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Renewable Energy: Technologies and Global Markets

  • September 2015
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 315 pages

Use this report to:
- Identify the current status of the global market for renewable energy sources and assess the market’s growth potential from 2014 to 2019, with the base year of 2013.
- Learn about the history of renewable energy market.
- Focus on assessing the possibility that renewables will begin to compete not only with fossil fuels but also with each other for market share, government subsidies and public
support.
- Learn about the major factors influencing demand for renewable energy.

Highlights
- In terms of revenue, the global renewable energy market (excluding biofuels) reached $432.7 billion in 2013 and $476.3 billion in 2014. This market is expected to increase to $777.6 billion in 2019, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.3% from 2014 to 2019.
- The global hydroelectric technology market for renewable energy was valued at $298 billion in 2014 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.2% from 2014 to 2019 to reach a value of $422.1 billion in 2019.
- In terms of revenue, the wind power market was valued at nearly $104.9 billion in 2014 and is expected to reach $180.1 billion in 2019, growing at a CAGR of 11.4% from 2014 to 2019.

Introduction & Scope

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
BCC Research’s goal for conducting this study is to determine the current status of the global market for renewable energy sources and assess the market’s growth potential from 2014 to 2019, with the base year of 2013. Integrated studies covering renewable energy sources are rare due to the rapid growth and varied characteristics of renewables. The report focuses on assessing the possibility that renewables will begin
to compete not only with fossil fuels but also with each other for market share, government subsidies and public support. It also examines the impact on the market from the surging global demand for energy, the impact of climate change on alternative fuels, improvements in technology and the availability of new materials. The key objective is to present a comprehensive overview of the current markets for
renewable energy supplies and the future directions in which they are predicted to move.

REASONS FOR THE STUDY
Market studies have become increasingly stove-piped in terms of green technology in general and renewable energy sources in particular. This is a natural progression as each renewable energy source employs different technologies, has different constraints and offers different possibilities to various classes of users. However, considering renewable energy sources together allows for an assessment of the combined contribution they can make in reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, helping countries achieve energy independence, conserving natural resources and improving the environment in various ways. Looking at renewables in a single report also allows an assessment of policy-relevant issues in terms of gauging where support is warranted, how close some energy sources are to providing significant contributions
to the portfolio of available resources, and what metrics might be useful in deciding what energy sources are best equipped to satisfy the needs of individual countries and regions.

SCOPE OF THE REPORT
The scope of this report is intentionally wide. We cover the major sources of renewable energy as primary fuels—hydroelectric, wind, solar, geothermal and oceanic sources (wave, tidal and thermal) and liquid biofuels for transportation. There is no shortage in the marketplace of reports on each of these sources. However, what existing reports lack and what this report is intended to provide is a global perspective that places each
source in a relevant context for decision makers in both the public and private sectors.

INTENDED AUDIENCE
This report is intended for professionals working at several levels in the energy and environmental fields. Although the report is structured around specific technologies, it is largely nontechnical in nature and focuses on which technologies work and their market shares and predicted prices instead of theory and jargon. Therefore, the report’s main intended audience is executive management, marketing professionals and financial analysts. The report is not written specifically for scientists and technologists but may be of interest to this audience as it does discuss the market for their work, including the availability of government and corporate research funding for different technologies and applications. Others who may find the report informative include government agencies and environmental and public policy interest groups concerned with energy, sustainable development and the environment.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this study. To obtain market data, BCC Research surveyed approximately 33 companies, including manufacturers, utilities, regulators, environmental analysts and reporters, and commercial consumers. In addition, data was compiled from current financial and trade information and government sources.

Table Of Contents

Renewable Energy: Technologies and Global Markets
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR THE STUDY 2
SCOPE OF THE REPORT 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 3
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 4
DISCLAIMER 4
CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6
SUMMARY TABLE 1 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS)
INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 (GW) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE 1 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS)
INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2019 (GW) 7
SUMMARY TABLE 2 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) MARKET
REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE 2 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS)
MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS) 9
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 11
RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET ANALYSIS 11
TABLE 1 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) INSTALLED
CAPACITY AND REVENUE, THROUGH 2019 (GW/$ MILLIONS) 11
TABLE 2 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) INSTALLED
CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (GW) 12
TABLE 3 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) MARKET REVENUE
BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 12
RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET DETERMINANTS 13
GROWTH OF CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION LEVELS 13
FIGURE 1 GLOBAL CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION LEVELS, 2006-2012 (BILLION
METRIC TONS) 13
FAVORABLE REGULATIONS 13
Green-e Marketplace 13
LEED Certification Program 14
EPA Green Power Partnership 14
EPA Climate Leaders 14
RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET SEGMENTATION 14
FIGURE 2 RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET SEGMENTS 14
HISTORY OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET 15
RENEWABLE ENERGY INSTALLED CAPACITY 19
TABLE 4 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY INSTALLED CAPACITY BY RESOURCE,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 19
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY INSTALLED CAPACITY SHARE BY
RESOURCE, 2013 AND 2019 (%) 20
GROWTH IN ELECTRICITY DEMAND 21
GLOBAL ROADMAPS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATION 21
LEGISLATION FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES 23
INCENTIVE MECHANISMS 25
CHAPTER 4 SOLAR POWER MARKET 27
OVERVIEW 27
MARKET DYNAMICS 28
MARKET DRIVERS 28
High Efficiency and Significant Cost Reductions 28
Carbon Footprint Reduction 29
TABLE 5 CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUELS 29
Low Installation and Maintenance Costs 30
MARKET RESTRAINTS 30
Effects of Wet Climatic Conditions on Solar Panel Performance 31
Revised FIT and Oversupply 31
MARKET OPPORTUNITIES 32
Application Expansion and Technology Upgrade 32
SOLAR POWER MARKET 32
TABLE 6 GLOBAL SOLAR POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY AND REVENUE, THROUGH
2019 (GW/$ MILLIONS) 32
TABLE 7 GLOBAL SOLAR POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 33
TABLE 8 GLOBAL SOLAR POWER MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 33
TABLE 9 GLOBAL SOLAR POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2019
(GW) 34
TABLE 10 GLOBAL SOLAR POWER MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2019
($ MILLIONS) 34
SOLAR PV MARKET 34
TABLE 11 GLOBAL SOLAR PV INSTALLED CAPACITY AND REVENUE, THROUGH 2019
(GW/$ MILLIONS) 35
TABLE 12 GLOBAL SOLAR PV INSTALLED CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2019
(GW) 35
TABLE 13 GLOBAL SOLAR PV MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 36
TABLE 14 GLOBAL SOLAR PV INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 (GW) 36
TABLE 15 GLOBAL SOLAR PV MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019
($ MILLIONS) 37
North American Solar PV Market 37
TABLE 16 NORTH AMERICAN SOLAR PV INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 38
TABLE 17 NORTH AMERICAN SOLAR PV MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 38
TABLE 18 NORTH AMERICAN SOLAR PV INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 39
TABLE 19 NORTH AMERICAN SOLAR PV MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 39
European Solar PV Market 40
TABLE 20 EUROPEAN SOLAR PV INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 (GW) 40
TABLE 21 EUROPEAN SOLAR PV MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 40
TABLE 22 EUROPEAN SOLAR PV INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 (GW) 41
TABLE 23 EUROPEAN SOLAR PV MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 41
Asia-Pacific Solar PV Market 41
TABLE 24 ASIA-PACIFIC SOLAR PV INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 42
TABLE 25 ASIA-PACIFIC SOLAR PV MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 42
TABLE 26 ASIA-PACIFIC SOLAR PV INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 43
TABLE 27 ASIA-PACIFIC SOLAR PV MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 43
RoW Solar PV Market 43
TABLE 28 ROW SOLAR PV INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019
(GW) 44
TABLE 29 ROW SOLAR PV MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 44
TABLE 30 ROW SOLAR PV INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019
(GW) 45
TABLE 31 ROW SOLAR PV MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 45
CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER MARKET 46
TABLE 32 GLOBAL CSP INSTALLED CAPACITY AND REVENUE, THROUGH 2019
(GW/$ MILLIONS) 46
TABLE 33 GLOBAL CSP INSTALLED CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (GW) 46
TABLE 34 GLOBAL CSP MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 47
TABLE 35 GLOBAL CSP INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019
(GW) 47
TABLE 36 GLOBAL CSP MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 48
North American CSP Market 48
TABLE 37 NORTH AMERICAN CSP INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 48
TABLE 38 NORTH AMERICAN CSP MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 49
European CSP Market 49
TABLE 39 EUROPEAN CSP INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019
(GW) 49
TABLE 40 EUROPEAN CSP MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 50
Asia-Pacific CSP Market 50
TABLE 41 ASIA-PACIFIC CSP INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 (GW) 50
TABLE 42 ASIA-PACIFIC CSP MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019
($ MILLIONS) 51
RoW CSP Market 51
TABLE 43 ROW CSP INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 (GW) 51
TABLE 44 ROW CSP MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 51
LICENSING PERIODS 52
INDUSTRY STRUCTURE FOR LICENSED CAPACITY 52
LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR SOLAR POWER 54
COMPETITION IN THE SOLAR POWER MARKET 55
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL SOLAR POWER MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS BY COMPANY, 2014
(%) 55
CHAPTER 5 WIND POWER MARKET 58
OVERVIEW 58
MARKET DYNAMICS 59
MARKET DRIVERS 59
Environmental Friendliness 59
FIGURE 5 SHARE OF MAJOR SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS
IN THE U.S., 2012 (%) 59
Cost Efficiency 61
TABLE 45 AVERAGE LEVELIZED ELECTRICITY COSTS IN THE U.S. BY POWER PLANT
TYPE, 2013 61
MARKET RESTRAINTS 62
Negative Impact from Anti-wind Groups 62
MARKET OPPORTUNITIES 62
Stringent Regulations for Conventional Energy Generation in
Asia-Pacific 62
WIND POWER MARKET 63
TABLE 46 GLOBAL WIND POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY AND REVENUE, THROUGH
2019 (GW/$ MILLIONS) 63
TABLE 47 GLOBAL WIND POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 (GW) 63
TABLE 48 GLOBAL WIND POWER MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 64
TABLE 49 GLOBAL WIND POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2019
(GW) 64
TABLE 50 GLOBAL WIND POWER MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($
MILLIONS) 65
REVENUE AND INSTALLED CAPACITY BY REGION 65
NORTH AMERICA 65
TABLE 51 NORTH AMERICAN WIND POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 65
TABLE 52 NORTH AMERICAN WIND POWER MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 66
EUROPE 66
TABLE 53 EUROPEAN WIND POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 66
TABLE 54 EUROPEAN WIND POWER MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 66
ASIA-PACIFIC 67
TABLE 55 ASIA-PACIFIC WIND POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 67
TABLE 56 ASIA-PACIFIC WIND POWER MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 68
ROW 68
TABLE 57 ROW WIND POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 (GW) 68
TABLE 58 ROW WIND POWER MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019
($ MILLIONS) 69
INSTALLED CAPACITY CLUSTERING 69
TABLE 59 WIND POWER CLUSTERS IN NORTH SEA AND BALTIC SEA REGIONS, 2013 69
LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR WIND POWER 71
DENMARK 71
THE EUROPEAN UNION 72
INDIA 72
POLAND 72
UNITED STATES 72
AUSTRALIA 72
CHINA 73
COMPETITION IN THE WIND POWER MARKET 73
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL WIND POWER MARKET SHARES BY COMPANY, 2013 (%) 73
ROADMAP FOR WIND POWER MARKET DEVELOPMENT 74
CHAPTER 6 GEOTHERMAL POWER MARKET 77
OVERVIEW 77
MARKET DYNAMICS 78
MARKET DRIVERS 78
Environmental Benefits 79
TABLE 60 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HARMFUL GASES EMITTED DURING
COAL-FIRED VERSUS GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION 79
High-Capacity Utilization 80
TABLE 61 CAPACITY FACTOR RANGE FOR SELECTED RENEWABLE TECHNOLOGIES
(%) 80
Favorable Government Policies for RandD and Demonstration
Investment 80
MARKET RESTRAINTS 81
High Upfront Costs 81
MARKET OPPORTUNITIES 82
Co-production, Distributed Generation and New Technologies 82
GLOBAL GEOTHERMAL ENERGY MARKET 82
TABLE 62 GLOBAL GEOTHERMAL INSTALLED CAPACITY AND REVENUE, THROUGH
2019 (GW/$ MILLIONS) 83
TABLE 63 GLOBAL GEOTHERMAL INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 83
TABLE 64 GLOBAL GEOTHERMAL MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 84
TABLE 65 GLOBAL GEOTHERMAL INSTALLED CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH
2019 (GW) 84
TABLE 66 GLOBAL GEOTHERMAL MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2019
($ MILLIONS) 85
REVENUE AND INSTALLED CAPACITY BY REGION 85
NORTH AMERICA 85
TABLE 67 NORTH AMERICAN GEOTHERMAL INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 85
TABLE 68 NORTH AMERICAN GEOTHERMAL REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 86
EUROPE 86
TABLE 69 EUROPEAN GEOTHERMAL INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 86
TABLE 70 EUROPEAN GEOTHERMAL MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 87
ASIA-PACIFIC 87
TABLE 71 ASIA-PACIFIC GEOTHERMAL INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 87
TABLE 72 ASIA-PACIFIC GEOTHERMAL MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 87
ROW 88
TABLE 73 ROW GEOTHERMAL INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 (GW) 88
TABLE 74 ROW GEOTHERMAL MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 89
GEOTHERMAL POWER LICENSING PERIODS AND LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORKS 89
ICELAND 89
FRANCE 89
ITALY 90
GERMANY 90
UNITED STATES 90
FIGURE 7 GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS: VERTICAL INTEGRATION
VERSUS IN COUNTRY PUBLIC-PRIVATE FINANCING 90
AUSTRALIA 91
TABLE 75 LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN AUSTRALIA 92
ROW 92
COMPETITION IN THE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY MARKET 93
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL GEOTHERMAL TURBINE MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS BY COMPANY,
2012 (%) 93
GEOTHERMAL INVESTMENT TRENDS 94
ROADMAP OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY MARKET DEVELOPMENT 95
NORTH AMERICA 95
EUROPE 95
ASIA-PACIFIC 95
ROW 96
Central and South America 96
Middle East and Africa 96
CHAPTER 7 HYDROELECTRIC POWER MARKET 99
OVERVIEW 99
RUN-OF-RIVER HYDROPOWER PLANT 99
PUMPED STORAGE 99
STORAGE HYDROPOWER 99
TABLE 76 HYDROELECTRIC POWER CLASSIFICATION BASED ON OUTPUT (MW) 100
MARKET DYNAMICS 100
MARKET DRIVERS 100
Government Initiatives to Encourage Hydroelectric Power Generation 100
Cost-Effective Levelized Energy Costs 101
TABLE 77 AVERAGE LEC IN THE U.S. BY POWER PLANT TYPE, OCTOBER 2013
($/KWH) 101
MARKET RESTRAINTS 101
Ecological and Social Issues 101
MARKET OPPORTUNITIES 102
High Future Growth Potential in Emerging Economies 102
FIGURE 9 SOUTH AMERICAN DEVELOPED AND POTENTIAL HYDROELECTRIC
RESOURCE SHARES (%) 102
FIGURE 10 AFRICAN DEVELOPED AND POTENTIAL HYDROELECTRIC RESOURCE
SHARES (%) 102
FIGURE 11 ASIAN DEVELOPED AND POTENTIAL HYDROELECTRIC RESOURCE
SHARES (%) 103
HYDROELECTRIC POWER MARKET 104
TABLE 78 GLOBAL HYDROELECTRIC INSTALLED CAPACITY AND REVENUE,
THROUGH 2019 (GW/$ MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 79 GLOBAL HYDROELECTRIC INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 104
TABLE 80 GLOBAL HYDROELECTRIC MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 105
TABLE 81 GLOBAL HYDROELECTRIC INSTALLED CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH
2019 (GW) 105
TABLE 82 GLOBAL HYDROELECTRIC MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 106
REVENUE AND INSTALLED CAPACITY BY REGION 106
NORTH AMERICA 106
TABLE 83 NORTH AMERICAN HYDROELECTRIC INSTALLED CAPACITY BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 (GW) 107
TABLE 84 NORTH AMERICAN HYDROELECTRIC MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 107
EUROPE 107
TABLE 85 EUROPEAN HYDROELECTRIC INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 108
TABLE 86 EUROPEAN HYDROELECTRIC POWER MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 109
ASIA-PACIFIC 109
TABLE 87 ASIA-PACIFIC HYDROELECTRIC INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 109
TABLE 88 ASIA-PACIFIC HYDROELECTRIC MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 110
ROW 110
Africa 110
Central and South America 110
Russia and Eurasia 111
TABLE 89 ROW HYDROELECTRIC INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 (GW) 112
TABLE 90 ROW HYDROELECTRIC MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 112
LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR HYDROELECTRIC POWER 112
CHINA 112
Pre-investment Verification Phase 113
Post-project Investment Examination Phase 113
UNITED STATES 113
Federal Power Act 113
National Environmental Policy Act 114
Endangered Species Act 114
Clean Water Act 115
Coastal Zone Management Act 115
Rivers and Harbors Act 115
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act 115
INDIA 115
CHAPTER 8 OCEAN ENERGY MARKET 117
OVERVIEW 117
TYPES OF OCEAN ENERGY TECHNOLOGY 117
WAVE ENERGY 117
Energy Conversion Technologies 117
TABLE 91 WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES, BY COMPANY 118
TIDAL ENERGY 123
Energy Conversion Technologies 123
TABLE 92 TIDAL ENERGY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES, BY COMPANY 124
MARINE CURRENT ENERGY 127
OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION 127
MARKET DYNAMICS 127
MARKET DRIVERS 127
Unstable Oil Prices 128
Global Warming 128
Declining Demand for Nuclear Power 128
Use of Coal 128
OCEAN POWER MARKET 128
TABLE 93 GLOBAL OCEAN POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY AND REVENUE, THROUGH
2019 (GW/$ MILLIONS) 129
TABLE 94 GLOBAL OCEAN POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 129
TABLE 95 GLOBAL OCEAN POWER MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 130
TABLE 96 GLOBAL OCEAN POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH
2019 (GW) 130
TABLE 97 GLOBAL OCEAN POWER MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2019
($ MILLIONS) 131
REVENUE AND INSTALLED CAPACITY BY REGION 131
NORTH AMERICA 131
Canada 131
United States 131
TABLE 98 NORTH AMERICAN OCEAN POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 132
TABLE 99 NORTH AMERICAN OCEAN POWER MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 132
EUROPE 132
France 132
United Kingdom 133
TABLE 100 EUROPEAN OCEAN POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 133
TABLE 101 EUROPEAN OCEAN POWER MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 133
ASIA-PACIFIC 133
TABLE 102 ASIA-PACIFIC OCEAN POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 (GW) 134
TABLE 103 ASIA-PACIFIC OCEAN POWER MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS) 134
ROW 135
TABLE 104 ROW OCEAN POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 (GW) 135
TABLE 105 ROW OCEAN POWER MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ MILLIONS) 135
LICENSING PERIOD AND INDUSTRY STRUCTURE FOR LICENSED CAPACITY 136
LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR OCEAN POWER 136
COMPETITION IN THE OCEAN POWER MARKET 137
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL OCEAN ENERGY MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS BY COMPANY, 2013
(%) 137
CHAPTER 9 LIQUID BIOFUELS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION SECTOR 140
OVERVIEW 140
TABLE 106 SUBSTITUTABILITY OF BIOFUELS 140
BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCKS 140
Crop Feedstock 141
Cellulosic Feedstock 141
Algae Feedstock 141
Carbon Dioxide Feedstock 141
TYPES OF BIOFUELS 141
CONVENTIONAL BIOFUELS 141
Sugar-and Starch-based Ethanol 141
Conventional Biodiesel 142
Biogas 142
ADVANCED BIOFUELS 142
Cellulosic Ethanol 142
Advanced Biodiesel 142
FIGURE 13 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS: PRODUCTION PATHWAYS IN FOSSIL FUELS
AND BIOFUELS 143
END-PRODUCTS OF BIOFUELS 143
CELLULOSIC ETHANOL 143
BIODIESEL 143
BIOGAS 144
SYNGAS 144
MARKET DYNAMICS 144
MARKET DRIVERS 144
Policy-driven Demand 144
Customer-driven Demand 144
Military 144
Aviation 145
Competition 145
MARKET RESTRAINTS 145
Feedstock Availability and Cost 145
MARKET OPPORTUNITIES 145
Presence of an Extensive Pipeline 145
TABLE 107 LIQUID BIOFUEL PRODUCTION 146
BIOFUEL MARKET 146
TABLE 108 GLOBAL BIOFUEL PRODUCTION AND REVENUE, THROUGH 2019
(BILLION GALLONS/$ BILLIONS) 146
TABLE 109 GLOBAL BIOFUEL PRODUCTION BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019
(BILLION GALLONS) 147
TABLE 110 GLOBAL BIOFUEL MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019
($ BILLIONS) 147
TABLE 111 GLOBAL BIOFUEL PRODUCTION BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (BILLION
GALLONS) 148
TABLE 112 GLOBAL BIOFUEL MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($
BILLIONS) 148
REVENUE AND PRODUCTION BY REGION 148
NORTH AMERICA 148
TABLE 113 NORTH AMERICAN BIOFUEL PRODUCTION BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 (BILLION GALLONS) 148
TABLE 114 NORTH AMERICAN BIOFUEL MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2019 ($ BILLIONS) 149
EUROPE 149
TABLE 115 EUROPEAN BIOFUEL PRODUCTION BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019
(BILLION GALLONS) 150
TABLE 116 EUROPEAN BIOFUEL MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ BILLIONS) 150
ASIA-PACIFIC 150
China 151
India 151
TABLE 117 ASIA-PACIFIC BIOFUEL PRODUCTION BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019
(BILLION GALLONS) 151
TABLE 118 ASIA-PACIFIC BIOFUEL MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2019 ($ BILLIONS) 152
ROW 152
TABLE 119 ROW BIOFUEL PRODUCTION BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 (BILLION
GALLONS) 153
TABLE 120 ROW BIOFUEL MARKET REVENUE BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2019 ($
BILLIONS) 154
LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR BIOFUELS 154
EU LEGISLATION FOR BIOFUELS AND BIOMASS FOR ENERGY PURPOSES 154
U.S. LEGISLATION FOR BIOFUELS AND BIOMASS FOR ENERGY PURPOSES 156
U.S. National Renewable Fuel Standard 156
California Low Carbon Fuel Standard 156
COMPETITION IN THE BIOFUEL MARKET 157
ROADMAP OF BIOFUEL MARKET DEVELOPMENT 158
TABLE 121 ROADMAP OF BIOFUEL MARKET DEVELOPMENT 158
CHAPTER 10 FACTORS INFLUENCING DEMAND FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY 160
DEMOGRAPHIC POPULATION CHANGES 160
TABLE 122 DEMOGRAPHIC POPULATION PROJECTIONS BY REGION, THROUGH 2050
(MILLIONS) 160
AGE 161
TABLE 123 GLOBAL POPULATION BY AGE GROUPS, 2000 AND 2014 162
HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION 162
INCREASING INCOME 163
GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES 164
EUROPEAN UNION 164
UNITED STATES 164
SOLAR ENERGY FACTORS 167
INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS 167
European Activities 167
Implementing the Vision in Europe 168
Germany's National Program 168
European Photovoltaic Industry Association 169
Japanese PV Efforts 170
OTHER INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT FOR SOLAR ENERGY 170
STANDARDS AND CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT ORGANIZATIONS 171
ECONOMICS AND COSTS OF PV INSTALLATIONS 171
SOLAR REBATES AND INCENTIVES 171
U.S. PV Incentive Programs 172
State PV Incentives 172
Federal PV Incentives 173
EMISSIONS TRADING PROGRAMS 174
CHAPTER 11 GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS AND SUPPORT FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY 176
GOVERNMENT COMMITMENTS TO ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES 176
TABLE 124 ENVIRONMENTAL COMMITMENTS OF SELECTED COUNTRIES AND
REGIONS 176
FEED-IN TARIFFS 177
RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARDS 178
POWER PURCHASE AGREEMENTS 178
PRODUCTION TAX CREDITS 179
RENEWABLE ENERGY GOVERNING BODIES 179
UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME 179
Division of Early Warning and Assessment 181
Division of Environmental Policy Division of Technology, Industry and
Economics 181
Division of Policy Development and Law 182
Division of Environmental Policy Implementation 182
Division of Regional Cooperation 183
Division of Environmental Conventions 183
Global Environment Facility 183
UNEP Governing Bodies 184
UNEP Partnerships 184
UNEP Scientific Advisory Groups 184
The Ecosystem Conservation Group 184
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 184
The Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine
Environmental Protection 185
UNEP Energy Branch 185
Renewable Energy 186
Energy Efficiency 186
Sustainable Transport 186
Alternative Fuels 187
Roundtable of Sustainable Biofuels 187
International Resource Panel 187
Promoting Vehicle Energy Efficiency 187
Bioenergy Program 187
INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE 188
IPCC Reports 188
EUROPEAN COMMISSION 189
European Energy Commission 189
Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators 189
Executive Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation 190
Euratom Supply Agency 191
U.S. STATE, LOCAL AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENT AGENCIES 191
U.S. DOE 191
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 192
Biomass 193
Geothermal Power 193
Solar Power 193
Hydropower 194
Vehicles 194
Federal Energy Management Program 194
Weatherization Intergovernmental Program 195
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 195
EPA Priorities 196
Taking Action on Climate Change 196
Improving Air Quality 196
Assuring the Safety of Chemicals 196
Cleaning Up Communities 196
Protecting America's Waters 196
EPA Energy 197
Clean-Energy Programs 197
Voluntary Programs 197
EPA ENERGY STAR 198
REGIONAL GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES 198
LOCAL GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES 198
CHAPTER 12 CHALLENGES TO RENEWABLE ENERGY ADOPTION 202
SOLAR POWER 202
PV STANDARDS AND SAFETY 202
International Standards 202
The Global Approval Program 202
Other Organizations 203
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES 203
BIOFUELS 204
HYDROPOWER 204
WAVE ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT 204
FISH, MARINE LIFE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES 204
VISUAL APPEARANCE AND NOISE 205
SEDIMENTARY FLOW PATTERNS 205
DEVICE FLUID LEAKS 205
CONFLICTS WITH RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES 205
U.S. PERMIT PROCESS 205
FERC PROCESS 206
CHAPTER 13 TECHNOLOGIES 209
INNOVATION 209
BIOTECHNOLOGY 209
NANOTECHNOLOGY 211
RENEWABLE ENERGY PATENTS 212
TABLE 125 U.S. RENEWABLE ENERGY PATENTS, 2011-2014 213
TABLE 126 EUROPEAN RENEWABLE ENERGY PATENTS, 2011-2014 217
CHAPTER 14 COMPANY PROFILES 223
LARGE MULTI-SECTOR OPERATORS 223
ACCIONA 223
BP 224
News 225
RWE 225
News 226
RWE NPOWER 226
RENEWABLE ENERGY INDUSTRY SUPPLIERS 227
ABB LTD. 227
News 228
ALSTOM 228
News 229
ANDRITZ AG 230
News 230
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED (INDIA) 231
News 231
DONGFANG ELECTRIC CORP. LTD. 232
News 232
FUJI ELECTRIC GROUP 233
News 234
GENERAL ELECTRIC 234
News 235
HARBIN ELECTRIC COMPANY LIMITED, FORMERLY HARBIN POWER
EQUIPMENT COMPANY LIMITED 236
News 236
HITACHI 237
News 237
MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES 238
News 239
SIEMENS AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT 239
SIEMENS AG (HYDROPOWER) 240
News 241
TOSHIBA CORP. 241
News 242
HYDROPOWER 242
AGDER ENERGI 242
BC HYDRO AND POWER AUTHORITY 242
CENTRAIS ELETRICAS BRASILEIRAS S.A. (ELETROBRAS) 243
News 243
CHINA HUADIAN 244
Business Scope 244
Key Financials and Capacity 245
News 246
CHINA YANGTZE POWER CO. LTD. 246
DUKE ENERGY CORP. 247
News 247
GEORGIA POWER CO. 247
News 247
HYDRO GREEN ENERGY 248
News 248
HYDRO-QUEBEC 249
ONTARIO POWER GENERATION 249
News 249
RUSHYDRO 250
News 250
SHAOYANG HENGYUAN ZIJIANG HYDROELECTRIC EQUIPMENT CO., LTD. 251
SINOHYDRO 251
News 252
STAT KRAFT AS 252
News 253
VOITH AG 253
News 253
WIND ENERGY 254
ACCIONA 254
ENERCON GMBH 254
News 255
GAMESA 255
News 256
(XINJIANG) GOLDWIND SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 258
News 259
MING YANG 260
News 260
NORDEX SE 261
News 261
SENVION (FORMERLY REPOWER SYSTEMS) 262
News 263
SINOVEL WIND COMPANY 264
News 264
SUZLON ENERGY LIMITED 265
News 266
UNITED POWER 266
VESTAS WIND SYSTEMS 267
News 267
SOLAR ENERGY 268
BP SOLAR 268
CANADIAN SOLAR INC. 269
News 269
FIRST SOLAR INC. 270
News 271
HANWHA SOLARONE 272
News 272
HYUNDAI HEAVY INDUSTRIES CO. LTD. 272
JA SOLAR PV TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD. 273
JINKOSOLAR HOLDING CO. LTD. 273
KYOCERA 275
News 276
MOTECH INDUSTRIES 276
SANYO SOLAR USA (PANASONIC CORP.) 277
SCHOTT SOLAR CSP 278
SHANGHAI JA SOLAR PV TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD. (A SUBSIDIARY OF JA
SOLAR HOLDINGS CO., LTD.) 278
SHARP CORP. 279
News 280
SOLAR FRONTIER LIMITED 280
News 281
SOLAR WORLD AG 281
News 281
SUNPOWER CORP. 282
News 282
SUNTECH 282
TRINA SOLAR LIMITED 283
News 284
YINGLI SOLAR 285
News 286

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