Levels 52
Figure 12: Network Requirements 58
Figure 13: Connected Car Functionalities 60
Figure 14: Estimate - Global Connected Car Market Value ($B) 63
Figure 15: Estimate: Global Automotive Wireless Market - Equipment Sales ($B) 64
Figure 16: Estimate - Global - Service Providers Revenue - Connected Car ($B) 64
Figure 17: Communications Model: WAVE 86
Figure 18: Protocols 87
Figure 19: Program Structure 87
Figure 20: Schedule 89
Figure 21: DSRC - Plan 89
Figure 22: Channels Structure 93
Figure 23: Frequency Plan and Power Limits 93
Figure 24: ITS G5 Chanel Structure 94
Figure 25: ITS-5.9 GHz DSRC - Place 98
Figure 26: Major Categories-DSRC Services 99
Figure 27: Logical Flow 103
Figure 28: 5.9 GHz DSRC Rate vs. Distance 105
Figure 29: Estimate: U.S. 5.9 GHz DSRC Tags Market Value ($B) 106
Figure 30: Estimate: U.S. 5.9 GHz DSRC Tags Market Value (Mil. Units) 107
Figure 31: Estimate: U.S. 5.9 GHz DSRC Readers Market Value (Mil. Units) 108
Figure 32: U.S. 5.9 GHz DSRC Readers Market Value ($M) 108
Figure 33: Lidar and Radar Properties 132
Figure 34: Estimate: Global Lidar Market ($M) 133
Figure 35: Estimate: Global Automotive Lidar Market ($M) 134

List of Tables
?
Table 1: Road Crashes Statistics 9
Table 2: ETSI G5 Channels 94
Table 3: Service Requirements 99
Table 4: 5.9 GHz DSRC Advantages 100
Table 5: Service Categories 103
Table 6: 5.9 GHz DSRC Characteristics 104
Table 7: Lidar Characteristics - Automotive Applications 122
Table 8: Lidar and Video Camera Properties 131

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