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Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. At some point, everyone experiences pain. Pain may be described according to severity (mild, moderate, severe), duration (acute or chronic) or type (nociceptive, inflammatory, neuropathic).

Mild-to-moderate pain, such as orthopedic and soft tissue-related pain, generally is treated with NSAIDs, celecoxib (Pfizer’s Celebrex), or mild opioid analgesics, such as tramadol. Moderate-to-moderately severe pain, such as post-operative pain, orthopedic pain, and chronic back pain, generally is treated with opioid analgesics, including short-acting opioids such as hydrocodone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and morphine, as well as extended-release formulations of oxycodone, oxymorphone, and morphine. Severe pain, including post-operative and cancer pain, generally is treated with fentanyl products, such as Duragesic, Actiq, and Fentora, as well as morphine formulations, such as Avinza and Kadian.

This report deals with prescription drugs used to treat pain. While the Prescription Pain Drug market is relatively small and very mature, there are many new products coming online that have significant sales potential including Pfizer’s Remoxy, Oxycodone NT and Embeda drugs, AcelRx’s Zlaviso, Eagalet Corp’s Oxayado, Endo/BDSI’s Buprenorphine, GW Pharmaceuticals’ Sativex, Insys’ Subsys and dronabinol OS, Marinus’ ganaxolone, as well as Bedrocan’s and Tweed’s medical marijuana offerings, among others.

Ultimately however, Prescription Pain Drugs are very important because without them life would be intolerable for millions of people.

For example, an estimated 50% of cancer patients experience some form of pain, which increases to 90% for patients with advanced-stage disease. Even worse, as many as 50% of patients may be under-treated for cancer-associated pain.

This report provides:

- In-depth discussion of Pain Pharmacology and Analgesia.
- Overview of the Prescription Pain Drugs market by product class, applications, producer market shares, market drivers and R&D pipelines.
- Comprehensive analysis of the markets for Opioid, Neuropathic, Injectable/Inhaled, Topical/Transdermal and Medical Marijuana drugs used to treat pain.

Additionally, detailed profiles of 32 leading companies involved in the Prescription Pain Drugs industry are given. The report also includes 46 tables and 30 figures.

Table Of Contents

- Report Objectives
- Methodology and Sources
- Statistical Notes
- Pain Overview
- Pain According to Duration
- Acute Pain
- Chronic Pain
- Pain According To Type
- Nociceptive Pain
- Inflammatory Pain
- Neuropathic Pain
- Emotional Response To Pain
- Pain Signaling System
- Pain Detection
- Functional Characteristics Of Pain Signaling Apparatus
- Nociceptors
- Primary Sensory Neurons
- Primary Sensory Neurons And The Spinal Cord
- Spinal Cord Neurons
- Projection Neurons And The Spinal Cord
- Spinal Interneurons
- Pain Characteristics
- Animal Models Of Nociception/Pain
- Neurochemical Characteristics Of The Nociceptive Signaling System
- Transmission Of Nociceptive Information From The Periphery To The Spinal Cord
- Nociceptive Neurotransmitters And Their Target Receptors
- Excitatory Amino Acids And Their Receptors
- Glutamate Receptors
- NMDA Receptors
- AMPA Receptors
- Kainate Receptors
- Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors (mGluRs)
- Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters (EEATs)
- Glycine Transporters (GlyTs)
- Co-Containment Of Neurotransmitters In Nerve Terminals
- Descending Modulation Of Nociception
- Pharmacological Treatment Of Pain: Analgesics And Adjuvants
- Major Aims Of the Treatment Of Clinical Pain
- Pharmacological Management Of Pain
- Current Treatment Guidelines
- Controlled Or Sustained Release Oral Formulations
- Analgesic Agents
- Non-Opioid Analgesics
- Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
- Opioid Analgesics
- Commonly Prescribed Opioid Analgesics
- Strong Opioid Analgesics
- Morphine
- Oxycodone
- Methadone
- Hydromorphone
- Fentanyl
- Weak Opioid Analgesics
- Codeine
- Pethidine (Meperidine)
- Tramadol
- Partial Opioid Agonists/Antagonists: Buprenorphine
- Opioid-Related Adverse Effects
- Adjuvant Analgesics
- Tricyclic Antidepressants
- Anticonvulsants
- Anti-Arrhythmics
- Topical Agents
- Lignocaine (Lidocaine)
- Capsaicin
- NMDA Receptor Antagonists
- Ketamine
- Dextromethorphan
- Alpha(2)-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists
- Invasive Procedures
- Neurolytic Celiac Plexus Blockade
- Implantable Intrathecal Drug Delivery
- Spinal Cord Stimulation
- Spinal Cord Stimulation
- Future Trends
- Types Of Pain
- Markets Segmented By Pain Severity
- Market By Product Class
- Market Outlook To 2020
- Opioids Market By Application
- Cancer Pain Is The Largest Segment
- Market Shares
- Market Drivers
- RandD Pipeline
- Instant Vs. Extended Release Markets
- Extended Release Opioids Market By Brand, Class And Producer
- Opioid Prescriptions
- Focus Now On Tamper Resistant/Less Addictive Opioids
- DEA Allows 90-Day Rx's
- DEA Reschedules Hydrocodone Combination Products
- OxyContin Tamper Resistant Extends Franchise
- Advances In Opioid Receptor Research
- Testosterone Issues And Chronic Opioid Use
- FDA Tamper Resistance Guidance
- Opioids From Yeast
- Neuropathic Pain Is Poorly Understood
- Neuropathic Pain Drug Market
- Gabapentin Now A Generic Market
- Lyrica Forecast To Fall
- Lyrica Sales
- Cymbalta Sales
- Generic Cymbalta Producers
- Targeted Secretion Inhibitors For Peripheral Neuropathic Pain
- Allergan's AGN-214868 Market Potential
- Nerve Growth Inhibitors Put On Hold
- Prialt Is A Niche Product
- Bridion Launched In Europe
- Bridion Sales To 2020
- Paion's M6G
- Post-Operative Pain Market Underserved
- Ofirmev Has Significant Market Potential
- Ofirmev Peak Revenues
- Ofirmev Satisfies A Key Need
- Surgery Pain Is Poorly Addressed
- Opiates Complications Are Frequent And Costly
- Intravenous IV NSAIDs Have Limitations
- Ofirmev Reduces Pain And Fever
- EU Experience Backs Ofirmev's Potential In The U.S.
- Ofirmev U.S. Sales Outlook
- Ofirmev Patented Through 2021
- License With Terumo
- Tanezumab Moving Forward
- Tanezumab Sales Outlook
- Lidoderm Dominates The Market
- Recall And Generics Hurt Duragesic
- Flector Patch Has Plateaued
- Flector Patch Sales
- Ionsys Back In Development
- Voltaren Continues To Perform Well
- Voltaren Gel Sales
- Zingo
- NeurogesX's Qutenza
- AmiKet Cream
- Durect's Sufentanil Patch
- Dronabinol, Nabilone, Nabiximols
- Marijuana
- Legal Situation
- Health issues
- Cannabinoid Receptors And Cannabinoids
- Potency Trends
- Research Obtained Through National Institute Of Drug Abuse
- Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
- Cannabidiol
- Pharmaceutical Forms of Cannabinoids
- Marijuana And Cannabinoids Potential In Cancer Pain
- Marijuana Pharmaceuticals For Pain
- Nabiximols
- Dronabinol
- Nabilone
- Potential Harms Of Marijuana
- Cancer
- Lung Problems
- Neuropsychiatric
- Other Problems
- Outlook
- Global Cannabis Market
- Most Widely Cultivated Drug Plant
- Global Cannabis Production
- Marijuana Market vs. OTC Analgesic Market
- Marinol
- Medical Marijuana Market: Cannabis Vs. Dronabinol
- Number Of Medical Marijuana Patients
AcelRx Pharmaceuticals Inc
(Company Overview, Zalviso, NanoTab Formulation, Targets U.S. PCA Market, Zalviso U.S. Sales To 2019, ARX-02 Targets Cancer Breakthrough Pain, ARX-03 Targets Office-Based Surgery Market)
Acura Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
(Company Overview, Key Target-Based Actions, Key Technologies, Aversion Technology, Oxaydoâ„¢, U.S. Market Opportunity, Aversion Technology Opioid Products in Development, Physicians Highly Concerned With Diversion, Opioid Products And Health Insurers Costs, Licensing Agreements, Regulatory Risks, Clinical Risks, Commercial Risks, Intellectual Property Risks, Financial Risks)
Allergan plc
(Company Overview, Actavis, Cebranopadol, Actavis Elizabeth LLC)
Antibe Therapeutics Inc
(Company Overview, ATB-346, Hydrogen Sulfide May Help Mucosal Defense, ATB-346 Development Process, ATB-346 Advantages, Promising Signs Of GI Protection, Future Trials Funded With Partnership, Intellectual Property, ATB-346 Suspended Development, Results Of Additional Testing)
Bedrocan Cannabis Corp.
(Company Overview, Strategy, Medical Marijuana, Competitive Advantages, Bedrocan BV, Pharmaceutical Quality Product, Advantages To Bedrocan BV Partnership, License Agreement Lowers Risk, License Agreement Provides Upside, South American Countries Looking To Legalize, Bedrocan Product Suite, Bedrocan, Bedropuur, Bedica, Bediol, Bedrolite, Bedrobinol, Small Product Offerings, CFPC Preliminary Guidelines, Facilities, Domestic Production Facility, State of the Art Growing Operations, Production Flow, Annual Sales Volume, Cost Per Gram, Marketing Strategy, Retail Prices, Patient Sign up Process, Current Patient Composition, Patient Count Growing, Patient Consumption Rates, Physician Outreach and Medical Advisory Board, ISO-9000 Certified, Standardization Advantages, Management And Directors Relationships, Experience, Enterprise Value, Financials)
BioDelivery Sciences International, Inc
(Company Overview, Onsolis Fills A Niche Opportunity, BUNAVAIL, BELBUCAâ„¢, Clonidine Topical Gel)
Cara Therapeutics, Inc.
(Company Overview, CR845, Kappa Vs. Mu Opioid Receptors, No Interaction With The Central Nervous System, Limited Abuse Potential, Safer Drug-Drug Interaction Profile, IV To Oral Stepdown, Intravenous CR845 And Acute Pain, Phase 3 Clinical Development Plans, CR701, Intellectual Property, Financial)
Collegium Pharmaceutical, Inc.
(Company Overview, DETERx Platform Technology, Xtampza)
Covidien plc
(Company Overview, Exalgo)
Durect Corporation
(Company Overview, POSIDUR)
Egalet Corp
(Company Overview, OXAYDO™ and SPRIX® Licensing Rights, OXAYDO™, Financial)
Elite Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
(Company Overview, Products, Controlled Release Dosage, Patents, Pipeline)
Endo International plc
(Company Overview, Opana, Partners With BDSI On Buprenorphine)
Grünenthal GmbH
(Company Overview, Zalviso®, Neosaxitoxin, INTAC®)
GW Pharmaceuticals plc
(Company Overview, Sativex®, Sativex® Phase 3 Trials, Sativex® Multiple Sclerosis Market, Sativex® Cancer Pain Market, Financials)
Indivior plc
(Company Overview, Global Leader In Addiction Treatment, Buprenorphine, Suboxone And Naloxone, Regulation, 60% Market Share, Buprenorphine Prescriptions And Payors, Future Growth And Pipeline Opportunities, International Expansion, Sales By Product To 2024)
Insys Therapeutics Inc
(Company Overview, Business Model, Top Branded Drug In The Breakthrough Cancer Pain Segment, Fentanyl, Best In Class Characteristics, 18 Months To Become Leading Branded BTCP Product, Can Successfully Expand Subsys' Label, Two Key Technology Platforms, Expertise In Producing Synthetic Cannabinoids, Dronabinol Oral Solution, Dronabinol OS Has Improved Attributes, Dronabinol OS Peak Sales, Numerous Sublingual Spray Pipeline Opportunities, Buprenorphine Sublingual Spray, Ondansetron Sublingual Spray, Intellectual Property And Other Barriers To Entry, Financial)
Intellipharmaceutics International Inc.
(Company Overview, Key Indications, Key Target-based Actions, Key Technologies, Rexistaâ„¢, Pregabalin CR)
Johnson and Johnson
(Company Overview, Growth Of Ultram ER Remains Sluggish, Nucynta Has Good Potential)
King Pharmaceuticals (Pfizer)
(Company Overview)
Lannett Company, Inc.
(Company Overview, Oxycodone)
Marinus Pharmaceuticals Inc
(Company Overview, Ganaxolone/ Allopregnanolone, Intellectual Property, Epilepsy Drugs Market)
Mayne Pharma Group Ltd
(Company Overview, Products, Pain Management Drugs, Oxycodone, Kapanolâ„¢ and Kadianâ„¢)
Nektar Therapeutics
(Company Overview, NKTR-181, Nektar Novel Opioids)
NicOx SA
(Company Overview, CINODs)
Pacira Pharmaceuticals Inc
(Company Overview, EXPAREL)
Pfizer Inc.
(Company Overview, EMBEDA®, Key Likeability Studies, Settlement With Purdue And Patent Overhang, Oxycodone NT Phase III Trials, Avinza)
Purdue Pharma, L.P.
(Company Overview, Oxycontin)
Raptor Pharmaceutical Corp.,
(Company Overview, Tezampanel/NGX426)
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Limited
(Company Overview, Fentora Continues To Struggle, U.S. Growth Opportunity Is Limited)
Trevena Inc.
(Company Overview, TRV130, TRV734)
Tweed Marijuana Inc.
(Company Overview, Medical Marijuana, Goal Is Perpetual Harvest, Smiths Falls Facility, Security, Growing Equipment, Laboratory, Expansion Plans, Smith Falls Grow Operations, Smiths Falls Capacity To Double, Mother Room Houses ~5,000 Plants, Up To 10,000 kg/Year, Tweed Farms, Tweed Farms Property, Tweed Farms Grow Operations, 70% Lower Costs, Capacity Up To 3,700 kg, Factors Offsetting Benefits Of Greenhouse Production, Product Offerings, Cannabis Oils, Pricing, Vaporizers, Radiation, Other Potential Revenue Streams, Direct-to-Consumer Sales Process, Go-To-Market Strategy, Patient Acquisition, Medical Advisory Board, Canadian AIDS Society, Bedrocan Acquisition, Quebec Registry For Medical Marijuana, Financials)
Zogenix, Inc
(Company Overview, First Hydrocodone ER With No APAP, Zohydro® Is Met With Controversy)
1.) Pain Management By Class Of Drug Used
2.) Pain Drugs Ranked By Relative Potency To Morphene
3.) Global Prescription Pain Drugs Market By Product Class ($ Billion): 2015-2020
4.) Opioid Drugs Market By Application ($ Billion): 2015
5.) Prescription Pain Drug Producers Sales ($ Million) and Market Shares (%): 2015
6.) Pain Management Drug Pipeline by Stage (PC, I, II, III, NDA, Market): 2015
7.) Opioids Drugs Production: Instant Vs. Extended Release ($ Million): 2015-2019
8.) Opioids Extended Release Drugs Production By Brand, Class And Producer ($ Million): 2015-2019
9.) Extended Release Opioid Drugs Market By Company And Product, Including Sales ($ Million), Prescriptions (Million), Market Share (%), Growth Rate (%): 2012-2019
10.) Instant Release Opioid Drugs Prescriptions (Million) By Class: 2015
11.) Tamper-Resistant Opioid Products In Development: 2015
12.) Comparison of Select Branded Extended Release Opioids
13.) Anticonvulsant Drugs For Pain Production By Product (Gabapentin, Lyrica, Cymbalta) ($ Billion): 2015-2020
14.) U.S. Topical NSAID Market by Product: 2012-2019
15.) Clinical Studies And The Effect of Smoked Marijuana On Pain
16.) Worldwide Number (Millions) and Prevalence (%) of Users by Type of Illicit Drug: 2012
17.) Global Cannabis Production Volume (MT), Value (USD) and Average Selling Price (Million USD/MT): 2015-2020
18.) Global Sales of Over-the-Counter (OTC) Pharmaceuticals by Application (USD Million): 2013
19.) Medical Marijuana Production: Cannabis Vs. Dronabinol (USD Million): 2015-2020
20.) Medical Marijuana Patients (Million), Patient Consumption (Grams/Month), Grams Consumed (Million), Production Price ($/Gram), Production Value ($ Million): U.S., Canada, ROW: 2015
21.) U.S. Medical Marijuana Patients By State (Number), State Population (Number), Number Of Patients Per 1,000 State Residents: 4Q2014
22.) Canada Marihuana For Medical Purposes Regulations Patients And Growth Rate (Number, %): 2014-2034
23.) AcelRx's ARX-02 Vs. Onsolis And Abstral: Onset of Action/PK Profile Comparison
24.) Acura Pharmaceuticals Aversion Opioid Products In Development: 2015
25.) Acura Pharmaceuticals Oxaydo (AVERSION Oxycodone) Royalty Revenues: 2015-2024
26.) Bedrocan Operations Timeline: 2012-2015
27.) Bedrocan Cannabis Corp. Import Facility Features
28.) Bedrocan Cannabis Corp. Domestic Facility Features
29.) Bedrocan Cannabis Registration Application Form
30.) Bedrocan Cannabis Corp. Income Statement: 2015-2019
31.) Oxaydo Prescriptions (Thousands), Revenues ($ Thousands), Market Shares (%) By Product Strength: 2015-2025
32.) Sativex® Multiple Sclerosis Revenue Model: 2013-2027
33.) Sativex® Cancer Pain Revenue Model: 2013-2027
34.) GW Pharmaceuticals Income Statement (GBP Million): 2011-2017
35.) Indivior U.S. Pipeline: Stages Of Development And Earliest Approval Dates: 2014-2020
36.) Indivior Non-U.S. Pipeline: Stages Of Development And Earliest Approval Dates: 2014-2020
37.) Indivior Revenue Build For Suboxone And New Drug Pipeline ($ Million): 2014-2024
38.) Breakthrough Cancer Pain Products Competitive Landscape
39.) U.S. Market For Epilepsy Drugs By Product ($ Million): 2014-2025
40.) Mayne Pharma Drug Portfolio: Key Current Molecules ($ Million): 2015
41.) Key Molecules Of Mayne Pharma's US Generic Portfolio ($ Million): 2015
42.) Smiths Falls Estimated Production Breakdown
43.) Tweed Farms Estimated Production Breakdown
44.) Indoor vs. Greenhouse Growing Methodology Comparison
45.) Tweed Products and Prices
46.) Tweed Marijuana Inc. Income Statement: 2014-2016
1.) Nocicpetive Pain Pathways
2.) Glutamate Receptors
3.) WHO Three-Step Analgesic Ladder
4.) Lifetime Non-Medical Use of Selected Pain Relievers, Age 12 or Older: 2013
5.) Positioning of Antibe's Lead Asset ATB-346 In The Market
6.) Antibe's ATB-346 Development Process
7.) Bedrocan
8.) Bedropuur
9.) Bedica
10.) Bediol
11.) Bedrolite
12.) Canadian LP Pricing and Strain Offerings by Company (C$/Gram, Number Strains)
13.) Enterprise Value Spectrum for Public Canadian Marijuana LPs (C$): 2015
14.) Neural Synapse With Opioid Receptors
15.) Cara Therapeutics Clinical Development Trial Timelines: 2013-2018
16.) Cara Therapeutics Product Candidates And Commercialization Rights
17.) Subsys - Single-use Sublingual Fentanyl Spray
18.) Insys Cannabinoid Manufacturing Capabilities
19.) Insys' Dronabinol Franchise Summary
20.) Insys' Dronabinol Oral Solution Commercial Opportunity
21.) Insys' Sublingual Spray Pipeline: 2014-2016
22.) Insys' Buprenorphine / Naloxone Sublingual Spray Opportunity
23.) Mechanism for Ganaxolone and Allopregnanolone
24.) Aerial View of Tweed's Smiths Falls Facility
25.) Smiths Falls Production Facility
26.) Evolution of Smiths Falls' Installed Capacity: 2014-2016
27.) Smiths Falls' Mother Room and Cuttings
28.) Tweed Farms Production Facility
29.) Marijuana Vaporizers
30.) Strains Produced At Smiths Falls

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