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Merchant Hydrogen: Industrial Gas and Energy Markets

  • September 2015
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 127 pages

This BCC Research study focuses on key hydrogen technologies and applications. It provides data about the size and growth of both captive and merchant hydrogen markets, lists company profiles, and discusses patent trends and industry trends. Forecasts are provided through 2020.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS
The global production of merchant hydrogen was 6.8 million metric tons in 2014, and is expected to reach 7.1 million metric tons in 2015 and 8.5 million metric tons by 2020, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.7% from 2015 to 2020.
This report provides:
- Investigation and assessment of the future use of merchant hydrogen and on-site distributed generation.
- Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2014, estimates for 2015, and projections of CAGRs through 2020.
- Definitions of individual markets and technical applications for hydrogen.
- Coverage of cutting-edge developments, areas such as biological processing, localized production, and nanotechnology where considerable research dollars are being spent.
- Detailed analyses of research focuses, end-use markets, and production technologies.
- Information on patent and intellectual property (IP) activity.
- An overview of the structure of the industry and extensive company profiles of the leading organizations in the field.

SCOPE OF STUDY

This BCC Research study focuses on key hydrogen technologies and applications. It provides data about the size and growth of both captive and merchant hydrogen markets, lists company profiles, and discusses patent trends and industry trends. Cutting-edge developments, research priorities, and potential business opportunities are a key focus.

The report includes the following:

- Investigation and assessment of the future use of merchant hydrogen as an industrial gas and the roles likely played by the emerging hydrogen energy market.
- Analysis of trends in the market, with data for 2014, estimates for 2015, and projected compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2020.
- An overview of the structure of the industry and extensive company profiles of the leading organizations.
- Detailed analyses of research focuses, end-use markets, and production technologies.
- Analysis of patent and intellectual property (IP) activity.


Table Of Contents

Merchant Hydrogen: Industrial Gas and Energy Markets
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
OVERVIEW 2
COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND END-USE MARKETS 2
SCOPE OF STUDY 3
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
METHODOLOGY 3
INFORMATION SOURCES 4
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 7
INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN AND ITS MARKET SEGMENTS 7
MERCHANT HYDROGEN 7
UNITS 8
MAJOR FINDINGS 8
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 9
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN BY REGION,
2014-2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 10
CHAPTER 3 INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN MARKETS 12
HYDROGEN 12
TABLE 1 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FEEDSTOCKS 12
GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN 12
INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN MARKETS-NORTH AMERICA 13
FIGURE 1 HYDROGEN INDUSTRY TAXONOMY, 2013 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 13
TABLE 2 GLOBAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY SEGMENT, 2013 (MILLION METRIC
TONS) 13
TABLE 3 GLOBAL AND U.S. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, 2009-2013 (MILLION METRIC
TONS/YEAR) 14
MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET 14
TABLE 4 PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF THE U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS/$ BILLIONS) 15
TABLE 5 NORTH AMERICAN SHARE OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN CAPACITY BY
INDUSTRY TYPE, 2014 (%) 15
TABLE 6 NORTH AMERICAN SHARE OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN CAPACITY BY
COMPANY, 2014 (%) 15
FIGURE 2 PROBABLE RANGE OF VALUE OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET, 2020
($ MILLIONS) 16
LARGE-SCALE MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 16
STEAM METHANE REFORMATION OF NATURAL GAS 16
COAL GASIFICATION 17
DISTRIBUTED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 17
REFORMATION OF BIO-DERIVED LIQUIDS 17
COAL AND BIOMASS GASIFICATION 17
CHM042C - Merchant Hydrogen: Industrial Gas and Energy Markets
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
MERCHANT MARKET DELIVERY MODES 18
TABLE 7 MERCHANT MARKET DELIVERY MODES (%) 18
DELIVERY STATE: LIQUEFACTION AND GASIFICATION 18
ECONOMICS 18
FIGURE 3 THEORETICAL VOLATILITY IN PRICE OF HYDROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS,
2005-2014 19
PLANT CAPITAL COSTS 20
ROLE IN OIL REFINERY COST 20
TABLE 8 HYDROGEN'S SHARE OF OIL REFINERY FIXED AND VARIABLE OPERATING
COSTS, 2014 (%) 20
AS AN ENERGY FUEL 21
TABLE 9 FUEL CELL VEHICLE COST PER MILE USING DISTRIBUTED, NATURAL
GAS-SOURCED HYDROGEN FUEL 21
FIGURE 4 HYPOTHETICAL NET NON-DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW: FUEL CELLS VS.
BATTERIES BY YEAR OF OPERATION ($ MILLIONS) 22
FIGURE 5 HYPOTHETICAL ANNUALIZED TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP, CLASS III
FORKLIFT, 2014 23
PIPELINE ECONOMICS 23
U.S. DEMAND FOR MERCHANT HYDROGEN 24
TABLE 10 U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
METRIC TONS) 24
MERCHANT HYDROGEN COSTS AND END USERS 25
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION CAPACITY AT REFINERIES 25
TABLE 11 GLOBAL PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF HYDROGEN AT PETROLEUM
REFINERIES, 2008-2013 (MILLION STANDARD CUBIC FEET/DAY) 26
CHAPTER 4 GLOBAL MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKETS 28
GLOBAL MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET OVERVIEW 28
TABLE 12 REGIONAL END USES OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, 2013 (%) 28
EUROPEAN MARKETS 28
EUROPEAN PRODUCTION 29
TABLE 13 MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN EUROPE, 2003-2013 29
TABLE 14 FORECAST FOR MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN EUROPE,
THROUGH 2020 29
TABLE 15 MERCHANT LIQUID AND COMPRESSED GAS HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
CAPACITY IN EUROPE BY COMPANY AND LOCATION, 2014 29
EUROPEAN PIPELINES 32
TABLE 16 EUROPEAN HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY COUNTRY, 2014 32
TABLE 17 EUROPEAN HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY OWNER, 2014 33
CHINA 33
TABLE 18 CHINESE CONSUMPTION OF HYDROGEN BY END USE, 2014 (MILLION
METRIC TONS) 33
GLOBAL MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 34
TABLE 19 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 34
CHAPTER 5 NORTH AMERICAN MERCHANT HYDROGEN DEMAND 36
MARKET DEMAND AND END-USE MARKETS 36
MERCHANT INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN MARKET DEMAND DRIVERS 36
OIL REFINING 36
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Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
FOOD INDUSTRY/EDIBLE OIL 36
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 36
Hydrogen Peroxide 37
Methanol 37
Ammonia 37
Alcohols 37
Chemical Industry Growth 37
STEEL INDUSTRY/METALLURGY 37
Annealing 37
Neutral Hardening 37
Sintering 38
Metals Industry Growth 38
ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY 38
GLASS PROCESSING INDUSTRY 38
POWER INDUSTRY 38
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DEMAND 38
U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN DEMAND FORECAST 39
TABLE 20 U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN DEMAND FORECAST BY END USE, THROUGH
2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 39
HYDROGEN ENERGY MARKET DRIVERS 39
FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY 39
TABLE 21 FY2014 AND FY2015 FEDERAL RandD BUDGET BY ACTIVITY ($ MILLIONS) 40
ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF HYDROGEN 41
HYDROGEN PURITY 41
FUEL CELLS AND MERCHANT HYDROGEN 41
Stationary Power 42
TABLE 22 PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL CAPACITY BY STATE, 2014 (MW) 42
TABLE 23 MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL CAPACITY BY STATE, 2014 (KW) 43
TABLE 24 BLOOM ENERGY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL CAPACITY BY STATE, 2014 (KW) 44
Vehicles 44
TABLE 25 U.S. FUEL CELL BUS PROJECTS, 2014 46
Transportation Infrastructure 46
TABLE 26 U.S. HYDROGEN FUELING STATIONS, OPERATING OR PLANNED AS OF
END OF 2014 47
Material Handling Equipment 51
Back-Up and Remote Power Generation 51
Utility-Scale Energy Storage 51
Distributed Hydrogen Production Systems 52
TABLE 27 MANUFACTURING R andD CHALLENGES FOR DISTRIBUTED HYDROGEN
PRODUCTION 52
High-Purity Hydrogen Market and On-Site Demand 53
MERCHANT HYDROGEN EQUIPMENT MARKETS 54
INTEGRATED REFORMERS 54
TABLE 28 POWER PLANT CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS: FUEL CELLS VERSUS
CONVENTIONAL OPTIONS, 2013 55
INVESTMENT RISK 57
REGULATIONS, CODES AND STANDARDS 57
SUBSIDIES AND TAXES 58
CHM042C - Merchant Hydrogen: Industrial Gas and Energy Markets
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
STATE-LEVEL INITIATIVES 58
California 58
Connecticut 58
Florida 59
New York 59
Ohio 59
Texas 59
CHAPTER 6 NORTH AMERICAN MERCHANT PRODUCTION 62
CURRENT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION LEVELS 62
TABLE 29 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION LEVELS, 2010-2014 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 62
LOCATION OF THE HYDROGEN REFINERY CAPACITY 62
TABLE 30 TOP U.S. REFINERY HYDROGEN PRODUCERS, 2013 63
LOCATION OF THE MERCHANT PLANTS 63
TABLE 31 MERCHANT LIQUID AND COMPRESSED GAS HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
CAPACITY IN THE U.S. AND CANADA BY COMPANY AND LOCATION, 2014 63
PLANNED EXPANSIONS FOR PRODUCTION 66
HYDROGEN FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES 66
HOW RENEWABLE POWER RELATES TO MERCHANT HYDROGEN 67
TABLE 32 RENEWABLES-BASED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PROJECTS, AS OF END
2014 67
TABLE 33 APPROACHES TO USING RENEWABLE POWER TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN
BY PROJECT CATEGORY 68
CHAPTER 7 MERCHANT HYDROGEN: TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 70
OVERVIEW 70
EMERGING PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 70
ELECTROLYSIS AND THERMOLYSIS 70
ADVANCED MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY 70
HYDROGEN FROM NUCLEAR POWER 71
COAL TO HYDROGEN 71
BIOHYDROGEN PATHWAYS 71
Conversion of Biomass and Wastes 71
Direct-Fermentation Hydrogen Production 72
Biological Electrolysis 72
Bio-Catalyzed Electrolysis 72
Hydrogen from Microalgae and Cyanobacteria 72
PLASMA REFORMING 72
SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 73
HYDROGEN VIA WASTEWATER REMEDIATION 73
DIRECT SUNLIGHT-TO-HYDROGEN CONVERSION 73
CATALYSTS 73
OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN EVOLUTION REACTION CATALYSTS 74
ATOMICALLY DISPERSED PLATINUM CATALYST 74
MOLYBDENUM SULFIDE AS PLATINUM CATALYST REPLACEMENT 75
STANFORD NICKEL IRON CATALYST 75
NANOSTRUCTURED NICKEL HYDROXIDE 75
CHM042C - Merchant Hydrogen: Industrial Gas and Energy Markets
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
CHAPTER 8 MERCHANT HYDROGEN DELIVERY MODES 78
TABLE 34 TYPICAL HYDROGEN SALE QUANTITIES (KG/SCF) 78
PIPELINES 78
TABLE 35 U.S. HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY STATE, 2006-2014 79
TABLE 36 NORTH AMERICAN HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY OWNER, 2014 79
MAJOR PIPELINE ADDITIONS 80
ECONOMICS OF PIPELINE TRANSPORT 80
CYLINDER AND TRUCK DELIVERY 81
ON-SITE PRODUCTION 81
HYDROGEN INFRASTRUCTURE ISSUES 82
POLICY CONTEXT (GENERAL) 82
POLICY CONTEXT (HYDROGEN-SPECIFIC) 82
TECHNOLOGY CONTEXT 83
DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROGEN ENERGY SYSTEM 83
CHAPTER 9 HYDROGEN STORAGE 85
STORAGE AND HYDROGEN-FUELED VEHICLES 85
HYDROGEN-FUELED VEHICLE STORAGE OPTIONS 85
TABLE 37 EXAMPLES OF VEHICLE COMPRESSED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS 85
HYDRIDE SOLID-STATE STORAGE 86
TABLE 38 HYDROGEN SOLID-STATE STORAGE MATERIALS AND TRADE-OFFS 87
ALUMINUM HYDRIDE STORAGE MATERIAL 87
METAL HYDRIDE CLUSTERS 87
METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORK OPTIMIZED FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE 87
CHAPTER 10 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPANY PROFILES 90
MARKET CONCENTRATION 90
TABLE 39 TOP U.S. REFINERY HYDROGEN PRODUCERS BASED ON CAPACITY, 2013
(MILLION STANDARD CUBIC FEET PER DAY/%) 90
TABLE 40 MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY SUPPLIER, 2013 (MILLION
METRIC TONS) 91
COMPANY PROFILES 91
OVERVIEW 91
INDUSTRIAL GAS PROVIDERS 92
Airgas Inc. 92
Air Liquide 92
Air Products and Chemicals 93
Equistar Chemicals LP 93
General Hydrogen 94
Iwatani International Corp. 94
Linde AG 94
Praxair Inc. 95
Sinopec Maoming Co. 96
United Hydrogen Group 96
REFINERS AND REFINERIES 96
Amec Foster Wheeler Ltd. 96
BP plc 97
Chevron 97
CHM042C - Merchant Hydrogen: Industrial Gas and Energy Markets
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
ConocoPhillips 98
Exxon Mobil Corp. 98
Flint Hills Resources 98
MarkWest Javelina 99
Motiva Enterprises LLC 99
Shell Deer Park Refining 99
Shell Oil 100
Tesoro Corp. 100
Valero Energy Corp. 100
FUEL CELLS 101
Ballard Power Systems 101
Bloom Energy Corp. 101
Ceramatec 101
FuelCell Energy Inc. 102
Hydrogenics Corp. 102
Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Ltd. 103
VEHICLES 103
Asia Pacific Fuel Cell Technologies Ltd. 103
Bayerische Motor Werke 103
Eden Energy (formerly Hythane) 104
Hyundai Motors 104
Magna International Inc. 104
Toyota Motors 105
US Hybrid 105
ELECTROLYZERS AND DISTRIBUTED REFORMERS 106
Acta SpA 106
Hyster-Yale Materials Handling Inc. 106
Intelligent Energy 106
ITM Power Plc. 107
NEL Hydrogen AS 107
Proton OnSite Inc. 107
HYDROGEN PURIFICATION AND SENSORS 107
Chart Industries (formerly Engineered Gas Systems) 107
Element One 108
H2scan 108
Hy9 Corp. 108
Makel Engineering Inc. 109
Xebec Adsorption Inc. 109
CATALYSTS 109
E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co. 109
Haldor Topsoe A/S 110
Membrane Technology and Research Inc. 110
Nanomix Inc. 110
STORAGE 111
Quantum Technologies 111
Toshiba Corp. 111
START-UPS AND RandD 112
CHM042C - Merchant Hydrogen: Industrial Gas and Energy Markets
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TOPIC PAGE NO.
Advanced Materials Corp. 112
AlumiFuel Power Corporation 112
American Hydrogen Corp. 112
Batelle Memorial Institute 113
BC Hydro 113
Gas Technology Institute (GTI) 113
Hydrogen Union Equipment Ltd. 114
Jetstream Energy Technologies Inc. 114
Mo-Sci Corp. 114
National Center for Hydrogen Technology 115
Yangtze Energy Technologies Inc. 115
CHAPTER 11 PATENT ANALYSIS 117
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, STORAGE, AND UTILIZATION 117
TABLE 41 DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROGEN PATENTS BASED ON MAJOR FIELD OF
APPLICATION, 2014 (NUMBER OF PATENTS/%) 117
FUEL CELL SPECIFIC PATENTS 117
SAMPLE PATENTS 118
GAS DETECTION SYSTEM, FUEL CELL SYSTEM, AND VEHICLE 118
INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR HYDROGEN AND METHANE PRODUCTION FROM
INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC WASTES AND BIOMASS 118
HYDROGEN STORAGE METHOD, HYDROGEN GENERATING METHOD,
HYDROGEN STORAGE APPARATUS AND HYDROGEN GENERATING
APPARATUS
119
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON MONOXIDE
CONTAINING GAS 119
INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR HYDROGEN AND METHANE PRODUCTION FROM
INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC WASTES AND BIOMASS 120
HYDROGEN COMBUSTION CATALYST AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING
THEREOF, AND METHOD FOR COMBUSTING HYDROGEN 120
HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS AND HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS 121
CONTINUOUS HYDROGEN PRODUCTION DEVICE AND METHOD THEREOF 121
ELECTROLYSER MODULE 122
REFORMING SYSTEM, FUEL CELL SYSTEM, AND ITS OPERATION METHOD 122
SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MANAGING FUEL CELL OPERATING
CONDITIONS IN A MOBILE COMMUNICATION DEVICE 122
METHOD TO COLD-START FUEL CELL SYSTEM AT SUB-ZERO
TEMPERATURES 123
INTEGRATION OF AN ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE WITH A FUEL CELL 123
CARBOHYDRATE ANODE FOR FUEL CELL AND BATTERY APPLICATIONS 123
AIR-COOLED FUEL CELL VEHICLE 124
HYDROGEN DETECTION SYSTEM 124
FUEL CELL POWER PRODUCTION SYSTEM WITH AN INTEGRATED
HYDROGEN UTILIZATION DEVICE 125
HYBRID HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM AND METHOD USING THE SAME 125
CATALYST FOR GENERATING HYDROGEN AND METHOD FOR GENERATING
HYDROGEN 126
FUEL CELL UNIT AND FUEL CELL DEVICE COMPRISING A NUMBER OF SAID
FUEL CELL UNITS 126
CHM042C - Merchant Hydrogen: Industrial Gas and Energy Markets
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TOPIC PAGE NO.
GAS SEPARATION PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY
AUTOTHERMAL REFORMING OF NATURAL GAS, WITH CARBON DIOXIDE
RECOVERY SYSTEM
127
HYDROGEN PRODUCING UNIT 127
PHOTOCATALYTIC HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN CYANOBACTERIA. 127
CATALYTIC METHOD FOR OBTAINING HYDROGEN OR A HYDROGEN-RICH
GAS STARTING FROM BIOETHANOL AND/OR ETHANOL 128
HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIAL AND METHOD OF PRODUCING THE SAME 128
THERMALLY PRIMED HYDROGEN-PRODUCING FUEL CELL SYSTEM 128
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND REFORMING APPARATUS 129
HYDROGEN DETECTING SURFACE PLASMON RESONATOR, SURFACE
PLASMON RESONANCE OPTICAL HYDROGEN DETECTOR AND METHOD FOR
OPTICALLY DETECTING HYDROGEN USING SURFACE PLASMON
RESONANCE
129
NANOENGINEERED MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE 130
HYDROGEN-PRODUCING FUEL CELL SYSTEMS WITH LOAD-RESPONSIVE
FEEDSTOCK DELIVERY SYSTEMS 130
SENSORS FOR HYDROGEN, AMMONIA 130
HOLLOW POROUS-WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE 131
COMPOSITE HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIAL AND METHODS RELATED
THERETO 131
MONITORABLE HYDROGEN SENSOR SYSTEM 132
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION DEVICE AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING
HYDROGEN 132
CHAPTER 12 HYDROGEN GLOSSARY AND ACRONYMS 134
HYDROGEN GLOSSARY AND ACRONYMS 134
CHM042C - Merchant Hydrogen: Industrial Gas and Energy Markets
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE HEADING PAGE NO.
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN BY REGION,
THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 9
TABLE 1 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FEEDSTOCKS 12
TABLE 2 GLOBAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY SEGMENT, 2013 (MILLION METRIC
TONS) 13
TABLE 3 GLOBAL AND U.S. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, 2009-2013 (MILLION METRIC
TONS/YEAR) 14
TABLE 4 PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF THE U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN MARKET,
THROUGH 2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS/$ BILLIONS) 15
TABLE 5 NORTH AMERICAN SHARE OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN CAPACITY BY
INDUSTRY TYPE, 2014 (%) 15
TABLE 6 NORTH AMERICAN SHARE OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN CAPACITY BY
COMPANY, 2014 (%) 15
TABLE 7 MERCHANT MARKET DELIVERY MODES (%) 18
TABLE 8 HYDROGEN'S SHARE OF OIL REFINERY FIXED AND VARIABLE OPERATING
COSTS, 2014 (%) 20
TABLE 9 FUEL CELL VEHICLE COST PER MILE USING DISTRIBUTED, NATURAL
GAS-SOURCED HYDROGEN FUEL 21
TABLE 10 U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2020 (MILLION
METRIC TONS) 24
TABLE 11 GLOBAL PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF HYDROGEN AT PETROLEUM
REFINERIES, 2008-2013 (MILLION STANDARD CUBIC FEET/DAY) 26
TABLE 12 REGIONAL END USES OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, 2013 (%) 28
TABLE 13 MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN EUROPE, 2003-2013 29
TABLE 14 FORECAST FOR MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN EUROPE,
THROUGH 2020 29
TABLE 15 MERCHANT LIQUID AND COMPRESSED GAS HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
CAPACITY IN EUROPE BY COMPANY AND LOCATION, 2014 29
TABLE 16 EUROPEAN HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY COUNTRY, 2014 32
TABLE 17 EUROPEAN HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY OWNER, 2014 33
TABLE 18 CHINESE CONSUMPTION OF HYDROGEN BY END USE, 2014 (MILLION
METRIC TONS) 33
TABLE 19 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MERCHANT HYDROGEN BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 34
TABLE 20 U.S. MERCHANT HYDROGEN DEMAND FORECAST BY END USE, THROUGH
2020 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 39
TABLE 21 FY2014 AND FY2015 FEDERAL RandD BUDGET BY ACTIVITY ($ MILLIONS) 40
TABLE 22 PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL CAPACITY BY STATE, 2014 (MW) 42
TABLE 23 MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL CAPACITY BY STATE, 2014 (KW) 43
TABLE 24 BLOOM ENERGY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL CAPACITY BY STATE, 2014 (KW) 44
TABLE 25 U.S. FUEL CELL BUS PROJECTS, 2014 46
TABLE 26 U.S. HYDROGEN FUELING STATIONS, OPERATING OR PLANNED AS OF END
OF 2014 47
TABLE 27 MANUFACTURING R andD CHALLENGES FOR DISTRIBUTED HYDROGEN
PRODUCTION 52
TABLE 28 POWER PLANT CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS: FUEL CELLS VERSUS
CONVENTIONAL OPTIONS, 2013 55
TABLE 29 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION LEVELS, 2010-2014 (MILLION METRIC TONS) 62
TABLE 30 TOP U.S. REFINERY HYDROGEN PRODUCERS, 2013 63
CHM042C - Merchant Hydrogen: Industrial Gas and Energy Markets
Copyright © BCC Research, Wellesley MA USA, Website: www.bccresearch.com
TABLE HEADING PAGE NO.
TABLE 31 MERCHANT LIQUID AND COMPRESSED GAS HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
CAPACITY IN THE U.S. AND CANADA BY COMPANY AND LOCATION, 2014 63
TABLE 32 RENEWABLES-BASED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PROJECTS, AS OF END
2014 67
TABLE 33 APPROACHES TO USING RENEWABLE POWER TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN BY
PROJECT CATEGORY 68
TABLE 34 TYPICAL HYDROGEN SALE QUANTITIES (KG/SCF) 78
TABLE 35 U.S. HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY STATE, 2006-2014 79
TABLE 36 NORTH AMERICAN HYDROGEN PIPELINE MILES BY OWNER, 2014 79
TABLE 37 EXAMPLES OF VEHICLE COMPRESSED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS 85
TABLE 38 HYDROGEN SOLID-STATE STORAGE MATERIALS AND TRADE-OFFS 87
TABLE 39 TOP U.S. REFINERY HYDROGEN PRODUCERS BASED ON CAPACITY, 2013
(MILLION STANDARD CUBIC FEET PER DAY/%) 90
TABLE 40 MERCHANT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY SUPPLIER, 2013 (MILLION
METRIC TONS) 91
TABLE 41 DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROGEN PATENTS BASED ON MAJOR FIELD OF
APPLICATION, 2014 (NUMBER OF PATENTS/%) 117
CHM042C - Merchant Hydrogen: Industrial Gas and Energy Markets
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