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Global Markets and Technologies for Biofuel Enzymes

  • November 2015
  • -
  • BCC Research
  • -
  • 162 pages

This BCC Research report explores present and future strategies within the biofuel enzymes market, which includes amylase, cellulose, xylanase, lipase and other enzymes such as protease, lysomax, FermaSure, etc. Forecasts provided through 2020.

Use this report to:

Analyze the future direction of biofuel enzymes as important instruments for the production of alternative fuel sources.
Receive information about the types of biofuel enzymes and the total market for amylases, cellulases, xylanases, lipases and other enzymes.
Learn about the present and future strategies within the biofuel enzymes market, which includes amylase, cellulose, xylanase, lipase and other enzymes such as protease, lysomax, FermaSure, etc.
Receive information about significant patents and their allotments in each category.

Highlights

Global revenue for biofuel enzymes totaled $623.0 million in 2014 and should total $652.1million in 2015 and $1.0 billion by 2020, registering a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.4%.
The U.S. market for biofuel enzymes should total $208.5 million in 2015 and $355.7 million by 2020, increasing at a five-year CAGR of 11.3% through 2020.
The European market for biofuel enzymes is estimated to grow from $198.6 million in 2015 to $325.2 million by 2020, with a CAGR of 10.4%.

STUDY OBJECTIVES

The need for alternative energy sources other than traditional fossil fuel is increasing as global energy consumption continues to grow. This in turn is boosting the fuel market. Various types of feedstock are being considered for the purpose of alternative fuel. Biofuel enzymes play a vital part in the production of biofuel from various types of feedstock.

The objective of this BCC Research report is to investigate the characteristics of the global market for biofuel enzymes. We will also present a comprehensive analysis of the future direction of biofuel enzymes as important instruments for the production of alternative fuel sources. This report explores present and future strategies within the biofuel enzymes market, which includes amylase, cellulose, xylanase, lipase and other enzymes such as protease, lysomax, FermaSure, etc. The improvisation of the market, the setbacks and the needs of the market are discussed in this report. The classifications, comparisons and usage of these types of enzymes are also highlighted in this report.

A thorough investigation of the biofuel enzyme industry’s structure has been conducted. Revenues are broken down by region and sales figures are estimated for the five-year period from 2015 through 2020.
The end-users of biofuel enzymes are also discussed separately in the report, with emphasis on the usage of these enzymes in transportation industry, power generation industry, domestic use, agriculture and irrigation and others (chemical, automobile etc.). The report also covers significant patents and their allotments in each category.

REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY

In recent years, countries such as the U.S. and Brazil have maximized their economic activities by constantly encouraging the use of biofuels, which have several advantages compared with traditional fossil fuels. Biofuel has a lower cost than fossil fuel and is also environmental friendly. In addition, biofuel consumption can help a
country to become economically independent. Many countries have now begun to explore the advantages of biofuel, which is expected to boost the market biofuel enzymes.

Research and development (R&D) spending, increased competition and new technologies are giving a new direction to this industry. The new advancements and ever-increasing need of fuel have influenced the market to grow in the foreseeable future. This study looks at almost all the systems affected by these factors. Acquisition
strategies and collaborations by companies are also covered in this report, as well as discussions on the strength and weaknesses of each type, due to new technologies, growing competition, and changing needs.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY AND FOR WHOM

This study contributes to the areas of market growth in biofuel enzyme manufacturers and end-users such as the transportation, power generation, domestic use, agriculture and irrigation industries.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this report involves the use of biofuel enzymes in the wider biofuel industry. BCC analyzes each market and its applications, regulatory environment, technology, market projections and market share. This report mainly deals with the types of biofuel enzymes and covers the total market for amylases, cellulases,
xylanases, lipases and other enzymes. Technological issues include the latest trends and developments.
Enzymes served in other industries — such as food and beverage, brewing, detergent, pharmaceutical, biopolymer, biochemical, animal nutrition and health, textile industry, fragrance industry, personal care etc. — are excluded from this report. The production of biofuel without using enzymes i.e. processes like gasification and torrefaction, are also excluded from this report.

The study conducted is global and includes the emerging markets for biofuel enzymes in Brazil, India, China, Japan, Nigeria, Thailand, Ghana, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada.
Relevant patent analysis is included in this report and comprehensive profiles of companies engaged in the biofuel enzyme industry are given. The key market players are Novozymes, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (DuPont), Royal DSM, Dyadic International Inc., Codexis Inc. and AB Enzymes GmbH.

Table Of Contents

Global Markets and Technologies for Biofuel Enzymes
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2
STUDY OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY 2
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY AND FOR WHOM 3
SCOPE OF THE STUDY 3
METHODOLOGY 3
INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH WEBSITE 5
DISCLAIMER 5
CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7
SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL REVENUE FOR BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL REVENUE FOR BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY REGION,
2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 8
CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10
ENZYME 10
CO-FACTOR 10
COENZYME 10
PROSTHETIC GROUP 10
EC 10
BIOFUEL 10
BIOMASS 10
ENERGY CROP 10
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION 11
PYROLYSIS 11
LIGNOCELLULOSE 11
TORREFACTION 11
GASIFICATION 11
METHANOGENS 11
FREE FATTY ACID (FFA) 11
HYDROLYSIS 11
WHAT IS AN ENZYME? 12
NOMENCLATURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYME 13
NOMENCLATURE OF ENZYME 13
CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYME 14
FIGURE 1 CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYME 14
Classification Based On Structure 14
Simple Enzyme 15
Conjugate Enzyme 15
Classification Based On Reaction (EC Classification) 15
Oxidoreductases 15
Transferase 16
Hydrolases 16
Lyases 16
Isomerases 16
Ligases 17
TABLE 1 TYPES OF ENZYMES AND REACTIONS THEY CATALYZE 17
ENZYME-MODE OF ACTION 17
LOCK AND KEY MODEL 18
INDUCED FIT MODEL 18
ENZYME SPECIFICITY 18
FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF ENZYMES 18
TABLE 2 FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF ENZYMES 18
ENZYME SOURCES 19
PRODUCTION OF ENZYME 19
STEPS IN PRODUCTION OF ENZYME 19
BIOFUEL 21
HISTORY OF BIOFUEL 21
RECENT FOSSIL FUEL CRISIS 22
TABLE 3 YEAR OF FOSSIL OIL CRISIS AND CAUSE 22
SOURCE OF BIOFUEL 23
CELLULOSE 23
ALGAL OIL 23
CORN 23
SOY 23
SUGARCANE 23
CAMELINA AND JATROPHA 24
RAPESEED 24
METHANE 24
ANIMAL FAT 24
PAPER WASTE 24
BIOFUEL TYPES AND ITS USAGE 24
SOLID BIOFUEL 25
Wood 25
Animal Dung 25
Municipal Waste 25
Energy Crops 25
Usage 26
LIQUID BIOFUEL 26
Alcohol 26
Bio-diesel from Plant Seed Oil 26
Bio Crude Oils 27
Usage 27
Examples of Liquid Biofuels 27
Bioethanol 27
TABLE 4 HISTORY OF ETHANOL INDUSTRY 27
Biodiesel 28
GASEOUS BIOFUEL 28
Application 28
Advantages 28
Examples of Gaseous Biofuels 29
Biopropane 29
Syngas 29
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO GENERATIONS OF BIOFUEL 29
FIRST GENERATION BIOFUEL 29
SECOND GENERATION OF BIOFUEL 30
Gasification 30
Pyrolysis 30
Torrefaction 30
Fermentation 30
THIRD GENERATION OF BIOFUEL 30
FEEDSTOCK FOR BIOFUEL 31
FIRST GENERATION FEEDSTOCK 31
SECOND GENERATION FEEDSTOCK 31
THIRD GENERATION FEEDSTOCK 32
BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK AROUND THE WORLD 32
TABLE 5 COMMONLY USED FEEDSTOCKS FOR BIODIESEL IN VARIOUS PARTS OF
THE WORLD 32
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BIOFUELS 32
TABLE 6 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGE OF BIOFUELS 33
ROLE OF ENZYMES IN BIOFUEL PRODUCTION 34
ENZYMES IN BIO GAS 34
ENZYMES IN TRANSESTERIFICATION 34
ENZYMES IN BIOETHANOL 35
THERMOSTABLE AND IMMOBILIZE ENZYME IN BIOFUEL 35
COMMON ENZYMES IN PRODUCTION OF BIOFUEL 36
CELLULASE ENZYME IN BIOFUEL 36
LIPASES IN BIOFUEL 37
Nonspecific Lipases 37
1,3-specific Lipases 38
Fatty Acid-specific Lipases 38
AMYLASE IN BIOFUEL 38
XYLANASES IN BIOFUEL 38
CHAPTER 4 REGULATORY ASPECTS 41
EPA'S ROLE IN THE SUSTAINABLE GROWTH OF BIOFUELS 42
TABLE 7 VOLUMES USED TO DETERMINE PROPOSED STANDARD, 2014 (MILLION
GALLONS) 43
TABLE 8 PROPOSED PERCENTAGE STANDARD, 2014 (%) 43
FUNDS FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION 44
TABLE 9 AWARDEES OF USDA'S ADVANCED BIOFUEL PAYMENT PROGRAM, 2014 45
EUROPEAN UNION STRATEGY FOR BIOFUELS 50
E.U. SCHEMES FOR SUSTAINABLE BIOFUELS 51
SUSTAINABLE BIOFUEL CERTIFICATES 51
TABLE 10 RECOGNIZED VOLUNTARY SCHEMES 51
PROTECTING UNTOUCHED NATURE 52
PROMOTE ONLY BIOFUELS WITH HIGH GHG SAVINGS 52
E.U. FUNDING PROGRAMS 52
TABLE 11 BIOFUEL PROJECTS UNDER FP7 53
GREEN FUEL FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES 53
SPACE - THE FINAL FRONTIER FOR FOOD 54
CULTIVATING GRASSES TO SAVE THE PLANET 54
BIO-BASED INDUSTRY 54
INNOVATIVE TEXTILE TO CONTRIBUTE SEAWEED FARMING 54
CHAPTER 5 NEW DEVELOPMENTS 56
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOFUEL INDUSTRY (2010 TO 2015) 56
NEW ENZYMES IN BIOFUEL INDUSTRY 61
TABLE 12 NEW ENZYMES LAUNCHED FROM 2010 TO 2015 62
MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS 62
TABLE 13 MERGER AND ACQUISITION IN BIOFUEL INDUSTRY, 2010 TO 2015 63
CHAPTER 6 MARKET ANALYSIS 71
MARKET BY TYPE 71
MARKET OVERVIEW 72
MARKET REVENUE 72
TABLE 14 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 73
FIGURE 2 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY TYPE, 2013-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 73
MARKET SHARE 73
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY TYPE, 2014 (%) 74
FIGURE 3 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY TYPE, 2014 (%) 74
MARKET BY REGION 74
MARKET OVERVIEW 75
MARKET REVENUE 76
TABLE 16 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 76
FIGURE 4 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY REGION, 2013-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 76
MARKET SHARE 77
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 77
FIGURE 5 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 77
AMYLASE 78
Market Overview 78
Market Revenue 79
TABLE 18 GLOBAL REVENUE OF AMYLASE ENZYME BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 79
FIGURE 6 GLOBAL REVENUE OF AMYLASE ENZYME BY REGION, 2013-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 79
Market Share 80
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF AMYLASE ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 80
FIGURE 7 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF AMYLASE ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 80
CELLULASE 81
Market Overview 81
Market Revenue 82
TABLE 20 GLOBAL REVENUE OF CELLULASE ENZYME BY REGION, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 83
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL REVENUE OF CELLULASE ENZYME BY REGION, 2013-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 83
Market Share 83
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF CELLULASE ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 84
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF CELLULASE ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 84
XYLANASE 84
Market Overview 85
Market Revenue 86
TABLE 22 GLOBAL REVENUE OF XYLANASE ENZYME BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 86
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL REVENUE OF XYLANASE ENZYME BY REGION, 2013-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 86
Market Share 87
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF XYLANASE ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 87
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF XYLANASE ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 87
LIPASE 87
Market Overview 88
Market Revenue 88
TABLE 24 GLOBAL REVENUE OF LIPASE ENZYME BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 89
FIGURE 12 GLOBAL REVENUE OF LIPASE ENZYME BY REGION, 2013-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 89
Market Share 90
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF LIPASE ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 90
FIGURE 13 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF LIPASE ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 90
OTHER ENZYMES 90
Market Overview 91
Market Revenue 91
TABLE 26 GLOBAL REVENUE OF OTHER ENZYMES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 92
FIGURE 14 GLOBAL REVENUE OF OTHER ENZYMES, BY REGION, 2013-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 92
Market Share 92
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF OTHER ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 93
FIGURE 15 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF OTHER ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 93
MARKET BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL 93
AMYLASE 94
Market Overview 94
Market Revenue 95
TABLE 28 GLOBAL REVENUE OF AMYLASES BY TYPE OF BIOFUELS, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 95
FIGURE 16 GLOBAL REVENUE OF AMYLASES BY TYPE OF BIOFUELS, 2013-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 95
Market Share 96
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF AMYLASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, 2014 (%) 96
FIGURE 17 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF AMYLASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, 2014 (%) 96
CELLULASE 96
Market Overview 97
Market Revenue 98
TABLE 30 GLOBAL REVENUE OF CELLULASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUELS, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 98
FIGURE 18 GLOBAL REVENUE OF CELLULASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUELS, 2013-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 99
Market Share 99
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF CELLULASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, 2014 (%) 99
FIGURE 19 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF CELLULASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, 2014 (%) 99
XYLANASE 100
Market Overview 100
Market Revenue 101
TABLE 32 GLOBAL REVENUE OF XYLANASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUELS, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 101
FIGURE 20 GLOBAL REVENUE OF XYLANASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUELS, 2013-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 101
Market Share 102
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF XYLANASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, 2014 (%) 102
FIGURE 21 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF XYLANASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, 2014 (%) 102
LIPASE 103
Market Overview 103
Market Revenue 104
TABLE 34 GLOBAL REVENUE OF LIPASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUELS, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 104
FIGURE 22 GLOBAL REVENUE OF LIPASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUELS, 2013-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 104
Market Share 105
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF LIPASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, 2014 (%) 105
FIGURE 23 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF LIPASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, 2014 (%) 105
OTHER ENZYMES 105
Market Overview 106
Market Revenue 106
TABLE 36 GLOBAL REVENUE OF OTHER ENZYMES BY TYPE OF BIOFUELS,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 107
FIGURE 24 GLOBAL REVENUE OF OTHER ENZYMES BY TYPE OF BIOFUELS,
2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 107
Market Share 107
TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF OTHER ENZYMES BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, 2014
(%) 108
FIGURE 25 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF OTHER ENZYMES BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL,
2014 (%) 108
CHAPTER 7 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 110
AMYLASE 110
MARKET LEADERS 110
TABLE 38 LEADING MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS OF AMYLASES AS BIOFUEL
ENZYME, 2014 110
MARKET SHARE 111
TABLE 39 MARKET SHARES OF THE MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS FOR AMYLASES
AS BIOFUEL ENZYME, 2014 (%) 111
FIGURE 26 MARKET SHARES OF THE MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS FOR AMYLASES
AS BIOFUEL ENZYME, 2014 (%) 111
CELLULASE 112
MARKET LEADERS 112
TABLE 40 LEADING MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS OF CELLULASES AS BIOFUEL
ENZYME, 2014 112
MARKET SHARE 113
TABLE 41 MARKET SHARES OF MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS FOR CELLULASES AS
BIOFUEL ENZYME, 2014 (%) 113
FIGURE 27 MARKET SHARES OF MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS FOR CELLULASES AS
BIOFUEL ENZYME, 2014 (%) 113
XYLANASE 114
MARKET LEADERS 114
TABLE 42 LEADING MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS OF XYLANASES AS BIOFUEL
ENZYME, 2014 114
MARKET SHARE 114
TABLE 43 MARKET SHARES OF MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS FOR XYLANASES AS
BIOFUEL ENZYME, 2014 (%) 114
FIGURE 28 MARKET SHARES OF MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS FOR XYLANASES AS
BIOFUEL ENZYME, 2014 (%) 115
LIPASE 115
MARKET LEADERS 115
TABLE 44 LEADING MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS OF LIPASES AS BIOFUEL ENZYME,
2014 115
MARKET SHARE 115
TABLE 45 MARKET SHARES OF MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS FOR LIPASES AS
BIOFUEL ENZYME, 2014 (%) 116
FIGURE 29 MARKET SHARES OF MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS FOR LIPASES AS
BIOFUEL ENZYME, 2014 (%) 116
OTHER ENZYMES 116
MARKET LEADERS 116
TABLE 46 LEADING MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS OF OTHER ENZYMES AS BIOFUEL
ENZYME, 2014 117
MARKET SHARE 117
TABLE 47 MARKET SHARES OF MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS FOR OTHER ENZYMES
AS BIOFUEL ENZYME, 2014 (%) 117
FIGURE 30 MARKET SHARES OF MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS FOR OTHER
ENZYMES AS BIOFUEL ENZYME, 2014 (%) 117
CHAPTER 8 MARKET BY APPLICATION 120
GLOBAL BIOFUEL ENZYMES MARKET BY TYPE OF END USER 121
TABLE 48 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY END USER, THROUGH 2020
($MILLIONS) 121
FIGURE 31 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY END USER, 2013-2020 ($
MILLIONS) 121
MARKET SHARE 122
TABLE 49 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY END-USER, 2014 (%) 122
FIGURE 32 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY END-USER, 2014 (%) 123
TRANSPORT INDUSTRY 123
MARKET OVERVIEW 123
TABLE 50 ETHANOL FUEL PRODUCTION BY VARIOUS COUNTRIES, 2014 (MILLION
GALLONS) 124
FIGURE 33 ETHANOL FUEL PRODUCTION BY VARIOUS COUNTRIES, 2014 (MILLION
GALLONS) 125
MARKET REVENUE 126
TABLE 51 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN TRANSPORT
INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 126
FIGURE 34 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN TRANSPORT
INDUSTRY, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 127
MARKET SHARE 127
TABLE 52 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN TRANSPORT
INDUSTRY, 2014 (%) 127
FIGURE 35 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN TRANSPORT
INDUSTRY, 2014 (%) 128
POWER GENERATION INDUSTRY 128
MARKET OVERVIEW 128
MARKET REVENUE 129
TABLE 53 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN POWER GENERATION
INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 130
FIGURE 36 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN POWER GENERATION
INDUSTRY, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 130
MARKET SHARE 131
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN POWER
GENERATION INDUSTRY, 2014 (%) 131
FIGURE 37 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN POWER
GENERATION INDUSTRY, 2014 (%) 131
DOMESTIC USE 131
MARKET OVERVIEW 132
MARKET REVENUE 133
TABLE 55 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES FOR DOMESTIC USE, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 133
FIGURE 38 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES FOR DOMESTIC USE,
2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 133
MARKET SHARE 134
TABLE 56 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYME FOR DOMESTIC USE, 2014
(%) 134
FIGURE 39 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYME FOR DOMESTIC USE,
2014 (%) 134
AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION 134
MARKET OVERVIEW 135
MARKET REVENUE 136
TABLE 57 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN AGRICULTURE AND
IRRIGATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 136
FIGURE 40 GLOBAL REVENUE FOR BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN AGRICULTURE AND
IRRIGATION, 2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 136
MARKET SHARE 137
TABLE 58 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN AGRICULTURE
AND IRRIGATION, 2014 (%) 137
FIGURE 41 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN AGRICULTURE
AND IRRIGATION, 2014 (%) 137
OTHER SECTOR 138
MARKET OVERVIEW 138
MARKET REVENUE 139
TABLE 59 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN OTHER SECTOR,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 139
FIGURE 42 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN OTHER SECTOR,
2013-2020 ($ MILLIONS) 140
MARKET SHARE 140
TABLE 60 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYME USED IN OTHER SECTOR,
2014 (%) 140
FIGURE 43 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYME USED IN OTHER SECTOR,
2014 (%) 140
CHAPTER 9 PATENT ANALYSIS 143
PATENTS BY YEAR 143
TABLE 61 NUMBER OF PATENTS BY YEAR, JANUARY 2010 TO MARCH 2015
(NUMBER) 144
FIGURE 44 NUMBER OF PATENTS BY YEAR, JANUARY 2010 TO MARCH 2015
(NUMBER) 144
PATENTS BY CATEGORY 144
TABLE 62 NUMBER OF PATENTS BY CATEGORY FOR BIOFUEL ENZYMES, JANUARY
2010 TO MARCH 2015 (NUMBER) 145
FIGURE 45 NUMBER OF PATENTS BY CATEGORY FOR BIOFUEL ENZYMES, JANUARY
2010 TO MARCH 2015 (NUMBER) 145
PATENTS BY COMPANY 145
TABLE 63 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS BY COMPANY, JANUARY 2010 TO MARCH 2015
(NUMBER) 146
PATENTS BY COUNTRY 147
TABLE 64 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS BY COUNTRY FOR BIOFUEL ENZYMES,
JANUARY 2010 TO MARCH 2015 (NUMBER) 147
FIGURE 46 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS BY COUNTRY FOR BIOFUEL ENZYMES,
JANUARY 2010 TO MARCH 2015 (NUMBER) 148
TABLE 65 PATENT SHARES BY COUNTRY, JANUARY 2010 TO MARCH 2015
(NUMBER/%) 149
FIGURE 47 PATENT SHARES BY COUNTRY, JANUARY 2010 TO MARCH 2015 (%) 149
PATENTS BY ASSIGNEE 150
TABLE 66 NUMBER OF PATENTS BY ASSIGNEE, JANUARY 2010 TO MARCH 2015
(NUMBER) 150
FIGURE 48 NUMBER OF PATENTS BY ASSIGNEE, JANUARY 2010 TO MARCH 2015
(NUMBER) 150
CHAPTER 10 CURRENT SITUATION 152
FACTORS AFFECTING BIOFUEL ENZYME MARKET 152
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS 152
TABLE 67 ESTIMATED ANNUAL AMOUNT OF CO2 REDUCTION IN U.S. AFTER USING
E15 153
COST OF FOSSIL FUELS VS COST OF BIOFUEL 154
REGULATORY FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY GOAL 154
INCREASING BIOFUEL FACILITIES 155
NEW DEVELOPMENTS USING ENZYMES 156
SUSTAINED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 158
GRANT, SCHEMES AND FUNDING FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION 159
MERGER and ACQUISITION, COLLABORATION AND JOINT VENTURES IN THE
BIOFUEL INDUSTRY 159
CHALLENGES FOR ENZYMATIC BIOFUEL 160
CHAPTER 11 COMPANY PROFILES 162
AB ENZYMES GMBH 162
C-LECTA GMBH 162
CODEXIS INC 163
DANISCO A/S 163
DUPONT 164
DYADIC INTERNATIONAL 164
ENZYME DEVELOPMENT CORP. 165
ENZYME SOLUTIONS INC. 165
ENZYME SUPPLIES LTD. 166
IOGEN CORP. 166
JIANGSU BOLI BIOPRODUCTS CO. LTD. 167
MAPS ENZYMES LTD. 167
NOOR ENZYMES PVT. LTD. 168
NOVOZYMES A/S 168
ROYAL DSM NV 169
SCHAUMANN BIOENERGY 169
SPECIALTY ENZYMES and BIOTECHNOLOGIES CO. 170
TRANSBIODIESEL LTD. 170
VERENIUM CORP. 171
CHAPTER 12 APPENDIX-ABBREVIATIONS 173

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL REVENUE FOR BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY REGION, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 8
TABLE 1 TYPES OF ENZYMES AND REACTIONS THEY CATALYZE 17
TABLE 2 FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF ENZYMES 18
TABLE 3 YEAR OF FOSSIL OIL CRISIS AND CAUSE 22
TABLE 4 HISTORY OF ETHANOL INDUSTRY 27
TABLE 5 COMMONLY USED FEEDSTOCKS FOR BIODIESEL IN VARIOUS PARTS OF THE
WORLD 32
TABLE 6 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGE OF BIOFUELS 33
TABLE 7 VOLUMES USED TO DETERMINE PROPOSED STANDARD, 2014 (MILLION
GALLONS) 43
TABLE 8 PROPOSED PERCENTAGE STANDARD, 2014 (%) 43
TABLE 9 AWARDEES OF USDA'S ADVANCED BIOFUEL PAYMENT PROGRAM, 2014 45
TABLE 10 RECOGNIZED VOLUNTARY SCHEMES 51
TABLE 11 BIOFUEL PROJECTS UNDER FP7 53
TABLE 12 NEW ENZYMES LAUNCHED FROM 2010 TO 2015 62
TABLE 13 MERGER AND ACQUISITION IN BIOFUEL INDUSTRY, 2010 TO 2015 63
TABLE 14 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 73
TABLE 15 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY TYPE, 2014 (%) 74
TABLE 16 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 76
TABLE 17 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 77
TABLE 18 GLOBAL REVENUE OF AMYLASE ENZYME BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 79
TABLE 19 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF AMYLASE ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 80
TABLE 20 GLOBAL REVENUE OF CELLULASE ENZYME BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 83
TABLE 21 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF CELLULASE ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 84
TABLE 22 GLOBAL REVENUE OF XYLANASE ENZYME BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 86
TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF XYLANASE ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 87
TABLE 24 GLOBAL REVENUE OF LIPASE ENZYME BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 89
TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF LIPASE ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 90
TABLE 26 GLOBAL REVENUE OF OTHER ENZYMES BY REGION, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 92
TABLE 27 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF OTHER ENZYMES BY REGION, 2014 (%) 93
TABLE 28 GLOBAL REVENUE OF AMYLASES BY TYPE OF BIOFUELS, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 95
TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF AMYLASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, 2014 (%) 96
TABLE 30 GLOBAL REVENUE OF CELLULASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUELS, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 98
TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF CELLULASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, 2014 (%) 99
TABLE 32 GLOBAL REVENUE OF XYLANASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUELS, THROUGH 2020
($ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF XYLANASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, 2014 (%) 102
TABLE 34 GLOBAL REVENUE OF LIPASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUELS, THROUGH 2020 ($
MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 35 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF LIPASE BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, 2014 (%) 105
TABLE 36 GLOBAL REVENUE OF OTHER ENZYMES BY TYPE OF BIOFUELS, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 107
TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF OTHER ENZYMES BY TYPE OF BIOFUEL, 2014
(%) 108
TABLE 38 LEADING MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS OF AMYLASES AS BIOFUEL
ENZYME, 2014 110
TABLE 39 MARKET SHARES OF THE MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS FOR AMYLASES AS
BIOFUEL ENZYME, 2014 (%) 111
TABLE 40 LEADING MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS OF CELLULASES AS BIOFUEL
ENZYME, 2014 112
TABLE 41 MARKET SHARES OF MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS FOR CELLULASES AS
BIOFUEL ENZYME, 2014 (%) 113
TABLE 42 LEADING MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS OF XYLANASES AS BIOFUEL
ENZYME, 2014 114
TABLE 43 MARKET SHARES OF MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS FOR XYLANASES AS
BIOFUEL ENZYME, 2014 (%) 114
TABLE 44 LEADING MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS OF LIPASES AS BIOFUEL ENZYME,
2014 115
TABLE 45 MARKET SHARES OF MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS FOR LIPASES AS
BIOFUEL ENZYME, 2014 (%) 116
TABLE 46 LEADING MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS OF OTHER ENZYMES AS BIOFUEL
ENZYME, 2014 117
TABLE 47 MARKET SHARES OF MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS FOR OTHER ENZYMES
AS BIOFUEL ENZYME, 2014 (%) 117
TABLE 48 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY END USER, THROUGH 2020
($MILLIONS) 121
TABLE 49 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES BY END-USER, 2014 (%) 122
TABLE 50 ETHANOL FUEL PRODUCTION BY VARIOUS COUNTRIES, 2014 (MILLION
GALLONS) 124
TABLE 51 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN TRANSPORT INDUSTRY,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 126
TABLE 52 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN TRANSPORT
INDUSTRY, 2014 (%) 127
TABLE 53 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN POWER GENERATION
INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 130
TABLE 54 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN POWER
GENERATION INDUSTRY, 2014 (%) 131
TABLE 55 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES FOR DOMESTIC USE, THROUGH
2020 ($ MILLIONS) 133
TABLE 56 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYME FOR DOMESTIC USE, 2014
(%) 134
TABLE 57 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN AGRICULTURE AND
IRRIGATION, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 136
TABLE 58 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN AGRICULTURE
AND IRRIGATION, 2014 (%) 137
TABLE 59 GLOBAL REVENUE OF BIOFUEL ENZYMES USED IN OTHER SECTOR,
THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS) 139
TABLE 60 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE OF BIOFUEL ENZYME USED IN OTHER SECTOR,
2014 (%) 140
TABLE 61 NUMBER OF PATENTS BY YEAR, JANUARY 2010 TO MARCH 2015 (NUMBER) 144
TABLE 62 NUMBER OF PATENTS BY CATEGORY FOR BIOFUEL ENZYMES, JANUARY
2010 TO MARCH 2015 (NUMBER) 145
TABLE 63 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS BY COMPANY, JANUARY 2010 TO MARCH 2015
(NUMBER) 146
TABLE 64 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS BY COUNTRY FOR BIOFUEL ENZYMES, JANUARY
2010 TO MARCH 2015 (NUMBER) 147
TABLE 65 PATENT SHARES BY COUNTRY, JANUARY 2010 TO MARCH 2015
(NUMBER/%) 149
TABLE 66 NUMBER OF PATENTS BY ASSIGNEE, JANUARY 2010 TO MARCH 2015
(NUMBER) 150
TABLE 67 ESTIMATED ANNUAL AMOUNT OF CO2 REDUCTION IN U.S. AFTER USING
E15 153

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